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From simple averaging to more sophisticated registration and restoration strategies, such as super-resolution (SR), there exist different computational techniques that use a series of images of the same object to generate enhanced images where noise and other distortions have been reduced. In this work, we provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of this enhancement for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. These images are compared in two ways, qualitatively through visual inspection in real and reciprocal space, and quantitatively, through the calculation of objective measurements, such as signal-to-noise ratio and atom column roundness. Results show that these techniques improve the quality of the images. In this paper, we use an SR methodology that allows us to take advantage of the information present in the image frames and to reliably facilitate the analysis of more difficult regions of interest in experimental images, such as surfaces and interfaces. By acquiring a series of cross-sectional experimental images of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films (111), we have generated interpolated images using averaging and SR, and reconstructed the atomic structure of the very top surface layer that consists of a full monolayer of Fe, with topmost Fe atoms in tetrahedrally coordinated sites.
We present an infinite-dimensional version of Cartan's theorem concerning the existence of a holomorphic inverse of a given holomorphic self-map of a bounded convex open subset of a dual Banach space. No separability is assumed, contrary to previous analogous results. The main assumption is that the derivative operator is power bounded, and which we, in turn, show to be diagonalizable in some cases, like the separable Hilbert space.
The chemical synthesis of the copolymers poly(3-HT-co-EDOT-co-fluorene) and poly(3-HT-co-EDOT-co-TDR1) is reported. The first copolymer is derived of 3-hexylthiophene (3-HT), 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and 2,2'- (9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl) bisthiophene (fluorene). The second copolymer is derived of 3-hexylthiophene (3-HT), 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and (E)-2-(ethyl(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)phenyl)amino)ethyl 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (TDR1). Their physicochemical characterization by 1H NMR, FT-IR, DSC-TGA, GPC, UV-vis, cyclic voltammetry was carried out. These copolymers combine the high electron density and low oxidation potential of EDOT with the high charge mobility and processability of 3-HT. These are candidates for applications as active or barrier layer in electronic devices (bulk heterojuntion organic solar cells) or as functional membranes (e.g., sensors).
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
The optimization of the figure of merit of thermoelectric materials requires the simultaneous control of the material composition and microstructure. Assembly of nanoparticles obtained by a solution route is an attractive bulk fabrication method because size and shape of the nanoparticles can be tuned by variation of the synthesis conditions. Recently, new synthetic pathways were reported among which reducing agent assisted, surfactant free processes. We report here the evaluation of this method for the synthesis of Bi2TexSe3-x alloyed nanoparticles with varying selenium concentrations. X-ray diffraction studies conducted on powder and pellet samples show that two alloyed phases are present in the sample even at low selenium content. The careful study of the position of the diffraction peaks as function of the formulation shows that this behaviour could arise from the difference in reactivity of selenium and tellurium. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the samples is shown to increase upon selenium addition while the Seebeck coefficient is reduced. Power factor shows an optimum value around 20% selenium content with a large tolerance in composition.
This study investigates possible circularity in mechanisms of change in participants of Master Your Mood (MYM), a cognitive-based, online intervention for young adults with depressive symptoms. A previous study showed that MYM effectively reduced depression and anxiety and strengthened mastery.
We randomized 244 participants with depressive symptoms into MYM or a wait-list control condition. We explored the circularity hypothesis by several analyses. Correlations were computed to determine the association between (change in) depression and anxiety. Path analysis mediation models were used to explore whether change in anxiety and mastery mediated the intervention effect on depression, whether depression and mastery mediated the effect on anxiety and whether depression and anxiety mediated the effect on mastery. We used linear regression to explore whether early changes in anxiety predicted later changes in depression, and whether early changes in depression predicted later changes in anxiety.
Co-morbidity between depression and anxiety was high (69.2%) and the association between depression and anxiety change was strong (r = 0.677, p < 0.01). Changes in anxiety and mastery mediated change in depression (mediation proportion 44%); changes in depression mediated change in anxiety (79%) and mastery (75%). We did not find an early change in anxiety predictive for a late change in depression, and vice versa.
This study appears to confirm the hypothesized circularity in the recovery process. We found high co-morbidity and strong correlation between depression and anxiety levels and bi-directional relationships between potential mediators and outcomes. Early anxiety change scores were not predictive of late depression change scores, and vice versa.
This contribution deals with the state of the art of studies concerning the fabrication of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also called super- or ultracapacitors and obtained using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without exploiting Faradic reactions. From the first work published in 1997, EDLCs fabricated using carbon nanotubes as constitutive material for electrodes showed very interesting characteristics. It appeared that they could potentially outperform traditional technologies based on activated carbon. Different methods to fabricate the CNT-based electrodes have been proposed in order to improve the performances (mainly energy densities and power densities), for example filtration, direct growth on metal collector or deposition using an air-brush technique. In this contribution we will introduce the main works in the field. Finally, we will point out an emerging interest for supercapacitors fabricated on flexible substrates, exploiting the outstanding mechanical performances of CNTs, for new kinds of applications such as portable electronics.
Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nylon-6 nanohybrids were prepared by in situ polymerization under microwave irradiation. The effect of time and power of irradiation on the surface conductivity of the nanohybrid was studied. It was observed that the resistivity increases with irradiation time at low microwave power (200W). On the other hand, at high power (600W) an opposite behavior was observed. And at intermediate power (400W) the resistivity was independent of the irradiation time. Resistivity values range from 102 to 101 Ω/sq. This behavior was associated with the polymer nanocoating covering the surface of the carbon nanotubes.
In this paper we study the density of states in n-type N,N’-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide organic semiconductor using two different methods. The first one is based on the temperature dependence of the channel conductance in field-effect transistors. The second one is based on the subgap optical absorption coefficient measured using the Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy technique. Both techniques allow estimating the distribution of localized states in the band gap of the semiconductor.
Let E be a Banach space, with unit ball BE. We study the spectrum and the essential spectrum of a composition operator on H∞(BE) determined by an analytic symbol with a fixed point in BE. We relate the spectrum of the composition operator to that of the derivative of the symbol at the fixed point. We extend a theorem of Zheng to the context of analytic symbols on the open unit ball of a Hilbert space.