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The objective of this study was to verify possible associations between heart rate variability indices and physical activity, body composition, and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
A total of 39 young patients with type 1 diabetes were included. Body composition, physical activity, cardiovascular parameters, and metabolic parameters were assessed. For the heart rate variability analysis, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat using a Polar S810i heart rate monitor for 30 minutes, with the volunteers in the supine position; subsequently, the following indices were considered: standard deviation of all normal RR intervals; root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval; percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration >50 ms; high frequency component in milliseconds squared; high frequency component in normalised units; standard deviation of the instantaneous variability beat-to-beat; and standard deviation of the long-term variability. The association between the heart rate variability indices and independent variables was verified through linear regression in unadjusted and adjusted models (considering gender and age). The statistical significance was set at 5% and the confidence interval at 95%.
High values of at-rest heart rate were associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and global heart rate variability, and higher values of waist-to-hip ratio were related to lower parasympathetic activity, independent of age or gender.
For young patients with type 1 diabetes, increases in at-rest heart rate values are associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and global heart rate variability, whereas higher waist-to-hip ratio values are related to lower parasympathetic activity, both independent of age and gender.
“Barbering” is an abnormal behavior in mice. Barbering mice pluck fur and/or whiskers from cage-mates and/or themselves, leaving idiosyncratic patches of hair loss. The behavior is a paradox: barbering is common in laboratory mice, but it is not seen in wild mice, it does not benefit the plucker, and it is costly to the recipient. This chapter will attempt to resolve the barbering paradox by asking how and why barbering behavior occurs. Using Tinbergen's (1963) framework for an ethological analysis, we assess barbering in terms of adaptive function, phylogeny, development, and mechanism.
The first section discusses hypotheses of adaptive function. The dominance hypothesis is refuted by several studies; the coping hypothesis remains untested; and the pathology hypothesis is supported by multiple lines of evidence. The pathology hypothesis therefore provides the best resolution to the barbering paradox. Accordingly, throughout, we compare and contrast barbering to trichotillomania (TTM) and other human disorders characterized by repetitive behavior. The second section assesses the phylogenetic underpinnings of barbering by comparing and contrasting hair-plucking behavior across species and between mouse strains. The third section reviews the developmental processes that underlie barbering behavior, particularly developmental risk factors, learning, the laboratory environment, and transgenic effects. The final section reviews the behavioral mechanisms, eliciting stimuli, and physiological mechanisms that might mediate barbering. Here, we outline the role of cortico–striatal circuitry in abnormal repetitive behavior in general, how it can be used to delineate disorders, and insights it provides into barbering.
Guidelines recommend praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment and control of schistosomiasis, with no real alternative. Metrifonate was still widely used against Schistosoma haematobium in the 1990s, and then withdrawn. Experimental studies and clinical trials suggest that artemisinin compounds are active against S. haematobium. In a Cochrane systematic review assessing the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis, 24 randomized controlled trials (n=6315 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. These trials compared a variety of single agent and combination regimens with PZQ, metrifonate or artemisinin derivatives. The review confirmed that both the standard recommended doses of PZQ (single 40 mg/kg oral dose) and metrifonate (3×7·5–10 mg/kg oral doses administered fortnightly) are efficacious and safe in treating urinary schistosomiasis, but there is no study comparing these two regimens head-to-head. There is currently not enough evidence to evaluate artemisinin compounds. Most of the studies included in the Cochrane systematic review were insufficiently powered, lacked standardization in assessing and reporting outcomes, and had a number of methodological limitations. In this paper we discuss the implications of these findings with respect to public health and research methodology and propose priority research needs.
A hospital outbreak of multiply-resistant Salmonella heidelberg infection, which affected 17 patients and 2 staff, is described. The tangible cost of the outbreak was estimated at £21 151, £17989 (85·1%) of which was borne by the hospital. The cost to the Microbiology Department was £3596 (17·0% of the total). A detailed analysis of the costs and implications for staffing disruption is given and a comparison is made with the costs of preventive activities. Ways of containing expenses in the event of an outbreak and the economic implications for clinical budgeting and privatization of the laboratory service are considered.
A diamond based insulated gate bipolar transistor is incorporated into a two-dimensional device simulator (MEDICI) to examine the current gain (β) and potential distribution across the device. Initially, work has focused on an important component of IGBT structure, the PNP bipolar transistor, which has been simulated and is reported upon in this paper. Empirical parameters for emitter and collector regions were used. Various carrier concentrations for base region were used to optimize the simulation. It was found that decreasing the thickness of base region leads to an increase in current gain. A buffer layer is needed to prevent the punch-through at low carrier concentration in the base region. Various approaches of increasing the current gain are also discussed in this paper.
We investigated the effects of crop type on numbers and movements of wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in field edges and in arable fields containing either winter wheat, winter barley or oil-seed rape, grown on a 3-year rotation. We also investigated the effect of habitat (field centre vs edge), and of season and year. This was done at the individual level using radio-tracking, and at the population level using live-trapping. Wood mouse population size (estimated as minimum number alive) was significantly affected by season. Wood mouse numbers also differed between crop types. Rape field centres and edges had significantly lower numbers than did barley or wheat field centres and edges. Populations were largest from April to July, when the crop was tall. In winter, significantly more mice were found in field edges compared with field centres. The patterns of movement of individual mice also showed differences between habitats and between seasons. Mice were found to move more quickly when they were tracked through rape compared with the other crops. When the crop was growing, they moved faster through field edges bordered with hedgerow than they did through wood. This pattern was reversed later in the year when the crop was tall. The distances moved during a session of tracking showed differences which paralleled those for speed of movement. Also, males tended to move faster than females. Differences between the sexes in movement patterns were affected by season; when the crop was down (in winter) females moved further than males during a session of tracking, but when the crop was growing and tall, this was reversed.
Immunoreactivity to insulin (Ins), somatostatin (Som), glucagon (Glu) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) was
found in 70%, 22%, 15% and 11% respectively of Houbara pancreatic endocrine islet cells. Whilst Ins
occurred centrally and SOM was observed both in peripherally and centrally located islets, the other
hormones were localised in peripheral islet cells; Som was also observed in neuronal cell bodies and nerve
fibres. In addition, the islet cells contained substance P (SP) (65%) in the centre and vasoactive intestinal
polypeptide (VIP) (2%) at the periphery. Immunoreactivity to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), VIP and
galanin (Gal) occurred in the walls of blood vessels located mainly at the periphery of islets. Occasionally,
VIP and Gal immunoreactive varicose nerve terminals and ChAT immunoreactive cell bodies were also
observed in the centre of islets. SP neuronal cell bodies were not observed but prominent SP immunoreactive
varicose terminals were discernible in capillary walls within the islets. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
immunoreactive neurons were detected in neuronal cell bodies located mainly peripherally. Neuronal nitric
oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity occurred in neuronal cell bodies and nerve fibres mainly at the
periphery and also in centrally located islet endocrine cells. Immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)
was similar in distribution to that of ChAT. In comparison with other avian species, the islets of the dorsal
pancreatic lobe of the bustard contain all the peptidergic hormones normally present in the islets of other
avian species, but are not segregated into dark A and light B cells. Many of the insulin containing cells also
contained SP. The islets also contained several neuropeptides which are probably involved in their
This study describes the gross anatomy of the alimentary tract
Houbara Bustards (Chlamydotis undulata
macqueenii), Kori Bustards (Ardeotis kori), Rufous-crested
Bustards (Eupodotis ruficrista) and White-bellied
Bustards (Eupodotis senegalensis) maintained in captivity by the
National Avian Research Center in the
United Arab Emirates. The morphology of the alimentary tract and the proportions
of each region were
similar in all 4 species. The length of the oesophagus, combined proventriculus
and ventriculus, small
intestine, and large intestine formed 24.2–28.4%, 7.3–9.7%,
40.5–55.1% and 9.1–14.7% of the total
alimentary tract length respectively. Neither crop nor oesophageal enlargement
was observed in the birds
examined in this study, although male Kori Bustards possessed a saccus
in the oropharyngeal cavity.
Oesophagi, proventriculi, ventriculi, caeca and large intestine were well
developed in all species. The small
intestine was shorter than that of other avian herbivores and granivores
compared on a bodyweight
basis. The well differentiated stomachs and well developed caeca of the
examined in this study are
characteristic of omnivores. Analysis of the mean lengths of the alimentary
tract components and weight of
the liver and pancreas showed sexual dimorphism in cases where male and
female data were available for direct comparison.
Malaria and filaria infection rates were determined for anopheline mosquitoes collected whilst biting and resting in village houses in Papua New Guinea. The number of anophelines infected with both parasites was greater than expected from the infection rates of each parasite and this difference was significant in resting collections. The excess of multiply infected mosquitoes is probably a result of a vector population composed of individuals with differing numbers of opportunities to become infected. Malaria-positive, Anopheles punctulatus from resting catches had a significantly greater number of Stage 3 Wuchereria bancroftilarvae than malaria-negative mosquitoes. However, multiply infected mosquitoes appear to suffer greater mortality than non-infected or singly infected mosquitoes when the filarial worm reaches the third stage. Any potential increase in transmission resulting from multiple infections is thereby offset by a greater mortality rate in these mosquitoes.
Host selection among humans by Anopheles punctulatus was studied in an area of Papua New Guinea endemic for malaria and filariasis. Blood films were made from the stomach contents of freshly engorged mosquitoes found resting on the walls of houses in which the parasite status of the occupants was known. Engorgement rates on humans were non-random but could not be consistently related to the parasite status of individuals in the houses for either malaria or filaria. In some households, anophelines preferentially fed on parasitaemic individuals while in other households aparasitaemic individuals were significantly more often selected. This finding is believed to reflect the fact that malaria and filarial infections in this endemic area are predominantly asymptomatic. There were no significant differences in axillary temperatures between malaria or microfilariae positive or negative individuals.
Psychometric and clinical correlates of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) are described for a large sample of female anorexia nervosa (N = 160) and female comparison (N = 140) subjects. An abbreviated 26-item version of the EAT (EAT-26) is proposed, based on a factor analysis of the original scale (EAT-40). The EAT-26 is highly correlated with the EAT-40 (r = 0·98) and three factors form subscales which are meaningfully related to bulimia, weight, body-image variables and psychological symptoms. Whereas there are no differces between bulimic and restricter anorexia nervosa patients on the total EAT-26 and EAT-40 scores, these groups do indicate significant differences on EAT-26 fractors. Norms for the anorexia nervosa and female comparison subjects are presented for the EAT-26, EAT-40 and the EAT-26 factors. It is concluded that the EAT-26 is a reliable, valid and economical instrument which may be useful as an objective measure of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.