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The euarthropod Luohuilinella deletres sp. nov. is described from rare material from the Chengjiang biota, Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, of Yunnan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis recovers a xandarellid affinity for L. deletres, representing only the fifth described species of this clade. L. deletres possesses a head shield that is about one-fifth of the total body length and a trunk with 30 tergites, the reduced anterior-most tergite and terminal three tergites lacking pleural elongations. Anteriorly situated notches in the head shield are associated with stalked eyes, in contrast to the more posterior, enclosed eye slits present in Xandarella. Posterior to the antennae there are at least 11 pairs of biramous appendages preserved, including three pairs in the head. The morphology of the midline gut of L. deletres, in which lateral, unbranched diverticula are wider towards the front of the body, is a characteristic also found in various trilobites. The dorsoventrally flattened exoskeleton suggests a benthic or nektobenthic mode of life for L. deletres, as for other trilobitomorphs, and it likely used its well-developed anteriorly positioned eyes for searching out food, either to scavenge or to find prey.
The aim of our study was twofold: to examine (a) whether the link between racial discrimination and adjustment showed age-related changes across early to late adolescence for Chinese-heritage youth and (b) whether the age-related associations of the discrimination–adjustment link differed by gender, nativity, and geographical region. We pooled two independently collected longitudinal data sets in the United States and Canada (N = 498, ages 12–19 at Wave 1) and used time-varying effect modeling to show that discrimination is consistently associated with poorer adjustment across all ages. These associations were stronger at certain ages, but for males and females, first- and second-generation adolescents, and US and Canadian adolescents they differed. There were stronger relations between discrimination and adjustment in early adolescence for males compared to females, in middle adolescence for first-generation compared to second-generation adolescents, and in early adolescence for US adolescents compared to Canadian adolescents. In general, negative implications for adjustment associated with discrimination diminished across the span of adolescence for females, second-generation, and US and Canadian adolescents, but not for males or first-generation adolescents. The results show that the discrimination–adjustment link must be considered with regard to age, gender, nativity, and region, and that attention to discrimination in early adolescence may be especially important.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
Good canopy structure is essential for optimal maize (Zea mays L.) production. However, creating appropriate maize canopy structure can be difficult, because the characteristics of individual plants are altered by changes in plant age, density and interactions with neighbouring plants. The objective of the current study was to find a reliable method for building good maize canopy structure by analysing changes in canopy structure, light distribution and grain yield (GY). A modern maize cultivar (ZhengDan958) was planted at 12 densities ranging from 1.5 to 18 plants/m2 at two field locations in Xinjiang, China. At the silking stage (R1), plant and ear height increased with plant density as well as leaf area index (LAI), whereas leaf area per plant decreased logarithmically. The fraction of light intercepted by the plant (F) increased with increasing plant density, but the light extinction coefficient (K) decreased linearly from 0.61 to 0.39. Taking the optimum value of F (95%) as an example, and using measured values of K for each plant density at R1 and the equation from Beer's law, the corresponding (theoretical) LAI for each plant density was calculated and optimum plant density (9.72 plants/m2) obtained by calculating the difference between theoretical LAIs and actual observations. Further analysis showed that plant density ranging from 10.64 to 11.55 plants/m2 yielded a stable GY range. Therefore, taking into account the persistence time for maximum LAI, the plant density required to obtain an ideal GY maize canopy structure should be increased by 10–18% from 9.72 plants/m2.
Introduction: The increased availability and increased utilization of Computed Tomography (CT) imaging as a diagnostic tool has in the past several years led to concerns regarding the unknown and potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation exposure to patients, as well as the increased cost to the health care system. Multiple education campaigns (e.g. Choosing Wisely) and institution-wide interventions have been implemented in order to limit the use of potentially unnecessary CT imaging. Two specific modalities CT head and CT angiography to rule out pulmonary embolism (CT PE) have been identified as potential targets of these interventions due to their likely overutilization in the clinical ED setting. The objective of this study was to determine the interphysician variability in the ordering rates of CT head and CT PE, and to determine if any correlation existed between CT head and CT PE ordering rates among physicians. Methods: Data was collected on all diagnostic imaging ordered by ED physicians at two very high volume community hospitals during the 4-year period between 2013 and 2016. Analysis was limited to those physicians who worked at least 3 of the 4 years at either site and saw at least 1000 patients per year. The ordering rates for each physician were calculated by dividing the number of the imaging modality ordered over the total number of patients seen. Correlation coefficients (r values) were calculated to determine if a linear correlation existed between increased CT head and increased CT PE ordering rates. Results: The DI ordering data for a total of 44 ED physicians were analyzed. Results show average 4-year ordering rates for CT heads among ED physicians ranging from 4.0% to 13.9%, and CT PE ordering rates ranging from 0.1% - 1.7%. The correlation coefficient between CT head and CT PE ordering rates was positive for all 4 years, with a statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation coefficient of 0.53. Conclusion: There is a wide degree of variability in DI ordering patterns among physicians working within the same clinical environment. Further exploration of this interphysician variability will be helpful in designing strategies to mitigate overutilization of diagnostic imaging.
Cell membrane fatty acids influence fundamental properties of the plasma membrane, including membrane fluidity, protein functionality, and lipid raft signalling. Evidence suggests that dietary n-3 PUFA may target the plasma membrane of immune cells by altering plasma membrane lipid dynamics, thereby regulating the attenuation of immune cell activation and suppression of inflammation. As lipid-based immunotherapy might be a promising new clinical strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA on CD4+ T cell membrane order, mitochondrial bioenergetics and lymphoproliferation. n-3 PUFA were incorporated into human primary CD4+ T cells phospholipids in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a reduction in whole cell membrane order, oxidative phosphorylation and proliferation. At higher doses, n-3 PUFA induced unique phase separation in T cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles. Similarly, in a short-term human pilot study, supplementation of fish oil (4 g n-3 PUFA/d) for 6 weeks in healthy subjects significantly elevated EPA (20 : 5n-3) levels in CD4+ T cell membrane phospholipids, and reduced membrane lipid order. These results demonstrate that the dynamic reshaping of human CD4+ T cell plasma membrane organisation by n-3 PUFA may modulate down-stream clonal expansion.
A 40.9 m ice core was recovered from Far East Rongbuk Glacier (FER), Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya, and an 80.4 m core from neighboring East Rongbuk Glacier (ER). Both are dated by seasonal variations of δ18O and major-ionic profiles, together with references of β-activity peaks. In this paper we compare the chemical records of these two cores to show post-depositional modification processes. The smoothed β18O profiles of the two cores show a similar trend. However, the mean β18O value of the FER core for the period 1954—96 is 3.12%o less than that of the corresponding part of the ER core, and the major-ionic profiles of the two cores differ considerably. We suggest that melting-away of the snow layer deposited during the pre-monsoon season may account for lower β18O values of the FER than of the ER core, and higher terrestrial ion concentrations in the FER core for the period 1957-63 may contribute to changes by chemical reactions in the presence of snowmelting. The significantly decreased NH4 and, to a lesser degree, SO42 concentrations in the FER core could be caused by the ion elution process that moved most chemicals away with runoff.
High-resolution chemical records from an 80.4m ice core from the central Himalaya demonstrate climatic and environmental changes since 1844. the chronological net accumulation series shows a sharp decrease from the mid-1950s, which is coincident with the widely observed glacier retreat. A negative correlation is found between the ice-core δ18O record and the monsoon precipitation for Indian region 7. the temporal variation of the terrestrial ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) is controlled by both the monsoon precipitation for Indian regions 3,7 and 8, located directly south and west of the Himalaya, and the dust-storm duration and frequency in the northern arid regions, such as the Taklimakan desert, China. the NH4+ profile is fairly flat until the 1940s, then substantially increases until the end of the 1980s, with a slight decrease during the 1990s which may reflect new agricultural practices. the SO42– and NO3– profiles show an apparent increasing trend, especially during the period 1940s–80s. Moreover, SO42– concentrations for the East Rongbuk Glacier core are roughly double that of the nearby Dasuopu core at Xixabangma, Himalaya, due to local human activity including that of climbing teams who use gasoline for cooking, energy and transport.
Comparison of the terminus locations of Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest, measured in 1966 and 1997 shows that in the past 30 years the glacier has retreated 170–270 m equivalent to a retreat speed of 5.5–8.7 m a–1 . During summer 1997, a 15 m firn core was recovered from Dasuopu glacier (28°23’ N, 85°44’ E; 7000 m a.s.D on the northwest margin of Xixabangma Feng, Xizang (Tibet). The seasonal variations of δ18O values in the core indicate that monsoon signals are clearly recorded in the glacier. δ18O values are controlled by the amount effect in the monsoon season; more negative δ18O is representative of the monsoon season in snow layers. Analysis of the relationship between ice-core δ18O, sampled from 6500 m a.s.l. on the north side of Mount Everest, and instrumental series representing regional-scale precipitation, atmospheric circulation and temperature suggests a change in the relative influence of these parameters on δ18O since the 1940s. The results of the comparison add to and lengthen the sparse array of instrument data available for the Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang) Plateau and demonstrate a recent decline in moisture flux for at least the southern part of the plateau. Glacier retreat, associated with a recent increase in temperature in the region, is coincident with this period of decreased moisture flux.
In this study, the biomass of winter wheat was estimated by using hyperspectral data obtained from a hyperspectral camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Every two bands from the hyperspectral data were selected to calculate two kinds of vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI). Linear models were established between winter wheat biomass and those indexes, and coefficient of determination R2 was used to draw the two-dimensional distribution of R2 values. The comparison between NDVI and RVI for pixel covered by soil and wheat showed that RVI is more efficient to mask the influence from soil than NDVI. For calculating the NDVI, optimal bands are located mainly around 820 nm and 725 nm to 750 nm. For assessing RVI, the wavelength range from 820 to 832 nm, 794 to 808 nm, 770 to 788 nm, 725 nm to 750 nm and 890 nm for RVI are most suitable. Those optimal bands can achieve a coefficient of determination R2 higher than 0.88 by using the linear regression model in the study.
Specific flavonoid-rich foods/beverages are reported to exert positive effects on vascular function; however, data relating to effects in the postprandial state are limited. The present study investigated the postprandial, time-dependent (0–7 h) impact of citrus flavanone intake on vascular function. An acute, randomised, controlled, double-masked, cross-over intervention study was conducted by including middle-aged healthy men (30–65 years, n 28) to assess the impact of flavanone intake (orange juice: 128·9 mg; flavanone-rich orange juice: 272·1 mg; homogenised whole orange: 452·8 mg; isoenergetic control: 0 mg flavanones) on postprandial (double meal delivering a total of 81 g of fat) endothelial function. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery at 0, 2, 5 and 7 h. Plasma levels of naringenin/hesperetin metabolites (sulphates and glucuronides) and nitric oxide species were also measured. All flavanone interventions were effective at attenuating transient impairments in FMD induced by the double meal (7 h post intake; P<0·05), but no dose–response effects were observed. The effects on FMD coincided with the peak of naringenin/hesperetin metabolites in circulation (7 h) and sustained levels of plasma nitrite. In summary, citrus flavanones are effective at counteracting the negative impact of a sequential double meal on human vascular function, potentially through the actions of flavanone metabolites on nitric oxide.
We investigate some basic properties of Damped Lyman alpha systems based on the Semi-Analytical model of disk galaxy formation theory. We derive the DLA metallicity, column density, number density, gas content and cosmic star formation rate by assuming that disks form at the center of dark halos, and the modelled DLAs are selected by Monte Carlo simulation according to the distributions of halo properties. We find that DLA hosts are dominated by small galaxies and biased to extended galaxies. In terms of model results, DLAs could naturally arise in a ACDM universe from radiatively cooled gas in dark matter halos. However, model predicts a reverse correlation between metallicity and the column density when compared with observations, regardless of the proposed observational bias. We argue that this could be resulted from the model limitations, or the inadequacy of Schmidt-type star formation mode at high redshift, or/and the diversities of DLA populations.
To determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (MRSA/VRE) designations, or flags, on selected hospital operational outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital during 2010–2011.
Operational outcomes were time to bed arrival, acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers, and length of stay. Covariates considered included demographic and clinical characteristics: age, gender, severity of illness on admission, admit day of week, residence prior to admission, hospitalization within the prior 30 days, clinical service, and discharge destination.
Overall, 81,288 admissions were included. After adjusting for covariates, patients with a MRSA/VRE flag at the time of admission experienced a mean delay in time to bed arrival of 1.03 hours (9.63 hours [95% CI, 9.39–9.88] vs 8.60 hours [95% CI, 8.47–8.73]). These patients had 1.19 times the odds of experiencing an acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfer [95% CI, 1.13–1.26] and a mean length of stay 1.76 days longer (7.03 days [95% CI, 6.82–7.24] vs 5.27 days [95% CI, 5.15–5.38]) than patients with no MRSA/VRE flag.
MRSA/VRE designation was associated with delays in time to bed arrival, increased likelihood of acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers and extended length of stay. Efforts to identify patients who have cleared MRSA/VRE colonization are critically important to mitigate inefficient use of resources and to improve inpatient flow.
In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively.
In late 2014, a gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a school in Shandong Province, eastern China. Hundreds of individuals developed the symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. Epidemiological investigation showed that food consumption was not linked to this outbreak, and unboiled direct drinking water was identified as the independent risk factor with a relative risk of 1·37 (95% confidence interval 1·03–1·83). Furthermore, examination of common bacterial and viral gastroenteritis pathogens was conducted on different specimens. Norovirus GI.1, GI.2, GI.6, GII.4, GII.6 and GII.13 were detected in clinical specimens and a water sample. GII.4 sequences between clinical specimens and the water sample displayed a close relationship and belonged to GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. These results indicate that direct drinking water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this gastroenteritis outbreak. This study enriches our knowledge of waterborne norovirus outbreaks in China, and presents valuable prevention and control practices for policy-makers. In future, strengthened surveillance and supervision of direct drinking-water systems is needed.
The current sample of star clusters (SCs) is still incomplete beyond 1.8 kpc. The Pan-STARRS1 with its wide field of views and sensitive cameras provides us an opportunity to identify and characterize SCs as much as possible. By using a star counting algorithm, we obtained a total of 491 stellar density enhancements in a field of 20° × 20° toward the Galactic Anti-Center (GAC), of which 50 are known SCs. The remaining 441 candidates are verified with radii, interstellar reddening, distances, and ages with proper motions and multiple bands photometries. Our results push the completeness of SCs almost near the edge of GAC. With the revised SC sample, the separation between Sagittarius and Perseus arms are about 3.2 ± 0.2 kpc and the widths of the nearby spiral arms—Sagittarius, Orion, and Perseus—with are 1.4 ± 0.1, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 3.3 ± 0.2 kpc, respectively.
In the recent time spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles have been largely studied owing to various applications of these materials in the information storage, ferro-fluid technology, magnetocaloric effect, refrigeration and medical diagnostics. In this category cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles specifically gained huge research attention and prepared by various chemical methods. However, further investigations are still needed on the substituted CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles to explore their various characteristics. In this paper we present our results on Mn and Zn substituted cobalt ferrite (Co0.6Zn0.4Mn0.3Fe1.7O4 ) nanoparticles prepared by chemical co precipitation method. The x ray diffraction pattern of as prepared Co0.6Zn0.4Mn0.3Fe1.7O4 (CZFMO) nanoparticles indicated their average particle size =20 nm. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles before and after thermal annealing have been compared. Magnetization (M) vs. field (H) loop measurements at T = 293 K on as prepared and thermally annealed CZFMO nano powders revealed an unusual feature contrary to CFO nanoparticles prepared under same conditions. The saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases after the thermal annealing unlike the usual increase in Ms observed for CFO nanoparticles. These nano sized CZFMO powder samples are further characterized by low temperature magnetic measurements; Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
To evaluate the presence of a new type of reovirus (designated R4) in humans, we determined the prevalence of specific antibodies using a neutralization assay and ELISA. The sera from 97 healthy people and 219 patients in our hospital with measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, liver diseases, and diarrhoea were investigated. Although the study population was limited, our data suggested that R4 is widespread in the human population. A significantly higher level of R4-specific antibody in patients than in healthy people is worthy of consideration, since it poses a risk for aggravation of the extant illness by the reovirus.