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The euarthropod Luohuilinella deletres sp. nov. is described from rare material from the Chengjiang biota, Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, of Yunnan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis recovers a xandarellid affinity for L. deletres, representing only the fifth described species of this clade. L. deletres possesses a head shield that is about one-fifth of the total body length and a trunk with 30 tergites, the reduced anterior-most tergite and terminal three tergites lacking pleural elongations. Anteriorly situated notches in the head shield are associated with stalked eyes, in contrast to the more posterior, enclosed eye slits present in Xandarella. Posterior to the antennae there are at least 11 pairs of biramous appendages preserved, including three pairs in the head. The morphology of the midline gut of L. deletres, in which lateral, unbranched diverticula are wider towards the front of the body, is a characteristic also found in various trilobites. The dorsoventrally flattened exoskeleton suggests a benthic or nektobenthic mode of life for L. deletres, as for other trilobitomorphs, and it likely used its well-developed anteriorly positioned eyes for searching out food, either to scavenge or to find prey.
The aim of our study was twofold: to examine (a) whether the link between racial discrimination and adjustment showed age-related changes across early to late adolescence for Chinese-heritage youth and (b) whether the age-related associations of the discrimination–adjustment link differed by gender, nativity, and geographical region. We pooled two independently collected longitudinal data sets in the United States and Canada (N = 498, ages 12–19 at Wave 1) and used time-varying effect modeling to show that discrimination is consistently associated with poorer adjustment across all ages. These associations were stronger at certain ages, but for males and females, first- and second-generation adolescents, and US and Canadian adolescents they differed. There were stronger relations between discrimination and adjustment in early adolescence for males compared to females, in middle adolescence for first-generation compared to second-generation adolescents, and in early adolescence for US adolescents compared to Canadian adolescents. In general, negative implications for adjustment associated with discrimination diminished across the span of adolescence for females, second-generation, and US and Canadian adolescents, but not for males or first-generation adolescents. The results show that the discrimination–adjustment link must be considered with regard to age, gender, nativity, and region, and that attention to discrimination in early adolescence may be especially important.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
Good canopy structure is essential for optimal maize (Zea mays L.) production. However, creating appropriate maize canopy structure can be difficult, because the characteristics of individual plants are altered by changes in plant age, density and interactions with neighbouring plants. The objective of the current study was to find a reliable method for building good maize canopy structure by analysing changes in canopy structure, light distribution and grain yield (GY). A modern maize cultivar (ZhengDan958) was planted at 12 densities ranging from 1.5 to 18 plants/m2 at two field locations in Xinjiang, China. At the silking stage (R1), plant and ear height increased with plant density as well as leaf area index (LAI), whereas leaf area per plant decreased logarithmically. The fraction of light intercepted by the plant (F) increased with increasing plant density, but the light extinction coefficient (K) decreased linearly from 0.61 to 0.39. Taking the optimum value of F (95%) as an example, and using measured values of K for each plant density at R1 and the equation from Beer's law, the corresponding (theoretical) LAI for each plant density was calculated and optimum plant density (9.72 plants/m2) obtained by calculating the difference between theoretical LAIs and actual observations. Further analysis showed that plant density ranging from 10.64 to 11.55 plants/m2 yielded a stable GY range. Therefore, taking into account the persistence time for maximum LAI, the plant density required to obtain an ideal GY maize canopy structure should be increased by 10–18% from 9.72 plants/m2.
Introduction: The increased availability and increased utilization of Computed Tomography (CT) imaging as a diagnostic tool has in the past several years led to concerns regarding the unknown and potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation exposure to patients, as well as the increased cost to the health care system. Multiple education campaigns (e.g. Choosing Wisely) and institution-wide interventions have been implemented in order to limit the use of potentially unnecessary CT imaging. Two specific modalities CT head and CT angiography to rule out pulmonary embolism (CT PE) have been identified as potential targets of these interventions due to their likely overutilization in the clinical ED setting. The objective of this study was to determine the interphysician variability in the ordering rates of CT head and CT PE, and to determine if any correlation existed between CT head and CT PE ordering rates among physicians. Methods: Data was collected on all diagnostic imaging ordered by ED physicians at two very high volume community hospitals during the 4-year period between 2013 and 2016. Analysis was limited to those physicians who worked at least 3 of the 4 years at either site and saw at least 1000 patients per year. The ordering rates for each physician were calculated by dividing the number of the imaging modality ordered over the total number of patients seen. Correlation coefficients (r values) were calculated to determine if a linear correlation existed between increased CT head and increased CT PE ordering rates. Results: The DI ordering data for a total of 44 ED physicians were analyzed. Results show average 4-year ordering rates for CT heads among ED physicians ranging from 4.0% to 13.9%, and CT PE ordering rates ranging from 0.1% - 1.7%. The correlation coefficient between CT head and CT PE ordering rates was positive for all 4 years, with a statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation coefficient of 0.53. Conclusion: There is a wide degree of variability in DI ordering patterns among physicians working within the same clinical environment. Further exploration of this interphysician variability will be helpful in designing strategies to mitigate overutilization of diagnostic imaging.
Cell membrane fatty acids influence fundamental properties of the plasma membrane, including membrane fluidity, protein functionality, and lipid raft signalling. Evidence suggests that dietary n-3 PUFA may target the plasma membrane of immune cells by altering plasma membrane lipid dynamics, thereby regulating the attenuation of immune cell activation and suppression of inflammation. As lipid-based immunotherapy might be a promising new clinical strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA on CD4+ T cell membrane order, mitochondrial bioenergetics and lymphoproliferation. n-3 PUFA were incorporated into human primary CD4+ T cells phospholipids in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a reduction in whole cell membrane order, oxidative phosphorylation and proliferation. At higher doses, n-3 PUFA induced unique phase separation in T cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles. Similarly, in a short-term human pilot study, supplementation of fish oil (4 g n-3 PUFA/d) for 6 weeks in healthy subjects significantly elevated EPA (20 : 5n-3) levels in CD4+ T cell membrane phospholipids, and reduced membrane lipid order. These results demonstrate that the dynamic reshaping of human CD4+ T cell plasma membrane organisation by n-3 PUFA may modulate down-stream clonal expansion.
In this study, the biomass of winter wheat was estimated by using hyperspectral data obtained from a hyperspectral camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Every two bands from the hyperspectral data were selected to calculate two kinds of vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI). Linear models were established between winter wheat biomass and those indexes, and coefficient of determination R2 was used to draw the two-dimensional distribution of R2 values. The comparison between NDVI and RVI for pixel covered by soil and wheat showed that RVI is more efficient to mask the influence from soil than NDVI. For calculating the NDVI, optimal bands are located mainly around 820 nm and 725 nm to 750 nm. For assessing RVI, the wavelength range from 820 to 832 nm, 794 to 808 nm, 770 to 788 nm, 725 nm to 750 nm and 890 nm for RVI are most suitable. Those optimal bands can achieve a coefficient of determination R2 higher than 0.88 by using the linear regression model in the study.
Specific flavonoid-rich foods/beverages are reported to exert positive effects on vascular function; however, data relating to effects in the postprandial state are limited. The present study investigated the postprandial, time-dependent (0–7 h) impact of citrus flavanone intake on vascular function. An acute, randomised, controlled, double-masked, cross-over intervention study was conducted by including middle-aged healthy men (30–65 years, n 28) to assess the impact of flavanone intake (orange juice: 128·9 mg; flavanone-rich orange juice: 272·1 mg; homogenised whole orange: 452·8 mg; isoenergetic control: 0 mg flavanones) on postprandial (double meal delivering a total of 81 g of fat) endothelial function. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery at 0, 2, 5 and 7 h. Plasma levels of naringenin/hesperetin metabolites (sulphates and glucuronides) and nitric oxide species were also measured. All flavanone interventions were effective at attenuating transient impairments in FMD induced by the double meal (7 h post intake; P<0·05), but no dose–response effects were observed. The effects on FMD coincided with the peak of naringenin/hesperetin metabolites in circulation (7 h) and sustained levels of plasma nitrite. In summary, citrus flavanones are effective at counteracting the negative impact of a sequential double meal on human vascular function, potentially through the actions of flavanone metabolites on nitric oxide.
To determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (MRSA/VRE) designations, or flags, on selected hospital operational outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital during 2010–2011.
Operational outcomes were time to bed arrival, acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers, and length of stay. Covariates considered included demographic and clinical characteristics: age, gender, severity of illness on admission, admit day of week, residence prior to admission, hospitalization within the prior 30 days, clinical service, and discharge destination.
Overall, 81,288 admissions were included. After adjusting for covariates, patients with a MRSA/VRE flag at the time of admission experienced a mean delay in time to bed arrival of 1.03 hours (9.63 hours [95% CI, 9.39–9.88] vs 8.60 hours [95% CI, 8.47–8.73]). These patients had 1.19 times the odds of experiencing an acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfer [95% CI, 1.13–1.26] and a mean length of stay 1.76 days longer (7.03 days [95% CI, 6.82–7.24] vs 5.27 days [95% CI, 5.15–5.38]) than patients with no MRSA/VRE flag.
MRSA/VRE designation was associated with delays in time to bed arrival, increased likelihood of acuity-unrelated within-hospital transfers and extended length of stay. Efforts to identify patients who have cleared MRSA/VRE colonization are critically important to mitigate inefficient use of resources and to improve inpatient flow.
In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively.
In late 2014, a gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a school in Shandong Province, eastern China. Hundreds of individuals developed the symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. Epidemiological investigation showed that food consumption was not linked to this outbreak, and unboiled direct drinking water was identified as the independent risk factor with a relative risk of 1·37 (95% confidence interval 1·03–1·83). Furthermore, examination of common bacterial and viral gastroenteritis pathogens was conducted on different specimens. Norovirus GI.1, GI.2, GI.6, GII.4, GII.6 and GII.13 were detected in clinical specimens and a water sample. GII.4 sequences between clinical specimens and the water sample displayed a close relationship and belonged to GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. These results indicate that direct drinking water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this gastroenteritis outbreak. This study enriches our knowledge of waterborne norovirus outbreaks in China, and presents valuable prevention and control practices for policy-makers. In future, strengthened surveillance and supervision of direct drinking-water systems is needed.
The current sample of star clusters (SCs) is still incomplete beyond 1.8 kpc. The Pan-STARRS1 with its wide field of views and sensitive cameras provides us an opportunity to identify and characterize SCs as much as possible. By using a star counting algorithm, we obtained a total of 491 stellar density enhancements in a field of 20° × 20° toward the Galactic Anti-Center (GAC), of which 50 are known SCs. The remaining 441 candidates are verified with radii, interstellar reddening, distances, and ages with proper motions and multiple bands photometries. Our results push the completeness of SCs almost near the edge of GAC. With the revised SC sample, the separation between Sagittarius and Perseus arms are about 3.2 ± 0.2 kpc and the widths of the nearby spiral arms—Sagittarius, Orion, and Perseus—with are 1.4 ± 0.1, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 3.3 ± 0.2 kpc, respectively.
In the recent time spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles have been largely studied owing to various applications of these materials in the information storage, ferro-fluid technology, magnetocaloric effect, refrigeration and medical diagnostics. In this category cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles specifically gained huge research attention and prepared by various chemical methods. However, further investigations are still needed on the substituted CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles to explore their various characteristics. In this paper we present our results on Mn and Zn substituted cobalt ferrite (Co0.6Zn0.4Mn0.3Fe1.7O4 ) nanoparticles prepared by chemical co precipitation method. The x ray diffraction pattern of as prepared Co0.6Zn0.4Mn0.3Fe1.7O4 (CZFMO) nanoparticles indicated their average particle size =20 nm. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles before and after thermal annealing have been compared. Magnetization (M) vs. field (H) loop measurements at T = 293 K on as prepared and thermally annealed CZFMO nano powders revealed an unusual feature contrary to CFO nanoparticles prepared under same conditions. The saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases after the thermal annealing unlike the usual increase in Ms observed for CFO nanoparticles. These nano sized CZFMO powder samples are further characterized by low temperature magnetic measurements; Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
To evaluate the presence of a new type of reovirus (designated R4) in humans, we determined the prevalence of specific antibodies using a neutralization assay and ELISA. The sera from 97 healthy people and 219 patients in our hospital with measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, liver diseases, and diarrhoea were investigated. Although the study population was limited, our data suggested that R4 is widespread in the human population. A significantly higher level of R4-specific antibody in patients than in healthy people is worthy of consideration, since it poses a risk for aggravation of the extant illness by the reovirus.
The development of infrared observational facilities has revealed a number of massive stars in obscured environments throughout the Milky Way and beyond. The determination of their stellar and wind properties from infrared diagnostics is thus required to take full advantage of the wealth of observations available in the near and mid infrared. However, the task is challenging. This session addressed some of the problems encountered and showed the limitations and successes of infrared studies of massive stars.
Annual H3N2 subtype influenza outbreaks in Guangdong, China are a severe public health issue and require ongoing monitoring of emerging viral variants. The variation and evolution of haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza isolates from Guangdong during 2007–2011 and others from GenBank were analysed using Lasergene 7.1 and MEGA 5.05, and serological analysis of antigens was determined by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Susceptibility to antiviral drugs was correlated with genetic mutations. Phylogenetic analysis and alignment of HA and NA genes were performed on 18 Guangdong isolates and 26 global reference strains. The non-synonymous (dN) evolutionary rate of HA1 was 3·13 times that of HA2. Compared with the A/Perth/16/2009 vaccine HA gene, homologies of Guangdong isolates were between 98·8–99·7% and 98·0–98·4% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Amino-acid substitutions were found in five epitopes of HA1 from Guangdong isolates between 2007 and 2011, especially in epitopes B (N160K) and D (K174R/N). The K189E/N/Q and T228A mutations in the receptor-binding site (RBS) occurred in the 2010 strains, which affected the antigenicity of HA1. The antigenicity of the epidemic H3N2 isolates in 2010 was somewhat different from that of A/Perth/16/2009. The Guangdong H3N2 isolates were determined to be oseltamivir-resistant with IC50 of 0·396±0·085 nmol/l (n=17) and zanamivir-resistant with IC50 of 0·477±0·149 nmol/l (n=18). Variations were present in epitopes B and D, two sites in the RBS and two glycosylation sites in the Guangdong H3N2 HA1 gene. The majority of the Guangdong H3N2 isolates were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Compared to the World Health Organization 2012 vaccine strains, Guangdong H3N2 strains varied genetically and antigenically to some degree.
The manufacture of composite materials can improve the properties of proton-conducting polymers as membranes in PEM fuel cells. We have investigated composite membranes obtained by dispersion of nanodiamond particles in a sulfonated PolyEtherEtherKetone (SPEEK) matrix. SPEEK is a major proton-conducting aromatic polymer. Nanodiamond has been studied for various applications and can be functionalized with different surface groups. For use in proton-conducting membranes, surface functionalization with proton-donating groups is a promising approach. In this preliminary work, we have studied the properties of membranes made using pristine nanodiamond from diverse origins for a first assessment of the potential properties. The composites were analysed by various techniques, including Thermogravimetric Analysis, water vapor uptake and mechanical tensile tests.
Methods to induce non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma filaments are presented with related properties for micro, streamer and prevented spark discharges, respectively, induced in planar Dielectric Barrier Discharges with one electrode covered by dielectric material (mono-DBD) or point-to-plane Corona. Two mechanisms of nano-particles formation are depicted from aerosol size distributions and TEM analysis. 0.1–10 mJ prevented spark discharges produce 10–100 nm droplets ejected from melted craters as well as nucleated primary particles and subsequent 10–100 nm agglomerates, by nucleation and coagulation in expanding vapor jets. With smaller energy per filament, 0.1–10 μJ micro-discharges and 0.1–100 μJ streamers, the initial local vapor fluxes emitted from spots of interaction between plasma filaments and electrodes are reduced. Subsequent smaller primary particle density limits the local coagulation in the vapor plume since 2–10 nm non-agglomerated crystalline metal nano-particles are produced in mono-DBD with Au, Ag and Cu electrode. Besides, the evolution of the aerosol size from primary nano-particles to agglomerates with transit time suggests slow coagulation of these primary metal particles in mono-DBD. Aerosol properties depend on the energy per filament and on the electrode. The final size is controlled by plasma parameters and transit time in and after the plasma. The aim is to underline emerging applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas for the production of tailored particles with tunable size, composition and structure with non-thermal plasma filaments to control the resulting properties of nano-powders and materials. Production rates and related energetic yields are compared.
Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) belongs to a class of small molecules offering particularly interesting advantages when employed in organic electronic devices. Because of its advantageous attributes like high thermal stability, inertness when exposed to acids or alkalis, relatively high electron conductivity, color and light fastness it has been employed in polymer photovoltaic devices as a unipolar dopants complementing the buckminsterfullerene (C60) acceptors and as a conductive buffer. Other organic applications include ambipolar OFETs and non-linear optics structures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been commonly employed to monitor the quality of thin CuPc films. Although XPS analyses of CuPc have been done for over forty years there has not yet been agreement regarding interpretation of the major C1s signal, particularly in the case of non-stoichometric CuPc composition. This work presents systematic studies of the C1s signal of thin film deposits, fabricated using commercially available CuPc materials. It was found that composite C1s CuPc signal consists of five components: two related to the principal C positions within the CuPc macrocycle (C-C in 6-membered ring, C-C-N in 5-membered ring), two associated with shake-up transitions accompanying principal C transitions, and one due to mostly aliphatic impurities. Detailed analysis showed that the magnitude of shake-up peaks was approximately equal 10% to 12% of their principal transitions, in agreement with the theoretical calculations. Correspondingly, the C1s signal originating from the non-CuPc impurities quantitatively agreed with the IR attenuated total reflectance (ATR-IR) measurement of the C-H aliphatic vibrations originating from these impurities present within the CuPc layer. The proposed C1s interpretation has been successfully tested for a large number of commercial CuPc materials and provides a guideline for a routine XPS analysis of the CuPc in organic photovoltaic devices.