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Decolonizing history and anthropology is often presented as a theoretical enterprise, through which a more rigorous and inclusive framing of historical precepts will deliver a clearer and less Eurocentric understanding of the past. Yet it is arguably necessary to decouple decolonization from the broader practices of anti-Eurocentric historiography. Via an empirical assessment of the legacy of Hermann Klaatsch, a German anthropologist working on the colonial frontier, this article examines the possibilities and limitations of a decolonizing approach to settler colonial history. The article reflects upon its own study of colonial anthropology and the historical complexity of the repatriation of Indigenous human remains, and suggests that not all anti-Eurocentric interrogations of the colonial past are synonymous with decolonization.
Discovered in 1857, the site of La Tène, in Switzerland, played an important role in the rapid development of European prehistory in the mid-nineteenth century including the adoption of the three-age system in which it was named as the type site for the later Iron Age. The finds from it are now scattered across museums in Europe and America, and those in London are published here as part of a project to locate and publish all the finds from the site. The discovery of the site and the dispersal of its finds are discussed in the context of contemporary understandings of the past and collecting practices. Usually seen as votive offerings placed in a river, the finds have been re-interpreted recently as the remains of a trophy that displayed the bodies and equipment of an army defeated in c 220–200 bc.
In the past two decades, colonial studies, the postcolonial turn, the new imperial history, as well as world and global history have made serious strides toward revising key elements of German history. Instead of insisting that German modernity was a fundamentally unique, insular affair that incubated authoritarian social tendencies, scholars working in these fields have done much to reinsert Germany into the broader logic of nineteenth-century global history, in which the thalassocratic empires of Europe pursued the project of globalizing their economies, populations, and politics. During this period, settler colonies, including German South West Africa, were established and consolidated by European states at the expense of displaced, helotized, or murdered indigenous populations. Complementing these settler colonies were mercantile entrepôts and plantation colonies, which sprouted up as part of a systematic, global attempt to reorient non-European economies, work patterns, and epistemological frameworks along European lines. Although more modestly than some of its European collaborators and competitors, Germany joined Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States in a largely liberal project of global maritime imperialism.
Research at the Chelechol ra Orrak rockshelter in Palau has revealed an extensive cemetery with at least 50 interred individuals, their graves overlain by later occupational deposits. Previous radiocarbon dating placed this sequence of burial and occupation at c. 3000 cal BP, making it one of the earliest Pacific Island cemetery sites. To provide a more robust chronological framework, Bayesian modelling was applied to construct probability ranges for the date and duration of activity at the site, assisted by a suite of new 14C determinations. The results provide more secure evidence for burial activity dating back to c. 3000 cal BP, thus confirming Chelechol ra Orrak as one of the only cemeteries in Remote Oceania that dates to the earliest, known stages of island colonisation.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D).
Retrospective cohort study.
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO.
Gram-negative (GN) cultures occurred in 44% of patients with SCI/D receiving care at VA facilities, and 11,527 (41.3%) GN cultures had an MDRGNO. The most frequent GN organisms (GNOs) were Escherichia coli (28.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.0%). Two-thirds of GN cultures were from the outpatient setting, where MDRGNO prevalence was 37.6%. Significant geographic variation in the prevalence of MDRGNOs was identified (South, 44.7%; Northeast, 44.3%; West, 36.8%; Midwest, 34.4%). Other factors associated with an MDRGNO were older age, injury characteristics, comorbidities, specimen type, healthcare setting, and healthcare exposure. Black (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.78) and Hispanic race (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.28–1.95), polymicrobial culture (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.46–2.90), and antibiotic use in the previous 90 days (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.50–1.76) were also associated with having an MDRGNO.
MDRGNOs were common in community and healthcare settings among veterans with SCI/D, with significant geographic variation. Health care and antibiotic exposures were significant factors associated with MDRGNOs. Priority should be given to controlling the spread of MDRGNOs in this special population, including a focus on judicious use of antibiotics.
In the face of environmental uncertainty due to anthropogenic climate change, islands are at the front lines of global change, threatened by sea level rise, habitat alteration, extinctions and declining biodiversity. Islands also stand at the forefront of scientific study for understanding the deep history of human ecodynamics and to build sustainable future systems. We summarize the long history of human interactions with Polynesian, Mediterranean, Californian and Caribbean island ecosystems, documenting the effects of various waves of human settlement and socioeconomic systems, from hunter–gatherer–fishers, to agriculturalists, to globalized colonial interests. We identify degradation of island environments resulting from human activities, as well as cases of human management of resources to enhance productivity and create more sustainable systems. These case studies suggest that within a general global pattern of progressive island degradation, there was no single trajectory of human impact, but rather complex effects based on variable island physiographies, human subsistence strategies, population densities, technologies, sociopolitical organization and decision-making.
There is little record of birth weight of Irish Travellers, a minority group in Ireland. Travellers are known to have higher rate of adult chronic disease and to be exposed to life-long disadvantage. The aim of this study was to establish whether the birth weight and infant mortality rate patterns in Ireland's Travellers were consistent with the developmental plasticity hypothesis. A 1-year follow-up birth cohort study was conducted with linkage data from maternity hospital records of Traveller infants born on the island of Ireland over a 12-month period to self-identifying Traveller and general Irish population mothers from the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. The main outcome measure was the rate of birth weight <3000 g in a cohort of Traveller children. There were 987 confirmed Traveller births, 500 of whose mothers consented to linkage to their records. A social gradient was observed in the distribution of birth weight in the general population and Traveller infants constituted the highest proportion of all social classes in the birth weight range of 3 kg or less (16.3%). There was a high rate of persistent smoking among Traveller mothers (53%). After adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the birth weight differential persisted (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.1). Infant mortality rate at 12.0/1000 births (95% CI 5.5–19.7) was almost four times that of the general population. This analysis confirms Travellers had a greater than expected incidence of low birth weight and high infant mortality with high rates of premature adult chronic diseases from all causes already demonstrated previously.
Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.
To investigate the relationship between psychotic symptoms and non-psychotic psychopathology in community samples of adolescents in terms of prevalence, co-occurring disorders, comorbid (multiple) psychopathology and variation across early v. middle adolescence.
Data from four population studies were used: two early adolescence studies (ages 11–13 years) and two mid-adolescence studies (ages 13–16 years). Studies 1 and 2 involved school-based surveys of 2243 children aged 11–16 years for psychotic symptoms and for emotional and behavioural symptoms of psychopathology. Studies 3 and 4 involved in-depth diagnostic interview assessments of psychotic symptoms and lifetime psychiatric disorders in community samples of 423 children aged 11–15 years.
Younger adolescents had a higher prevalence (21–23%) of psychotic symptoms than older adolescents (7%). In both age groups the majority of adolescents who reported psychotic symptoms had at least one diagnosable non-psychotic psychiatric disorder, although associations with psychopathology increased with age: nearly 80% of the mid-adolescence sample who reported psychotic symptoms had at least one diagnosis, compared with 57% of the early adolescence sample. Adolescents who reported psychotic symptoms were at particularly high risk of having multiple co-occurring diagnoses.
Psychotic symptoms are important risk markers for a wide range of non-psychotic psychopathological disorders, in particular for severe psychopathology characterised by multiple co-occurring diagnoses. These symptoms should be carefully assessed in all patients.
In a recent contribution to Greece & Rome, Thomas Harrison illustrated how the conceit of the United States as the ‘New Rome’ colours our knowledge of both the ancient world and our own. His deceptively light-hearted approach and examples illustrated that the transhistorical approach is certainly one that can be used for fun; however, at its core, the article poses a much more serious question – can the transhistorical approach to imperialism be used for profit? Or, as Harrison posed the question, ‘Can an understanding of ancient imperialisms cast light on contemporary experience?’ Acutely, Harrison points to the symbiosis between interpretations of the past and the present, illustrating the abundance of what might be termed ‘palimpsestic’ readings of modern empires, which are generated by writing through the history of past empires.
In chapter eleven of Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler, having constructed aneal type “culture-bearing” Aryan race,1 came to elucidate his views on the history of Jews within Germany. Until the time of Frederick the Great, he argued, “it still entered no one's head to regard the Jews as anything else but a ‘foreign’ people.”2 Thereafter, he asserted, came a period of transition wherein Jews had “the effrontery to turn Germanic.”3 The rest of the chapter, for Hitler, was an attempt to reverse this putative historical mistake, and presents the reader with a vitriolic casting out of Jews, described as “parasites” and a “noxious bacillus,” from the German body politic.4 The aim of this textual expulsion, Hitler explained, was to ensure that the Germans would not be destroyed from within, as had “all great cultures of the past.”5 To Hitler, Jews were what Julia Kristeva has called “the abject”6—that which is simultaneously part of the self but radically rejected by the self. In seeking to expel the “Germanic Jews” from the Volkskörper, Hitler sought to expel that part of the German self that, in his view, was a source of weakness and taint.7
Twenty piglets (21 days, 7·8 kg live weight (LW)) were used in a 2×2 factorial to investigate interactions between lactose and inulin on intestinal morphology, microbiology and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production of the weanling pig. The piglets were offered the following diets for 6 days and then sacrificed: (T1) 150 g/kg lactose, (T2) 150 g/kg lactose +15 g/kg inulin, ( T3) 330 g/kg lactose, and ( T4) 330 g/kg lactose +15 g/kg inulin. Tissue samples were taken from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum for morphological measurements. Digesta samples were taken from the ileum, caecum and colon. There was an interaction ( P<0·05) between lactose and inulin in villous height in the jejunum. The inclusion of inulin at 150 g/kg lactose increased villous height compared with 150 g/kg lactose without inulin. However, inulin had no effect on villous height at 330 g/kg lactose inclusion. There was a linear relationship between food intake and villous height in the duodenum ( P<0·001, R2 =0·45) and the jejunum ( P< 0·01, R2 =0·25). The inclusion of 330 g/kg lactose increased ( P<0·05) total VFA compared with 150 g/kg lactose in the caecum and the population of lactobacilli in the caecum and colon ( P<0·1). There was an interaction ( P<0·05) between lactose and inulin for total VFA concentration in the colon. The pigs receiving 330 g/kg lactose had a higher total VFA concentration compared with pigs on 150 g/kg lactose. However, there was no difference between 150 g/kg and 330 g/kg lactose when the diets were supplemented with inulin. In conclusion, the inclusion of high dietary concentrations of lactose resulted in increased lactobacilli and short-chain fatty acid concentrations. The inclusion of inulin with low dietary concentrations of lactose resulted in improved intestinal health through a reduction of intestinal pH and increases in villous height.
Blanket porous methyl silsesquioxane (pMSQ) films on a Si substrate were studied with the intent to seal the pores and prevent penetration of a metallic precursor during barrier deposition. The blanket pMSQ films studied were approximately 220 nm thick and had been etched and ashed. When tantalum pentafluoride (TaF5) is exposed to an unsealed pMSQ sample, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling reveal penetration of Ta into the pores all the way to the pMSQ / Si interface. Boron carbo-nitride films were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using dimethylamine borane (DMAB) precursor with Ar carrier gas and C2H4 coreactant. These films had a stoichiometry of BC0.9N0.07 and have been shown in a previous study to have a k value as low as 3.8. BC0.9N0.07 films ranging from 1.8 to 40.6 nm were deposited on pMSQ and then exposed to TaF5 gas to determine the extent of Ta penetration into the pMSQ. Ta penetration was determined by XPS depth profiling and sometimes SIMS depth profiling. XPS depth profiling of a TaF5 / 6.3 nm BC0.9N0.07 / pMSQ / Si film stack indicates the attenuation of the Ta signal to < 2 at. % throughout the pMSQ. Backside SIMS of this sample suggests that trace amounts of Ta (< 2 at. %) are due to knock-in by Ar ions used for sputtering. An identical film stack containing 3.9 nm BC0.9N0.07 was also successful at inhibiting Ta penetration even with a 370°C post-TaF5 exposure anneal, suggesting the stability of BC0.9N0.07 to thermal diffusion of Ta. All BC0.9N0.07 films thicker than and including 3.9 nm prevented Ta from penetrating into the pMSQ.