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The impact of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease (IPD) in patient’s sexual health is still a matter of debate. Clinicians should have a concern about the sexual function of their patients with IPD.
To evaluate sexual health of patients with IPD.
We randomly select a group of IPD patients and a group of healthy controls. We used the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function. To evaluate depression and anxiety we used Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Beck Depression Index (BDI).
We had 83 IPD patients, and 69 controls. Male patients had lower total IIEF scores than controls (p< 0,001). The analysis of linear regression shows a relationship between the IIFE and the duration of the disease, the patient age and the BDI score (R=0,72; Adjusted R square=0,49, p< 0,001) when adjusted to the variables: realization of deep brain cirurgy of subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) stage of the disease, BSI score, dopaminergic treatment, treatment with antidepressives and antipsychotics. The IFSF didn’t show differences between the cases and the controls. Patients had higher BSI and BDI scores than controls (p< 0,001).
Male IPD patients had an impairment of sexual function predicted by disease duration, patient age and BDI scores. Sexual function should be assessed in these patients
Number and procedures of involuntary hospital admissions vary in Europe according to the different socio-cultural contexts. The European Commission has funded the EUNOMIA study in 12 European countries in order to develop European recommendations for good clinical practice in involuntary hospital admissions. The recommendations have been developed with the direct and active involvement of national leaders and key professionals, who worked out national recommendations, subsequently summarized into a European document, through the use of specific categories. The need for standardizing the involuntary hospital admission has been highlighted by all centers. In the final recommendations, it has been stressed the need to: providing information to patients about the reasons for hospitalization and its presumable duration; protecting patients’ rights during hospitalization; encouraging the involvement of family members; improving the communication between community and hospital teams; organizing meetings, seminars and focus-groups with users; developing training courses for involved professionals on the management of aggressive behaviors, clinical aspects of major mental disorders, the legal and administrative aspects of involuntary hospital admissions, on communication skills. The results showed the huge variation of involuntary hospital admissions in Europe and the importance of developing guidelines on this procedure.
Evidence has suggested that immune imbalance is involved with bipolar disorder (BD); however, its precise mechanism is poorly understood.
This study investigated whether biochemical changes in the serum from BD patients could modulate the phenotype of macrophages.
Eighteen subjects with BD and healthy individuals (n = 5) were included in this study. The human monocyte cell line U-937 was activated with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and polarization was induced with RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% serum from each patient for 24 h. Gene expression of selected M1 and M2 markers was assessed by qPCR.
Macrophages exposed to serum of manic and depressive BD patients displayed an increase of IL-1β (6.40 ± 3.47 and 9.04 ± 5.84 versus 0.23 ± 0.11; P < 0.05) and TNF-α (2.23 ± 0.91 and 2.03 ± 0.45 versus 0.62 ± 0.24; P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively) compared to remitted group. In parallel, U-937 macrophages treated with serum of patients in acute episode displayed a down-regulation of CXCL9 (0.29 ± 0.20 versus 1.86 ± 1.61; P = 0.006) and CXCL10 expression (0.36 ± 0.15 and 0.86 ± 0.24 versus 1.83 ± 0.88; P < 0.000 and P = 0.04) compared to remitters.
Our results are consistent with previous studies showing that changes in peripheral blood markers could modulate M1/M2 polarization in BD. The evidence of macrophages as source of inflammatory cytokines might be helpful to unravel how the mononuclear phagocyte system can be involved in the etiology of BD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In 1989 an ancient burial consisting of a skeleton and a few objects was discovered at the Monte dei Cappuccini Monastery, in Torino (Italy). Anthropological analysis of the skeleton revealed that it belonged to a young man, and the archaeometric characterization of the objects suggested that most of them are compatible with the Medieval period. As a proper archeological survey was not conducted at the time of the finding, due to the religious nature of the site, a high-precision radiocarbon (14C) dating has been performed. The samples were processed with three different methods: besides the ultrafiltration (UF) treatment, we applied the “collagen” (COL) and the Longin-base (LB) methods. While UF and COL treatments provided compatible results, LB method returned ages older with respect the UF one, with significant disagreements in some cases and this evidence is supported by several measurements on the same individual. Thanks to the reduction of the uncertainty with the high number of measured samples and the availability of historical evidence, the possible age of the burial has been limited to the time interval 1464–1515 cal AD.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
Survival and infectivity of trypanosomatids rely on cell-surface and secreted glycoconjugates, many of which contain a variable number of galactose residues. Incorporation of galactose to proteins and lipids occurs along the secretory pathway from UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). Before being used in glycosylation reactions, however, this activated sugar donor must first be transported across the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes by a specific nucleotide sugar transporter (NST). In this study, we identified an UDP-Gal transporter (named TcNST2 and encoded by the TcCLB.504085.60 gene) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. TcNST2 was identified by heterologous expression of selected putative nucleotide sugar transporters in a mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. TcNST2 mRNA levels were detected in all T. cruzi life-cycle forms, with an increase in expression in axenic amastigotes. Confocal microscope analysis indicated that the transporter is specifically localized to the Golgi apparatus. A three-dimensional model of TcNST2 suggested an overall structural conservation as compared with members of the metabolite transporter superfamily and also suggested specific features that could be related to its activity. The identification of this transporter is an important step toward a better understanding of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and the role NSTs play in this process in trypanosomatids.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
In the near future, ruminants may be forced to consume low-quality water since potable drinking water will become increasingly scarce in some regions of the world. A completely randomized design trial was completed to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of total dissolved salts (TDS) (640, 3187, 5740 and 8326 mg TDS/l) in drinking water on the performance, diet digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen (N) and water balance using 24 Red Sindhi heifers (200 ± 5 kg) that were fed Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) grass hay and concentrate in a ratio of 50 : 50. After a 15-day diet adaptation period, the digestion study was completed over a 5-day period and the performance trial was completed over a 56-day period. Dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed:gain, intake and digestibility of most feed components were unaffected by the concentration of salt in the water. However, intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre declined linearly as TDS inclusion rate increased. Further, the inclusion of TDS resulted in a linear increase in the intake of drinking water and total (food plus drinking) water intake. Similarly, TDS inclusion levels resulted in a linear increase in total water excretion, with urine being the major route of water excretion. In contrast, increasing concentrations of TDS caused a linear decrease in creatinine and allantoin excretions. Finally, increasing the inclusion rate of TDS resulted in a linear decrease in N retention and a linear increase in urinary N excretion, which may pose a considerable challenge for farmers with respect to the reduction and management of nutrient losses.
CVD affect a large proportion of the world’s population, with dyslipidaemia as the major risk factor. The regular consumption of both probiotic bacteria and yeast has been associated with improvement in the serum lipid profile. Thus, the present review aims to describe and discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast. Regarding the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic bacteria, the potential mechanisms responsible include: deconjugation of bile salts; modulation of lipid metabolism; and decreased absorption of intestinal cholesterol through co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts, incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane of the probiotics, intestinal conversion of cholesterol in coprostanol, and inhibition of the expression of the intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann–Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) in the enterocytes. The potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic yeasts include: deconjugation of bile salts; co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts; incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane; and inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis. The regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast, as a non-pharmaceutical approach to help manage cardiovascular risk, holds promise, according to the beneficial hypocholesterolaemic effects described herein. However, the hypocholesterolaemic effects vary according to the strains used, the physiological state of the host, and the type of diet to which the probiotics are added. Further studies are necessary to fill the gaps with regard to the knowledge related to this topic.
The aim of this study was to analyse the oxidative and anti-oxidant status in serum samples from dairy cows naturally infected by Dictyocaulus viviparus and its relation with pathological analyses. The diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by necropsy of one dairy cow with heavy infection by the parasite in the lungs and bronchi. Later, blood and faeces were collected from another 22 cows from the same farm to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities on day 0 (pre-treatment) and day 10 (post-treatment with eprinomectin). Faecal examination confirmed the infection in all lactating cows. However, the number of D. viviparus larvae per gram of faeces varied between animals. Cows showed different degrees of severity according to respiratory clinical signs of the disease (cough and nasal secretion). Further, they were classified and divided into two groups: those with mild (n = 10) and severe disease (n = 12). Increased levels of TBARS (P < 0.001), ROS (P = 0.002) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), as well as reduced CAT activity (P < 0.001) were observed in cows with severe clinical signs of the disease compared to those with mild clinical signs. Eprinomectin treatment (day 10) caused a reduction of ROS levels (P = 0.006) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), and an increase of CAT activity (P = 0.05) compared to day 0 (pre-treatment). TBARS levels did not differ with treatment (P = 0.11). In summary, increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation altered CAT and SOD activities, as an adaptive response against D. viviparus infection, contributing to the occurrence of oxidative stress and severity of the disease. Treatment with eprinomectin eliminated the infection, and thus minimized oxidative stress in dairy cows.
The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage – low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage – low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage – high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size.
Bioactive materials based on polymer/hydroxyapatite are currently being extensively investigated as materials for promotion of bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction . In this work, a material interpenetrating based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA), Chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared following the methodology of the foaming gas Damla Çetin , generating an interpenetrated network with the chitosan filled with hydroxyapatite. The materials were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in vitro bioactivity  (SBF) and characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA studies suggested that there was not existence of possible interactions between polymers and HA but there is a thermal stability increase in the HA content. Meanwhile, SBF and its characterization by SEM, was found that the materials are bioactives as indicated by the formation of a bone-like apatite layer after immersion in simulated body ﬂuid, indicating the potential of this material for use in bone tissue engineering.
Na2Ti3O7, a potential negative electrode for Na batteries, is investigated by combining experiments and first-principles calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level. A structural model is proposed for the reduced phases (A2+xTi3O7), with all alkali ions in octahedral coordination, leading to a distorted rocksalt type structure. The calculated elastic constants support the mechanical stability of the proposed Na4Ti3O7 structure. Calculated average intercalation potentials are 0.37 V for Na insertion in Na2Ti3O7 and 1.46 V for Li insertion in Li2Ti3O7, being in very good agreement with the values observed experimentally (0.3 V and 1.6 V respectively). The higher polarizing character of Li ions vs Na ions acts as a key-factor to bring the Li intercalation voltage 0.7 V above that of Na intercalation in layered-A2Ti3O7 materials.
Organic films with a thickness of few nanometers are potentially useful components in many practical and commercial applications such as sensors, detectors, displays and electronic circuit components. In this context, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method is one the most promising techniques for preparing these films.
In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of three new amphiphilic organometallic compounds with ferrocene units, which consist of one ferrocenyl aminocarbene with the general formula FcC=Cr(CO)5NH(CH2)15CH3, and two ferrocenyl amides with the general formula FcC=MNH(CH2)15CH3 where M = S or Se. These new derivatives have been synthesized to study the influence of long alkyl side chain and the hydrophilic head on the film organization behavior at the air-water interface.
The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique was focused for building ordered nanostructures in molecular assemblies of ferrocenyl derivatives, which are apt to form a stable and transferable monolayer film. The π-A isotherm, hysteresis, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and film stability were used to characterize the behavior of a monolayer film at the air-water interface. Z- type LB films were prepared from molecular monolayers which were transferred onto glass substrates. These films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Visible spectra and X-ray diffraction (DRX) techniques.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that brain abnormalities in psychosis might be progressive during the first years of illness. We sought to determine whether first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects show progressive regional grey matter (GM) changes compared with controls, and whether those changes are associated with diagnosis, illness course or antipsychotic (AP) use.
Thirty-two subjects with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FESZ), 24 patients with first-episode affective psychoses (FEAP) and 34 controls recruited using a population-based design underwent structural MRI scanning at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. Regional GM volumes were assessed with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients were treated at community settings, and about half of them remained mainly untreated.
No significant progressive changes in GM regional volumes were observed in either the FESZ or FEAP group overall. However, FESZ subjects with a non-remitting course showed GM decrements in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula relative to remitted FESZ subjects. Non-remitted FEAP subjects exhibited a GM decrease in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally in comparison to remitted FEAP subjects. Among FESZ subjects, AP use was associated with regional GM decrements in the right insula and increments in the cerebellum.
Our results suggest that the progression of brain abnormalities in FEP subjects is restricted to those with a poor outcome and differs between diagnosis subgroups. AP intake is associated with a different pattern of GM reductions over time.
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin against Trypanosoma evansi. In vitro efficacy of free curcumin (CURC) and curcumin-loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNCs) was evaluated to verify their lethal effect on T. evansi. To perform the in vivo tests, T. evansi-infected animals were treated with CURC (10 and 100 mg kg−1, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and C-LNCs (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) during 6 days, with the results showing that these treatments significantly attenuated the parasitaemia. Infected untreated rats showed protein peroxidation and an increase of nitrites/nitrates, whereas animals treated with curcumin showed a reduction on these variables. As a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) differs between groups (P<0·05). Infected animals and treated with CURC exhibited a reduction in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine, when compared with the positive control group. The use of curcumin in vitro resulted in a better parasitaemia control, an antioxidant activity and a protective effect on liver and kidney functions of T. evansi-infected adult male Wistar rats.
In this work, the synthesis of two amphiphilic π-conjugated compounds such as ferrocenylthioamide and ferrocenylselenoamide, with the general formula FcC=MNH(CH2)15CH3 with M = S or Se, are reported. The ferrocenyl group is a donor moiety forming a π-conjugated system with the amides of sulfur and selenium; both elements have also bioactivity with pharmacological interest. These two compounds formed Langmuir (L) monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area (π-A) and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves); Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir-Blodgett method molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates. These nanostructures, in form of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, were characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM).