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The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) is a short diagnostic structured interview (DSI) developed in France and the United States to explore 17 disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R diagnostic criteria. It is fully structured to allow administration by non-specialized interviewers. In order to keep it short it focuses on the existence of current disorders. For each disorder, one or two screening questions rule out the diagnosis when answered negatively. Probes for severity, disability or medically explained symptoms are not explored symptom-by-symptom. Two joint papers present the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the MINI the validity versus the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (this paper) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R patients (SCID) (joint paper). Three-hundred and forty-six patients (296 psychiatric and 50 non-psychiatric) were administered the MINI and the CIDI ‘gold standard’. Forty two were interviewed by two investigators and 42 interviewed subsequently within two days. Interviewers were trained to use both instruments. The mean duration of the interview was 21 min with the MINI and 92 for corresponding sections of the CIDI. Kappa coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were good or very good for all diagnoses with the exception of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (kappa = 0.36), agoraphobia (sensitivity = 0.59) and bulimia (kappa = 0.53). Interrater and test-retest reliability were good. The main reasons for discrepancies were identified. The MINI provided reliable DSM-III-R diagnoses within a short time frame, The study permitted improvements in the formulations for GAD and agoraphobia in the current DSM-IV version of the MINI.
We have mapped the southern galaxies NGC 613, 1313, 1433, 1566, 1672 and 2442 in the 12CO(J = 1 → 0) transition with the 15-m Swedish European Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). The sample is based on galaxies previously observed in radio continuum with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST). Strong emission is seen from the barred galaxies NGC 613 and NGC 2442 and from the active galaxies NGC 1566 and 1672. The weakest emission was from NGC 1433, while the Sd spiral NGC 1313 was not detected.
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the Isle of Thanet during December 1990 and January 1991. A total of 47 cases ranging in age from 2 months to 85 years were identified in residents from the Margate, Broadstairs and Ramsgate areas, with dates of onset of illness from 3 December to 14 January. A case-control study demonstrated a strong statistical association between illness and the consumption of unboiled tap water from a particular source, with evidence of a dose–response relationship. Although no cryptosporidial oocysts were identified in samples of untreated or treated water taken during the investigation, the results were consistent with the view that the source of infection was treated river water which was used to supplement borehole water.
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the presence of the ail, yst, and virF genes of Yersinia enterocolitica simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The amplified fragment sizes were 356 base-pairs (bp) for the ail gene, 134 bp for the yst gene, and 231 bp for the virF gene. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probes. Amplification was successful whether the template was derived from a single colony of bacteria, aliquots of boiled bacterial suspensions, from DNA extracted from pure or mixed cultures or from stool specimens. Amplification of the virF gene was also achieved from strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis carrying the 70 kb plasmid but not with preparations from other related Yersinia species or from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The detection limit we established was 5–10 colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml) and 1·0 pg of DNA.
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is found attached to N-type glycans of proteins secreted by filarial nematodes, where it appears to act as an immunomodulator. Based on information on the structure and biosynthesis of the PC-glycan of a major secreted protein, ES-62, strategies were designed with potential for preparing PC-free material to better understand the importance of PC in filarial nematode immunomodulation. The strategies involve either enzymatic removal of PC or inhibition of its attachment during ES-62 synthesis. No method tested was found to be 100% effective although ∼70% removal was obtained by culturing worms in Et18OCH3. Reasons for failure to obtain complete absence of PC moieties are discussed in relation to the structure and synthesis of PC-glycans and in addition PC-glycan biosynthesis is briefly commented on as a target for chemotherapy.
We present the scanning tunneling microscope-induced luminescence (STL) imaging of defects in optoelectronic materials. Resolution is first discussed using cross-sectional images of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots. Proof of concept is then provided through the nanometer-scale imaging of GaN layers and quantum wells. The expected λ=356±25 nm range dominates the low temperature STL of GaN. Mapping of luminescence shows circular non-emitting areas around threading dislocations. Extent of dark areas suggests a hole diffusion length of Ld=30–55 nm, in agreement with reported values. The expected λ=450±35 nm range dominates the STL from a buried InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well. Imaging reveals 30–100 nm wide smooth fluctuations of luminescence.
A 17-year-old victim of a road traffic accident presented. Following investigation diagnoses of fractured first cervical vertebra, aortic transection, diffuse cerebral oedema, fractured right ribs 2–4 and pubic rami were made. Management of this case presented a number of anaesthetic dilemmas: management of the airway, use of cross-clamp vs. shunting or heparinization and bypass, cardiovascular and neurological monitoring, maintenance of cardiovascular stability during and post cross-clamp, minimizing the risk of post-operative renal and neurological dysfunction.
La Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional Reducida (MINI) es una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada (EDE) breve desarrollada en Francia y en los Estados Unidos para explorar 17 trastornos según los criterios diagnósticos del Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico (DSM) III-R. La MINI está completamente estructurada para permitir su administratión por entrevistadores no especializados. Para mantener su brevedad, se centra en la existencia de trastornos actuales. Para cada trastorno, una o dos preguntas de detectión descartan el diagnóstico cuando reciben una respuesta negativa. Los sondeos para la gravedad, la discapacidad o los síntomas con explicación médica no se exploran síntoma por síntoma. Dos artículos conjuntos presentan la fiabilidad interevaluador y test-retest y la validez de la MINI frente a la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI) (en este artículo) y la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para el DSM III-R - Pacientes (SCID-P) (artículo adjunto). Se administró la MINI y la CIDI como patrón de referencia a 346 pacientes (296 psiquiátricos y 50 no psiquiátricos). Dos investigadores entrevistaron a dos grupos de 42 sujetos y volvieron a hacerlo posteriormente en un plazo de dos días. Los entrevistadores habían sido adiestrados en el uso de ambos instrumentos. La duratión media de la entrevista fue de 21 min con la MINI y de 92 min para las secciones correspondientes de la CIDI. El coeficiente kappa, la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron buenos o muy buenos para todos los diagnósticos, con la exceptión del trastorno por ansiedad generalizada (TAG) (kappa = 0,36), la agorafobia (sensibilidad = 0,59) y la bulimia (kappa = 0,53). Las fiabilidades interevaluador y test-retest fueron buenas. Se identificaron las razones principales para las discrepancias. La MINI proporcionaba diagnósticos fiables del DSM III-R en un marco temporal breve. El estudio permitió mejoras en las formulaciones para el TAG y la agorafobia en la versión actual para DSM IV de la MINI.
Intense star formation activity, in the absence of interactions, occurs nearly always in barred spiral systems, but many barred galaxies do not show especially enhanced activity. On the other hand bars provide an efficient mechanism of transport of gas from the disk into the active star forming circumnuclear region (Combes and Gerin, 1987). The type of activity in the circumnuclear regions would also depend on the characteristics of the bars (Arsenault, 1989). The dynamics of the gas inside the bars could also be related to outflows of gas into the halo detected in some barred galaxies with intense nuclear activity.
We have mapped the southern galaxies NGC 613, 1313, 1433, 1566, 1672, and 2442 in the 12CO(1-0) line with the SEST telescope. The sample bases on galaxies observed previously in radio continuum at the Molonglo Observatory (Harnett, 1985).
This is the first report on the use of the sustained release formulation of adinazolam in the treatment of panic disorder. A six week open lable trial followed by a 1-6 week taper/discontinuation phase was used to assess the safety and efficacy of adinazolam (Deracyn-SR) in the treatment of 10 outpatients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Adinazolam-SR was well tolerated and produced a rapid improvement in panic and limited symptom attacks, anxiety, phobias, disability, and depressive symptoms. Mean ±S.D. duration of therapeutic action of each dose of this formulation was 12.2±2.3 hours. This is longer than the duration of therapeutic action of other benzodiazepine formulations studied to date for the treatment of panic disorder. Frequency of relapse, rebound and withdrawal symptoms was similar to that found on taper/discontinuation from alprazolam.
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