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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The euarthropod Luohuilinella deletres sp. nov. is described from rare material from the Chengjiang biota, Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, of Yunnan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis recovers a xandarellid affinity for L. deletres, representing only the fifth described species of this clade. L. deletres possesses a head shield that is about one-fifth of the total body length and a trunk with 30 tergites, the reduced anterior-most tergite and terminal three tergites lacking pleural elongations. Anteriorly situated notches in the head shield are associated with stalked eyes, in contrast to the more posterior, enclosed eye slits present in Xandarella. Posterior to the antennae there are at least 11 pairs of biramous appendages preserved, including three pairs in the head. The morphology of the midline gut of L. deletres, in which lateral, unbranched diverticula are wider towards the front of the body, is a characteristic also found in various trilobites. The dorsoventrally flattened exoskeleton suggests a benthic or nektobenthic mode of life for L. deletres, as for other trilobitomorphs, and it likely used its well-developed anteriorly positioned eyes for searching out food, either to scavenge or to find prey.
Negation with indefinite items in English can be expressed in three ways: any-negation (I didn’t have any money), no-negation (I had no money) and negative concord (I didn’t have no money). These variants have persisted over time, with some studies suggesting that the newest variant, any-negation, is increasing at the expense of no-negation (Tottie 1991a, 1991b). Others suggest that although this variable was undergoing change in earlier centuries, it is stable in Modern English (Wallage 2017). This article examines the current state of the variability in four communities within two distinctive English-speaking regions: Toronto and Belleville in Ontario, Canada, and Tyneside and York in Northern England. Our comparative quantitative analysis of speech corpora from these communities shows that the rates of no-negation vary between Northern England and Ontario, but the variation is largely stable and primarily conditioned by verb type in a robust effect that holds cross-dialectally: functional verbs retain no-negation, while lexical verbs favour any. The social embedding of the variability varies between the communities, but they share a common variable grammar.
We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a Phased Array Feed (PAF) receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility (PTF). These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the PAF beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using PAF technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 12 December 2016. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks.
Multi-layer reconstruction has become standard in endoscopic skull base surgery. The inlay component used can vary among autografts, allografts, xenografts and synthetics, primarily based on surgeon preference. The short- and long-term outcomes of collagen matrix in skull base reconstruction are described.
A case series of patients who underwent endoscopic skull base reconstruction with collagen matrix inlay were assessed. Immediate peri-operative outcomes (cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, ventriculitis, intracranial bleeding, epistaxis, seizures) and delayed complications (delayed healing, meningoencephalocele, prolapse of reconstruction, delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak, ascending meningitis) were examined.
Of 120 patients (51.0 ± 17.5 years, 41.7 per cent female), peri-operative complications totalled 12.7 per cent (cerebrospinal fluid leak, 3.3 per cent; meningitis, 3.3 per cent; other intracranial infections, 2.5 per cent; intracranial bleeding, 1.7 per cent; epistaxis, 1.7 per cent; and seizures, 0 per cent). Delayed complications did not occur in any patients.
Collagen matrix is an effective inlay material. It provides robust long-term separation between sinus and cranial cavities, and avoids donor site morbidity, but carries additional cost.
Sleep disturbances are prominent correlates of acute mood episodes and inadequate recovery in bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanistic relationship between sleep physiology and mood remains poorly understood. Using a series of pre-sleep mood inductions and overnight sleep recording, this study examined the relationship between overnight mood regulation and a marker of sleep intensity (non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave activity; NREM SWA) during the interepisode phase of BD.
Adults with interepisode BD type 1 (BD; n = 20) and healthy adult controls (CTL; n = 23) slept in the laboratory for a screening night, a neutral mood induction night (baseline), a happy mood induction night, and a sad mood induction night. NREM SWA (0.75–4.75 Hz) was derived from overnight sleep EEG recordings. Overnight mood regulation was evaluated using an affect grid pleasantness rating post-mood induction (pre-sleep) and the next morning.
Overnight mood regulation did not differ between groups following the sad or happy inductions. SWA did not significantly change for either group on the sad induction night compared with baseline. In BD only, SWA on the sad night was related to impaired overnight negative mood regulation. On the happy induction night, SWA increased relative to baseline in both groups, though SWA was not related to overnight mood regulation for either group.
These findings indicate that SWA disruption may play a role in sustaining negative mood state from the previous night in interepisode BD. However, positive mood state could enhance SWA in bipolar patients and healthy adults.
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) (Greenhouse whitefly) is an agricultural pest of global importance. It is associated with damage to plants during feeding and subsequent virus transmission. Yet, global phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and estimation of the rates of gene flow within this whitefly species remain largely unexplored. In this study, we obtained and filtered 227 GenBank records of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences of T. vaporariorum, across various global locations to obtain a final set of 217 GenBank records. We further amplified and sequenced a ~750 bp fragment of mtCOI from an additional 31 samples collected from Kenya in 2014. Based on a total of 248 mtCOI sequences, we identified 16 haplotypes, with extensive overlap across all countries. Population structure analysis did not suggest population differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the 2014 Kenyan collection of samples clustered with a single sequence from the Netherlands to form a well-supported clade (denoted clade 1a) nested within the total set of sequences (denoted clade 1). Pairwise distances between sequences show greater sequence divergence between clades than within clades. In addition, analysis using migrate-n gave evidence for recent gene flow between the two groups. Overall, we find that T. vaporariorum forms a single large group, with evidence of further diversification consisting primarily of Kenyan sequences and one sequence from the Netherlands forming a well-supported clade.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Tannins have long been considered ‘anti-nutritional’ factors in monogastric nutrition, shown to reduce feed intake and palatability. However, recent studies revealed that compared with condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins (HT) appear to have far less impact on growth performance, but may be inhibitory to the total activity of caecal bacteria. This in turn could reduce microbial synthesis of skatole and indole in the hindgut of entire male pigs (EM). Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of a group of dietary HT on growth performance, carcass traits and boar taint compounds of group housed EM. For the study, 36 Swiss Large White boars were assigned within litter to three treatment groups. Boars were offered ad libitum one of three finisher diets supplemented with 0 (C), 15 (T15) or 30 g/kg (T30) of HT from day 105 to 165 of age. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, boar taint compounds in the adipose tissue and cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP2A19 gene expression in the liver was assessed. Compared with C, feed efficiency but not daily gain and daily feed intake was lower (P<0.05) in T15 and T30 boars. Except for the percentage carcass weight loss during cooling, which tended (P<0.10) to be greater in T30 than C and T15, carcass characteristics were not affected by the diets. In line with the numerically lower androstenone level, bulbourethral and salivary glands of T30 boars were lighter (P<0.05) than of T15 with intermediate values for C. Indole level was lower (P<0.05) in the adipose tissue of T30 than C pigs with intermediate levels in T15. Skatole levels tended (P<0.10) to be lower in T30 and C than T15 pigs. Hepatic gene expression of CYP isoenzymes did not differ between-treatment groups, but was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with androstenone (CYP2E1 and CYP1A2), skatole (CYP2E1, CYP2A) and indole (CYP2A) level. In line with the numerically highest androstenone and skatole concentrations, boar taint odour but not flavour was detected by the panellists in loins from T15 compared with loins from C and T30 boars. These results provide evidence that HT affected metabolism of indolic compounds and androstenone and that they affected the development of accessory sex glands. However, the effects were too small to be detected by sensory evaluation.
Halophilic Archaea are known to tolerate multiple extreme conditions on Earth and have been proposed as models for astrobiology. In order to assess the importance of cold-adaptation of these microorganisms in surviving stratospheric conditions, we launched live, liquid cultures of two species, the mesophilic model Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and the cold-adapted Antarctic isolate Halorubrum lacusprofundi ATCC 49239, on helium balloons. After return to Earth, the cold-adapted species showed nearly complete survival while the mesophilic species exhibited slightly reduced viability. Parallel studies found that the cold-adapted species was also better able to survive freezing and thawing in the laboratory. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis was used to compare the two haloarchaea at optimum growth temperatures versus low temperatures supporting growth. The cold-adapted species displayed perturbation of a majority of genes upon cold temperature exposure, divided evenly between up-regulated and down-regulated genes, while the mesophile exhibited perturbation of only a fifth of its genes, with nearly two-thirds being down-regulated. These results underscore the importance of genetic responses of H. lacusprofundi to cold temperature for enhanced survival in the stratosphere.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
People have natural affinities with the sea and coastlines, using them for work, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. Interest in coastal areas has increased with growing awareness of environmental sustainability, issues such as natural coastal vulnerability and potential climatic changes, as well as the development of a greater appreciation of impacts on coasts due to urban and industrial development.
In order to make a contribution towards an understanding of the evolution of the South Australian coast and its current changes, and thereby contribute towards its better management, the authors are sharing their coastal knowledge and research. Collectively the contributors, who have been friends and academic collaborators over several decades, have accumulated a vast amount of experience related to the evolution of coastal features of South Australia. From this unique position they have synthesised this information in a manner to make it accessible to students, planners and the general public.
Geologically, the South Australian coast is very young, having evolved only over 1% of geological time, during the past 43 million years since the separation of Australia and Antarctica. It is also very dynamic, with the current shoreline position having been established from only 7000 years ago. There is a remarkable diversity of coastal landscapes in South Australia, ranging through rocky cliffed coasts, submarine canyons, high wave energy sandy beaches and estuarine environments to tidally dominated coasts with sandflats and mangrove woodlands. This diversity of coastal landforms has resulted from the interaction of tides, winds and wave-generated processes operating on a range of rock types impacted by relative movements of the land and sea. Highlighting past changes at the coastline such as erosion, siltation, land movements and fluctuations in sea level provides a sound basis for understanding future changes and instigating appropriate planning strategies. Some features of the South Australian coast have national and global research significance for understanding sea level changes, coastal evolution and management by providing present analogues of past landforms.
The main aim of this book is educational. By explaining the variable character of the coast and its long-term evolution, it is hoped that this book will provide people with background information and awaken curiosity about the coast, enabling them to understand and interpret coastal landscapes, or ‘to read the coastal landscape’.
The coast of metropolitan Adelaide extends from Sellicks Beach in the south to Le Fevre Peninsula in the north (Figure 2.1). Situated in the most populated part of South Australia, the coast provides an excellent example of intense human use of coastal resources, illustrating the impact of urban development and artificial modification of the coast. A lack of understanding about coastal processes during European development has resulted in coastal degradation.
The dominant geological influence on this section of coast is a series of arcuate northeasterly trending faults (Figure 2.2), which extend from the hills and define the landward limit of the coastal plains. Differential faulting of Neoproterozoic to Cambrian strata and Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary rocks has formed the template for the metropolitan coastline. The uplifted zones are associated with prominent cliffs and headlands, while between these uplifted sections of coast, embayments occupy fault angle depressions producing sandy bays. Although important rivers such as the Onkaparinga and the Torrens have their outlets on this section of coast, they deliver minimal sediment to Gulf St Vincent. The exposure of differentially faulted rocks and sediments has provided a north-south sequence of beach compartments.
The geological influences on the coast of metropolitan Adelaide date back to the folded, metamorphosed and uplifted Neoproterozoic and Cambrian strata of the Adelaide Geosyncline, which broadly coincides with the modern Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. Through major crustal deformation events of the Delamerian Orogeny from 514 ± 3 to 490 ± 3 Ma, the region was transformed to an extensive fold mountain range of Himalayan proportions, named the Delamerides. From the Middle Ordovician (c. 470 Ma) through to earliest Permian time (299 Ma), the Delamerides were deeply eroded. The remnants of this major mountain chain influence the overall shape and character of the modern coast. Mainly during Early Permian times (299 to 290 Ma), the region experienced extensive glaciation. Evidence of this glaciation is spectacularly preserved at Hallett Cove, where the ice flow was from the south to the north with bedrock structures diverting the overall southeast-northwest movement (see Chapter Three — The Fleurieu Peninsula coast).
Erosion of the Delamerides continued for millions of years, exposing the core of the mountain range and reducing it to a planation surface of relatively low relief.
The River Murray Estuary is a complex series of waterways comprising Lake Alexandrina, Lake Albert, the Murray Mouth, Coorong Lagoon and the coastal barrier systems of Younghusband and Sir Richard Peninsulas. The region has long been a source of fascination because of its inherent natural beauty, its social and cultural history, and because of the records of explorations by Matthew Flinders, Nicholas Baudin, Charles Sturt, Collet Barker and others. The Coorong became immortalised as the setting for Colin Thiele's novel and film, Storm Boy. Aboriginal people had a finely developed understanding of their environment and occupied the area sustainably for many thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans.
In 1802, Matthew Flinders and Nicholas Baudin, during their charting of the southern Australian coastline, met offshore from the Murray Mouth in Encounter Bay, the outfall of Australia's largest exoreic river system, although neither navigator recognised it. This is not remarkable; they were many kilometres offshore, the coast is low-lying and there were no large freshwater flows containing sediment. Captain Charles Sturt reached the Murray Estuary in 1830 after an intrepid boat trip down the River Murray and was forced to return the same way after his efforts at accessing the sea were thwarted by sand bars in the Goolwa Channel. Hopes were high that the Lower Murray area would support a thriving port and that Goolwa would become the ‘New Orleans of Australia’. However, the mouth could not always be reliably navigated, there was no natural site for a deep-sea port, and the romance of the paddle steamers was finally quashed by the construction of more reliable railways. Today the area has become a focus for conservation, tourism, recreation and retirement.
The arcuate sweeping shoreline of Encounter Bay fringes the seaward margin of the Murray Estuary, stretching from the uplands of the Mount Lofty Ranges towards the southeast (Figure 4.1). It includes part of the longest beach (194 km) in Australia. Unconsolidated sand forms most of the shoreline as long, narrow coastal barriers (Sir Richard and Younghusband Peninsulas) separate the open ocean from the elongate back-barrier lagoons of the Goolwa Channel and Coorong Lagoon. The name 'Coorong’ has been anglicised from the Ngarrindjerii word ‘Kurangh’, which means a long neck of water.
Northern Spencer Gulf encompasses the coastline that extends north from Whyalla to Port Augusta on the eastern Eyre Peninsula and from Port Augusta to Port Broughton on Yorke Peninsula (Figure 8.1). Northern Spencer Gulf is an inverse or negative estuary where evaporation exceeds freshwater input, with salinities (34 to 49 ppt, or parts per thousand) increasing in the northernmost portion of the gulf. Water temperatures are also elevated, ranging between 13 to 28°C. The gulf thus provides a refuge for plants and animals that colonised during warmer water conditions of the past, such as coralline algae near the bridge crossings at Port Augusta. Protected from the ocean swell, these northernmost gulf areas also experience diminished wave heights but amplified tidal ranges. The tidal ranges typical of the gulf are 2.5 to 3 m, but a maximum tidal range of 4.1 m has been recorded at Port Augusta, which is just into the macrotidal range. There are regular dodge tides every two weeks, when for 1 to 2 days there is no tidal movement due to the two main semi-diurnal tides, M2 and S2, cancelling each other out.
Tidal processes dominate the northern Spencer Gulf, and the coastline is characterised by thick seagrass meadows, wide intertidal sandflats, mangrove woodlands and supratidal saline marshland. Coastal development is intimately related to the massive production and accumulation of biogenic materials including algae, seagrass, molluscs and bryozoans; the site is a ‘major carbonate factory’, sequestering much CO2. Algal mats, seagrass meadows and mangrove woodlands are highly productive environments for the growth of rich and diverse marine organisms that promote the rapid accumulation of skeletal, calcareous, bioclastic debris when they die. Intertidal sandflats produce vast numbers of molluscs that also contribute to the vertical accretion and seaward progradation of the shoreline (Figure 8.2). These processes have been enhanced by a fall in relative sea level over the past 5000 years, stranding shell ridges and supratidal flats, which accumulate gypsum, dolomite and salt.
Between Whyalla and Port Augusta, the basic shape of the shoreline reflects bedrock geology; resistant Proterozoic rocks form shore platforms and headlands that shelter sandy bays. From Point Lowly to Port Augusta, the coast is closely aligned with the Torrens Hinge Zone (see Figure 9.1), a major complex fault that separates the eastern side of the Gawler Craton from the rocks of the Adelaide Geosyncline.