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Emotion regulation dysfunction is characteristic of psychotic disorders, but little is known about how the use of specific types of emotion regulation strategies differs across phases of psychotic illness. This information is vital for understanding factors contributing to psychosis vulnerability states and developing targeted treatments. Three studies were conducted to examine emotion regulation across phases of psychosis, which included (a) adolescent community members with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs; n = 262) and adolescents without PLEs (n = 1,226); (b) adolescents who met clinical high-risk criteria for a prodromal syndrome (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 29); and (c) outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 67). In each study, participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and measures of psychiatric symptoms and functional outcome. The three psychosis groups did not differ from each other in reported use of suppression; however, there was evidence for a vulnerability-related, dose-dependent decrease in reappraisal. Across each sample, a lower use of reappraisal was associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Findings indicate that emotion regulation abnormalities occur across a continuum of psychosis vulnerability and represent important targets for intervention.
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
The first two catalogues produced from test observations made with the Carlsberg Automatic Transit Circle (CATC) at the Copenhagen University Observatory in the period 1981/83 have internal mean errors of 0″.21 in right ascension and 0″.22 in declination. In 1983 the CATC was moved to the international Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos where it will begin a programme of differential and fundamental astrometry in 1984.
The development of an economic capital model requires a decision to be made regarding how to aggregate capital requirements for the individual risk factors while taking into account the effects of diversification. Under the Individual Capital Adequacy Standards framework, UK life insurers have commonly adopted a correlation matrix approach due to its simplicity and ease in communication to the stakeholders involved, adjusting the result, where appropriate, to allow for non-linear interactions. The regulatory requirements of Solvency II have been one of the principal drivers leading to an increased use of more sophisticated aggregation techniques in economic capital models. This paper focusses on a simulation-based approach to the aggregation of capital requirements using copulas and proxy models. It describes the practical challenges in parameterising a copula including how allowance may be made for tail dependence. It also covers the challenges associated with fitting and validating a proxy model. In particular, the paper outlines how insurers could test, communicate and justify the choices made through the use of some examples.
Deep borehole disposal (or DBD) is now seen as a viable alternative to the (comparatively shallow) geologically repository concept for disposal of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on existing oil and geothermal well technologies, we report details of investigations into cementitious grouts as sealing/support matrices (SSMs) for waste disposal scenarios in the DBD process where temperatures at the waste package surface do not exceed ∼190ºC. Grouts based on Class G oil well cements, partially replaced with silica flour, are being developed, and the use of retarding admixtures is being investigated experimentally. Sodium gluconate appears to provide sufficient retardation and setting characteristics to be considered for this application and also provides an increase in grout fluidity. The quantity of sodium gluconate required in the grout to ensure fluidity for 4 hours at 90, 120 and 140°C is 0.05, 0.25 and 0.25 % by weight of cement respectively. A phosphonate admixture only appears to provide desirable retardation properties at 90°C. The presence of either retarder does not affect the composition of the hardened cement paste over 14 days curing and the phases formed are durable under conditions of high temperature and pressure.
Geological disposal of HLW and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in very deep boreholes is a concept whose time has come. The alternative – disposal in a mined, engineered repository is beset with difficulties not least of which are the constraints placed upon the engineered barriers by the high thermal loading. The deep borehole concept offers a potentially safer, faster and more cost-effective solution. Despite this, international interest has been slow to materialize, largely due to perceived problems with retrievability and uncertainty about the ability to drill accurate vertical holes with diameters greater than 0.5 m to a depth of 4-5 km. The closure of Yucca Mountain and the subsequent recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission have lead to a renewed interest in deep borehole disposal (DBD) and the US DoE has commissioned Sandia National Labs, working with industrial and academic partners (including the University of Sheffield), to undertake a program of R&D leading to a demonstration borehole being drilled somewhere in the continental USA by 2016.
In this paper, we focus on some of the key safety and engineering features of DBD including methods of sealing the boreholes, sealing and support matrices for the waste packages. Numerical modeling has, and continues to play, a significant role in expanding and validating the DBD concept. We report on progress in the use of modeling in the above contexts, paying particular attention to constraints on the engineering materials resulting from high heat loading.
To identify clinical signs and symptoms (ie, “terms”) that accurately predict laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and thereafter generate and evaluate various influenza-like illness (ILI) case definitions for detecting influenza. A secondary objective explored whether surveillance of data beyond the chief complaint improves the accuracy of predicting influenza.
Retrospective, cross-sectional study.
Large urban academic medical center hospital.
A total of 1,581 emergency department (ED) patients who received a nasopharyngeal swab followed by rRT-PCR testing between August 30, 2009, and January 2, 2010, and between November 28, 2010, and March 26, 2011.
An electronic surveillance system (GUARDIAN) scanned the entire electronic medical record (EMR) and identified cases containing 29 clinical terms relevant to influenza. Analyses were conducted using logistic regressions, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), sensitivity, and specificity.
The best predictive model for identifying influenza for all ages consisted of cough (DOR=5.87), fever (DOR=4.49), rhinorrhea (DOR=1.98), and myalgias (DOR=1.44). The 3 best case definitions that included combinations of some or all of these 4 symptoms had comparable performance (ie, sensitivity=89%–92% and specificity=38%–44%). For children <5 years of age, the addition of rhinorrhea to the fever and cough case definition achieved a better balance between sensitivity (85%) and specificity (47%). For the fever and cough ILI case definition, using the entire EMR, GUARDIAN identified 37.1% more influenza cases than it did using only the chief complaint data.
A simplified case definition of fever and cough may be suitable for implementation for all ages, while inclusion of rhinorrhea may further improve influenza detection for the 0–4-year-old age group. Finally, ILI surveillance based on the entire EMR is recommended.
A time-honoured convention in accounting has been that accounts should be based on historic cost, with all items being recorded in terms of the purchasing power of the pound at the date of each transaction. In a period of rapid inflation, accounts on the traditional basis become distorted and dangerously misleading. The authors describe the theory and practice of the proposals of the Accounting Standards Steering Committee for current purchasing power accounting and examine replacement cost accounting, comprehensively applied, as an alternative. They point out the advantages, despite somewhat greater practical difficulties, of current value accounting. A sample of large United Kingdom companies is analysed and the effect on their earnings of the A.S.S.C.'s proposals is estimated where these figures are not already published. Share price movements by different industry sectors over the last five years are examined in relation to changes in earnings on inflation accounting principles. It is stressed that gaining from inflation accounting is not the same as gaining from inflation, and that liquidity is a separate question. Problems of taxation (notably on stock appreciation) are discussed and practice in other countries is mentioned, as are the implications for price controls, trade unions, and indexation. The authors hope that the Sandilands Committee on Company Accounts and Inflation will find a convincing case for inflation-adjusted accounts to form the basis for taxation and price controls. They look forward to the gradual abandonment of historiccost accounts, regarding the proposals of the A.S.S.C. as a desirable but imperfect first step, and urge that meantime investors and creditors should make their own estimates of the impact of inflation on particular companies.
The heat outputs of higher burn up spent fuels (SF) create problems for disposal in mined repositories, including needs for reduced container loadings and extended pre-disposal cooling. An alternative that is less temperature sensitive is deep borehole disposal (DBD) which offers safety, cost, security and other potential benefits and could be implemented relatively quickly using currently available deep-drilling technology. We have modified our previously proposed version of DBD to be more appropriate for higher burn-up fuels by using smaller (0.36 m diameter) stainless steel containers, a smaller (0.56 m diameter) borehole, and different support matrices. We present the results of new heat-flow modelling for DBD of UO2 and MOX SF with burn ups of 55 and 65 GWd/t showing how temperatures evolve, especially on the outer surface of the containers. Consequences for the performance of the support matrices and the disposal concept are discussed. The thermal modelling indicates DBD is a viable option for higher burn-up SF and could be a practical disposal route for many combinations of fuel types, burn ups, ages and container loadings. Further, the results suggest that DBD of complete fuel assemblies, a desirable option, would be feasible and require much shorter pre-disposal cooling than necessary for disposal in mined repositories.
In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain.
Higher burn-up (> 50 GWd/t) spent nuclear fuels (SNF) present problems for long-term management and disposal in mined repositories, principally because of their higher heat output. Here we present results from heat flow modeling of an alternative scheme for disposing of SNF - deep borehole disposal (DBD). We focus on how temperatures on the outer surface of the containers evolve, affect the melting and re-solidification of the high density support matrix (HDSM) and their consequences for the feasibility of this disposal concept. We conclude that not only is DBD a viable option for higher burn-up SNF, but it could be a practical disposal route for a range of combinations of SNF ages and number of fuel pins per container.
We have used photoluminescence excitation and photocurrent spectroscopy to investigate the electronic properties of InxGa1-xAs/GaAs strained layer quantum wells and superlattices. In quantum wells, sharp excitonic transitions between discrete energy levels are observed both in excitation and near flatband photocurrent spectra whereas superlattices show heavy-hole to conduction miniband transitions at the Brillouin mini-zone centre and edge, directly giving the electron miniband width. Applying a longitudinal electric field to the quantum wells produces a red shift of the excitons due to the quantum confined Stark effect, while in superlattices, photocurrent spectra at finite applied electric fields show for the first time in this system, the effects of Wannier-Stark quantization. The analysis of the spectra provides a precise determination of the band offset.
We present a mathematical model for determining the temperature field around radioactive waste containers in very deep geological boreholes. The model is first used to predict the temperature rise for some simple, but well-established cases with known solutions in order to verify the numerical work. The temperature distribution is then determined for two variants of the deep bore hole concept; a low temperature variant and a high temperature variant. The results from these studies are discussed in terms of their utility in establishing deep borehole disposal as a workable concept.
Reliability and performance of ultraviolet light emitting diodes have suffered due to the high dislocation density of the AlN and high Al-content AlxGa1-xN layers when grown on foreign substrates such as sapphire. The development of pseudomorphic layers on low dislocation density AlN substrates is leading to improvements in reliability and performance of devices operating in the ultraviolet-C (UVC) range. One major improvement is the ability to operate devices at much higher current densities and input powers than devices on sapphire substrates. This is due to the better thermal properties and lower dislocation density of devices on AlN substrates. Devices with active area of 0.001 cm2 emitting at ∼265 nm have been measured for their reliability and change in power output over time at input currents of 20 mA (20 A/cm2), 100 mA (100A/cm2) and 150 mA (150 A/cm2). When operating at currents of 20 mA over 3500 hours of consecutive operation has been demonstrated with typical decay of ∼27% over the 3500 hours. Extrapolating the decay with a linear fit gives a L50 (time to 50% of initial power) of ∼5000 hrs. However it is desirable to be able to model the decay to better understand the kinetics and better understand the mechanisms. In order to do this, the lifetime at 20 mA and 100 mA were modeled using an exponential decay function, square root transformation and a log transformation to both be able to fit the experimental data and predict future performance.