We report the design and use of a device to measure the axial tensile modulus of high modulus fibers by following the change in the meridional X-ray spacings as a function of applied tension. The device, which mounts on a Picker 4-circle automated diffractometer, applies tension to the fiber sample by a cantilever arrangement. Tension is measured by a strain gauge bridge on the cantilever arm. The tension is adjusted and read by the control computer, a VAX 11/730. Measurements made on PBZT and PBO fibers before and after heat treatment are reported. For PBZT fibers (as spun, and heat treated at 525° C and 650° C) with tensile moduli of 186, 283 and 290 GPa, the X-ray determined moduli are 348, 385 and 395 GPa. For PBO fibers (as spun and heat treated at 600° C and 665° C) with tensile moduli of 166, 318 and 290 GPa, the X-ray determined moduli are 387, 477 and 433 GPa. These modulus values are to be compared with theoretical values presented by Wierschke in the previous paper and sonic modulus values discussed by Jiang et al in the following paper.