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Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
The frequency-doubling efficiency and resultant
focal spot quality of a large aperture (140 × 89
mm) subpicosecond, chirped pulse amplified (CPA) 1054-nm
beam for laser–matter interaction studies has been
investigated using the Vulcan Nd:glass laser system (Danson
et al. 1998). The effect of B-integral on the
CPA beam quality was studied and is shown not to be the
dominant cause of the observed frequency-doubled beam break-up.
Conversion efficiency tests were carried out on small aperture
KDP (type 1) crystals at a range of incident intensities
up to 3 × 1011 W/cm2 giving
the optimum crystal thickness for pulses in the 0.3–3
ps region. A large-aperture frequency-doubled beam was
commissioned and delivered pulses of over 10 TW onto target
for an electron acceleration experiment.
In September 1994, a complaint was registered at a
public health unit concerning a cheese
product. In addition, public health laboratories in Ontario
reported an increase in the number
of isolates of Salmonella berta from patients with
diarrhoeal illness. A clinical, environmental
and laboratory investigation was initiated to determine the
nature of this outbreak. Isolates of
Salmonella berta were compared using large fragment
genomic fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis (PFGE). By late October, 82 clinical cases
had been identified including 35
confirmed, 44 suspected and 3 secondary. The investigation
linked illness to consumption of an
unpasteurized soft cheese product produced on a farm and sold
at farmers' markets. Subtyping
results of patient, cheese and chicken isolates were
indistinguishable, suggesting that the cheese
was contaminated by chicken carcasses during production.
The outbreak illustrates the
potential role of uninspected home-based food producers
and of cross-contamination in the
transmission of foodborne bacterial pathogens.
The stability of the Ways of Coping (Revised) Questionnaire over time was assessed by comparing the scores of 68 mothers and 53 fathers of school-aged children with Down's syndrome over a 3-year time interval on the five coping strategy subscales described by Knussen et al. (1992). For this analysis, mothers' and fathers' scores were analysed separately. It was shown by t tests that mothers' and fathers' scores on the coping strategy subscales had not significantly changed over the three-year period. Time 1 and Time 2 scores on all of the coping subscales were strongly positively associated, with the exception of fathers' scores on the Stoicism subscale. Test–retest reliability was adequate for all subscales except mothers' scores on the Passive Acceptance subscale and fathers' scores on the Stoicism subscale. These results, by demonstrating the stability of the Ways of Coping (Revised) Questionnaire over a 3-year time period, further illustrate the utility of this instrument for investigating coping in families with special problems.
This article describes experimental work on the mixed convection régime with flow normal to electrically heated cylinders. The forcing velocities used were in the range 0·0085–3 ft./sec (i.e. 10−2 < Ref < 45) and temperature differences in the range 30°C to 200°C (i.e. 10−3 < Ra < 10) were covered.
Correlations are proposed for the forced convection and natural convection conditions. A correlation is also developed for the combined forced and natural convection region by a vectorial addition of the flow parameters, which gives good agreement with the experiments except over a limited range in the contraflow régime.
This article deals with the reaction of the Colonial Office to the problems—commercial and military—posed for the Gambia by the outbreak of the First World War. It argues that in the Colonial Office discussions about these problems two distinctly different attitudes can be distinguished. The younger junior officials tended to advocate government intervention to ameliorate specific economic problems, while the political heads and senior officials remained firmly attached to the dogmas of laissez faire. Conversely, the former group did not share the doubts of the latter as to whether the dogmas of patriotic bravery should be made to apply to African natives.
The subject-matter—the dislocation of commerce consequent upon French failure to purchase her usual share of the groundnut crop, the ensuing financial difficulties of the Gambia government, defence problems revealed after the mis-identification of H.M.S. Highflyer—is based on material from the Colonial Office archives.
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