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To evaluate functioning, well being, and pain outcomes with desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) treatment in depressed men and women of different age groups.
Data from the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and Visual Analog Scale–Pain Intensity (VAS-PI) were pooled from 6 double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week DVS trials conducted in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients were divided into 3 age groups. The 18-39 and >55 years of age groups were chosen as proxies for pre- and postmenopausal status; the age group of 40-55 years, which was likely to include perimenopausal women, was also evaluated. Male patients were similarly grouped to differentiate effects of menopausal status from age on treatment response.
Patients were randomized to receive DVS 100-400mg (N=1048; 18-39 years [n=451]; 40-55 years [n=457]; >55 [n=140]) or placebo (N=718; 18-39 years [n=306]; 40-55 years [n=310]; >55 [n=102]). The final SDS, WHO-5, and VAS-PI overall pain change from baseline for the total population were significantly greater in the DVS vs the placebo group (P<0.001). Mean differences (adjusted ANCOVA) from placebo in women were: SDS: 18-39: –2.1, 40-55: –2.1, >55: –3.2; WHO-5: 18-39: +1.1, 40-55: +1.8, >55: +3.3; VAS-PI 18-39: –1.4, 40-55: –5.2, >55: –9.1. In men, results were consistent across age groups studied (SDS: 18-39: –2.9, 40-55: –3.4, >55: +2.6; WHO-5: 18-39: +1.5, 40-55: +2.4, >55: –0.3; VAS-PI 18-39: –3.0, 40-55: –7.7, >55: +2.0).
DVS improves functional outcomes and pain symptoms in depressed men and women across the age groups studied.
The aim of this study was to test that deficit (D) schizophrenic patients as defined by Carpenter et al had a higher prevalence of family history of schizophrenia but less obstetric complications than non-deficit (ND) patients. A lower rate of obstetric complications but an excess of schizophrenic and a higher rate of alcoholism family antecedents in 18 D patients compared to 23 ND patients were found. These results could suggest that there is a different weight of genetic and early environmental factors in D and ND patients.
Obesity and excess bodyweight are highly prevalent in individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and are associated with adverse consequences. Multiple factors may explain increased bodyweight in BD including side effects of psychotropic medications, and reduced physical activity. Research in the general population demonstrates that sleep disturbances may also contribute to metabolic burden. We present a cross-sectional study of the associations between body mass index (BMI) and sleep parameters in patients with BD as compared with healthy controls (HC).
Twenty-six French outpatients with remitted BD and 29 HC with a similar BMI completed a 21-day study of sleep parameters using objective (actigraphy) and subjective (PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) assessments.
In BD cases, but not in HC, higher BMI was significantly correlated with lower sleep efficiency (P = 0.009) and with several other sleep parameters: shorter total sleep time (P = 0.01), longer sleep onset latency (P = 0.05), higher fragmentation index (P = 0.008), higher inter-day variability (P = 0.05) and higher PSQI total score (P = 0.004).
The findings suggest a link between a high BMI and several sleep disturbances in BD, including lower sleep efficiency. Physiological mechanisms in BD cases may include an exaggeration of phenomena observed in non-clinical populations. However, larger scale studies are required to clarify the links between metabolic and sleep-wake cycle disturbances in BD.
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Using effect sizes, clinically meaningful moderator effects were found only within the CGH. Greater combat exposure was associated with decreased CGH fractional anisotropy (overall structural integrity) and increased CGH radial diffusivity (perpendicular water diffusivity) among individuals with more severe childhood maltreatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the moderating effect of childhood maltreatment on the relationship between combat exposure and CGH structural integrity. These differences in CGH structural integrity could have maladaptive implications for emotion and memory, as well as provide a potential mechanism by which childhood maltreatment induces vulnerability to later life trauma exposure.
In order to enable the wine industry to anticipate in field work and marketing strategies, it is necessary to provide early assessments of vine productivity. The proposed method is designed for the detection and the measurement of grape bunches between the flowering season and the early fruition stages, before ‘groat-size’. The method consists of determining the affiliation of a pixel to a grape cluster based on colorimetric and texture features, using an SVM supervised classifier. The eventual affiliation of the pixels is achieved with an average reliability above 75%, which lets us envision in the near future the possibility of estimating the real number of grape bunches.
Childhood maltreatment can disturb brain development and subsequently lead to adverse socioemotional and mental health problems across the life span. The long-term association between childhood maltreatment and resting–wake brain activity during adulthood is unknown and was examined in the current study. Forty-one medically stable and medication-free military veterans (M = 29.31 ± 6.01 years, 78% male) completed a battery of clinical assessments and had [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography neuroimaging scans during quiet wakefulness. After statistically adjusting for later-life trauma and mental health problems, childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with brain activity within a priori defined regions that included the left orbital frontal cortex and left hippocampus. Childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with increased and decreased brain activity within six additional whole-brain clusters that included the frontal, parietal–temporal, cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain regions. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered neural activity in adulthood within regions that are involved in executive functioning and cognitive control, socioemotional processes, autonomic functions, and sleep/wake regulation. This study provides support for taking a life span developmental approach to understanding the effects of early-life maltreatment on later-life neurobiology, socioemotional functioning, and mental health.
Glaucoma is the most common cause of optic neuropathy. Many ocular conditions may lead to the development of glaucomatous nerve damage. In general, therapeutic interventions are directed towards lowering intraocular pressure, a key risk factor for disease progression.
Typically, therapy begins with topical medications, the first and simplest option. These include the prostaglandin analogs, beta adrenergic receptor blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, alpha adrenergic agonists, and miotics. These agents are used alone or in combination, and are often sufficient to control intraocular pressure. In cases of open-angle glaucoma, laser trabeculoplasty may also be used to lower intraocular pressure. Laser interventions are performed in the clinic either alone or in combination with medical therapy. For cases of angle-closure glaucoma, laser iridotomy may be performed to either treat or prevent pupillary block (iris-lens diaphragm obstruction), an anatomic predisposition that is responsible for the majority of cases. Cyclodestructive surgery (intentional destruction of the ciliary body tissues) is another laser procedure that may be used when other interventions have failed, including incisional surgery. These procedures, which are usually performed in the clinic under local anesthesia, are commonly performed with lasers and, less commonly, cryotherapy.
This chapter reviews the spectrum of neuroimaging in Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Although structural neuroimaging in KLS is within the normal range in most cases, the vast majority of studies report hypoperfusion in several brain regions. Cognitive impairment and altered perception occur in all KLS patients during sleep episodes according to the review by Arnulf. It is thus pertinent to investigate the neural concomitants to cognitive function in KLS by functional neuroimaging. N-Acetylasparate (NAA) is a biomarker for neuronal health, associated with either neuronal loss or neuronal dysfunction. Hypothalamic pathology constitutes a main hypothesis for KLS etiology. This hypothesis is based on the important function of the hypothalmus in sleep and appetite regulation as well as regarding sexual activity. The sparsity of neuroimaging findings in the hypothalamus might be a result of the detection limit for functional imaging in this region of the brain.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.
COGEMA La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant is located in the North West of Cotentin peninsula near Cherbourg (France). This nuclear plant releases radioelements in atmosphere and in the English Channel. About 8.5 TBq.year-1 of radiocarbon are released as the liquid wastes through a pipe a few kilometres off sea shore, West of the reprocessing plant. Recent studies in the peninsula show anomalous higher radiocarbon contents in vegetation near the coast that have suggested a supplementary marine contribution through the degassing of the 14C excess supplied by liquid releases of the nuclear plant. Carbon dioxide partial pressure, 14C activities were measured in air and sea water in the Bay of Seine and around the COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant during three cruises in 2000 and 2002. Results show clearly that sea is a source of CO2 and 14C to the atmosphere. Higher 14C concentrations in air and water related to the La Hague liquid wastes are clearly recorded. The aim of this paper is to show results of these oceanographic campaigns. Flux between seawater and atmosphere are calculated in the North-West Cotentin and in Bay of Seine.
The quantification of radionuclides by direct gamma-X spectrometry with energy below 100 keV requires knowledge the elementary composition of the sample or the development of a device for determining the mass attenuation coefficients. This is especially true for 129I which is characterised by a 29.8 keV X-ray and 39.6 keV gamma ray. Experimental equipment has been developed in order to obtain this mass attenuation coefficient as a function of energy. 129I concentrations were measured in samples of seaweed (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) collected monthly over a period of one year nearby La Hague reprocessing plant in France. This paper describes the measurement methodology used to determine 129I concentrations and variations in the two seaweeds over a one-year period. Mean mass attenuation coefficients for 129I energies were established in order to determine the self-attenuation corrective factor for both seaweed species, regardless of the sampling date.
Oceans, seas, estuaries and rivers represent a vast sink for many substances of anthropic origin (metals, radionuclides, etc...). Depending on their chemical form, artificial radionuclides discharged into the sea by the nuclear industry can be carried onto land in marine aerosols, as well as by degassing seawater as is the case for tritium (3H) or for radiocarbon (14C). Three oceanographic cruises in the English Channel: TE-SEA, TRANSAT 1 and 2 have been performed on R.V. “Côtes de la Manche" to quantify the flux of 3H in gaseous form, from the sea into the atmosphere, following particular discharge into the sea from the COGEMA spent fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (North West France). During cruises, the maximum concentration measured in the air was 10.6 Bq.L-1, which is distinctly higher than the background of 1
Bq.L-1 thus demonstrating the transfer of 3H between water and atmosphere. The mean flux of 3H between the water and the atmosphere, calculated during these cruises was 2.4 107 Bq.km-2.d-1. For the Seine Bay area (4400 km2) this flux represents 39 TBq.yr-1 and hence less than 0.3 % of 3H discharged into the ocean from the COGEMA spent fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague.
In estuaries, volatiles radionucleides (14C, 3H, 131I) originating from anthropogenic liquid waste release from nuclear reactor or hospitals are potentially transferable to the atmosphere. Due to the high biologic activity, the degradation of organic matter produce carbon dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere allowing transfer of 14CO2 released by nuclear industry. Similarly tritium is transfered to the atmosphere trough evaporation process. We present here, results obtained during FLORE-1 cruise in February 2003, a winter period when biological activity is supposed to be low. The first results of iodine 131 distribution and estimations of radiocarbon and tritium fluxes are presented.