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Evidence regarding the association between cannabis use and depression remain conflicting, especially as studies have not typically adopted a longitudinal design with a follow-up period that was long enough to adequately cover the risk period for onset of depression.
Males from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) (N = 285) were assessed seven times from age 8 to 48 years to prospectively investigate the association between cannabis use and risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). A combination of multiple analyses (logistic regression, Cox regression, fixed-effects analysis) was employed to explore the strength and direction of effect within different developmental stages.
Multiple regression analyses revealed that early-onset cannabis use (before age 18) but not late-onset cannabis use (after age 27) was associated with a higher risk and shorter time until a subsequent MDD diagnosis. This effect was present in high-frequency [(odds ratio (OR) 8.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–70.79]; [hazard ratio (HR) 8.69, 95% CI 2.07–36.52)] and low-frequency early-onset users (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.22–4.76; HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.74). Effect of increased frequency of cannabis use on increased risk of subsequent MDD was observed only for use during adolescence (age 14–18) but not at later life stages, while controlling for observed and non-unobserved time-invariant factors. Conversely, MDD in adulthood (age 18–32) was linked to a reduction in subsequent cannabis use (age 32–48).
The present findings provide evidence implicating frequent cannabis use during adolescence as a risk factor for later life depression. Future studies should further examine causality of effects in larger samples.
This article reviews some of the most effective programmes for saving children from a life of crime, and also presents the results of cost-benefit analyses of some of these programmes. The best programmes include general parent education in home visiting programmes, parent management training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programmes, child skills training, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care and Multisystemic Therapy. Communities That Care is a useful overarching programme. Most of these programmes have been shown to reduce crime and save money. The time is ripe to establish national agencies in all countries which will advance knowledge about early risk factors (from longitudinal studies) and about effective developmental interventions (from randomized experiments and cost-benefit analyses).
Although the association between cannabis use and violence has been reported in the literature, the precise nature of this relationship, especially the directionality of the association, is unclear.
Young males from the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development (n = 411) were followed up between the ages of 8 and 56 years to prospectively investigate the association between cannabis use and violence. A multi-wave (eight assessments, T1–T8) follow-up design was employed that allowed temporal sequencing of the variables of interest and the analysis of violent outcome measures obtained from two sources: (i) criminal records (violent conviction); and (ii) self-reports. A combination of analytic approaches allowing inferences as to the directionality of associations was employed, including multivariate logistic regression analysis, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling.
Multivariable logistic regression revealed that compared with never-users, continued exposure to cannabis (use at age 18, 32 and 48 years) was associated with a higher risk of subsequent violent behaviour, as indexed by convictions [odds ratio (OR) 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19–23.59] or self-reports (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.37–46.21). This effect persisted after controlling for other putative risk factors for violence. In predicting violence, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling further indicated that this effect could not be explained by other unobserved time-invariant factors. Furthermore, these analyses uncovered a bi-directional relationship between cannabis use and violence.
Together, these results provide strong indication that cannabis use predicts subsequent violent offending, suggesting a possible causal effect, and provide empirical evidence that may have implications for public policy.
Population seroprevalence can be estimated from serosurveys by classifying quantitative measurements into positives (past infection/vaccinated) or negatives (susceptible) according to a fixed assay cut-off. The choice of assay cut-offs has a direct impact on seroprevalence estimates. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was used to test exposure to human parvovirus 4 (HP4). Seroprevalence estimates were obtained after applying the diagnostic assay cut-off under different scenarios using simulations. Alternative methods for estimating assay cut-offs were proposed based on mixture modelling with component distributions for the past infection/vaccinated and susceptible populations. Seroprevalence estimates were compared to those obtained directly from the data using mixture models. Simulation results showed that when there was good distinction between the underlying populations all methods gave seroprevalence estimates close to the true one. For high overlap between the underlying components, the diagnostic assay cut-off generally gave the most biased estimates. However, the mixture model methods also gave biased estimates which were a result of poor model fit. In conclusion, fixed cut-offs often produce biased estimates but they also have advantages compared to other methods such as mixture models. The bias can be reduced by using assay cut-offs estimated specifically for seroprevalence studies.
Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.
Intergenerational continuities in criminal behaviour have been well
documented, but the familial nature of psychopathic personality is less
To establish if there is an association between the psychopathic traits
of a community sample of men and their offspring and whether psychosocial
risk factors mediate this.
Participants of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
(n = 478 dyads) were assessed for psychopathy using
the PCL: SV. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate
intergenerational continuity and mediation models examined indirect
The fathers' psychopathy was transmitted to both sons and daughters. The
transmission of Factor 1 scores was mediated via the fathers' employment
problems. For male offspring, the Factor 2 scores were mediated via the
fathers' drug use, accommodation and employment problems. For female
offspring, Factor 2 scores were mediated via the fathers' employment
Understanding of the specific role of certain psychosocial risk factors
may be useful in developing preventive measures for the development of
The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 (ESEN2) project was to estimate age-specific seroprevalence for a number of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. To achieve this serosurveys were collected by 22 national laboratories. To adjust for a variety of laboratory methods and assays, all quantitative results were transformed to a reference laboratory's units and were then classified as positive or negative to obtain age-specific seroprevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the value of standardization by comparing the crude and standardized seroprevalence estimates. Seroprevalence was estimated for measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, varicella zoster and hepatitis A virus (HAV) and compared before and after serological results had been standardized. The results showed that if no such adjustment had taken place, seroprevalence would have differed by an average of 3·2% (95% bootstrap interval 2·9–3·6) although this percentage varied substantially by antigen. These differences were as high as 16% for some serosurveys (HAV) which means that standardization could have a considerable impact on seroprevalence estimates and should be considered when comparing serosurveys performed in different laboratories using different assay methods.
Farrington (1983) and Farrington and Welsh (2005, 2006) reviewed randomized experiments in criminology with the following features: (1) at least fifty units (e.g., persons or areas) were initially assigned to each condition, or at least one hundred units were initially assigned to two experimental conditions; (2) there was an outcome measure of offending; and (3) the experiment was published in English. They found that 122 different experiments of this kind had been published up to 2004.
Farrington (1979) reviewed longitudinal studies in criminology with the following features: (1) at least several hundred persons were initially studied; (2) there were at least two personal contacts with the participants and/or their families, separated by at least five years; (3) there was a measure of offending; and (4) the study was published in English. At that time, only eleven studies of this kind had been published.
Farrington, Ohlin, and Wilson (1986) reviewed the advantages and problems of both experimental and longitudinal studies in criminology and recommended that combined longitudinal- experimental studies should be carried out. For a number of reasons (specified in more detail by Tonry, Ohlin, and Farrington 1991), they recommended that the ideal study should have several assessments (personal contacts) over several years, followed by an experimental intervention, followed by several more assessments over several years. No study of that kind had ever been conducted in criminology, although there had been studies that compared officially recorded offending in a few years before the intervention with officially recorded offending in a few years after (e.g., Empey and Erickson 1972; Empey and Lubeck 1971).
The self-controlled case-series method was originally developed to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, and is now commonly used for this purpose. This study reviews applications of the method to vaccine safety investigations in the period 1995–2010. In total, 40 studies were reviewed. The application of the self-controlled case-series method in these studies is critically examined, with particular reference to the definition of observation and risk periods, control of confounders, assumptions and potential biases, methodological and presentation issues, power and sample size, and software. Comparisons with other study designs undertaken in the papers reviewed are also highlighted. Some recommendations are presented, with the emphasis on promoting good practice.
The chemical vapor deposition of Al-Cu thin films on Si, SiO2, and TiN substrates was examined in a vertical low pressure cold wall reactor using trimethylamine alane (TMAA1) at 20 C as the Al source. The Cu sources bis-(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(H)(CuHFA), (cyclopentadienyl)copper(I) triethylphosphine (CpCuPEt3), and (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(I) trimethylphosphine (HfaCuPMe3), were compared. The Cu content of the films was controlled up to“5 wt% by simply varying the temperature of the Cu source. Codeposited Al-Cu films with excellent conductivity, purity, and adhesion properties were obtained with all Cu sources. Optimal film smoothness was achieved at∼350 C. The compounds differed in the ease of control over the %Cu in the films. CuHFA exhibited a massive parasitic reaction which made control very difficult. The Cu(I) complexes showed very minor parasitic reactions. Analysis of films with high Cu content by SEM-EDS showed clear segregation of Cu and Al, consistent with the low solubility of Cu in Al. Films with >2% Cu appeared homogeneous on a μm scale by both SEM-EDS and SIMS depth profiling. TEM of film cross sections revealed a polycrystalline Al film with small (20–100 Å) Cu-rich particles dispersed throughout the Al grains. These particles exhibited bright field-dark field contrast characteristic of crystalline material.
It is a great pleasure to welcome this third edition of Andreas Kapardis' textbook, Psychology and Law. The first and second editions rapidly became recognised as classic texts and have been widely used in undergraduate and postgraduate courses on legal and forensic psychology. My own students have found the previous editions incredibly useful and informative. They have also been of great interest to forensic psychologists and psychiatrists, academic and practising lawyers, law-enforcement personnel, and many practitioners and policy-makers.
This third edition is even better. Although it follows the successful organisation of the second edition, this edition has been completely revised and updated. Professor Kapardis has obviously put a huge amount of work into reading all the latest studies and clearly demonstrates his encyclopaedic knowledge of psychology and law. Useful features include margin notes, case studies and revision questions. Like the previous editions, this book is scholarly, detailed, wide-ranging and up-to-date, but nevertheless very readable. There is no comparable modern textbook with such an international coverage of research on psychology and law.
This international coverage, focusing on the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, reflects the fact that Andreas Kapardis is a very international person. He completed Masters and PhD theses under my supervision at Cambridge University about 25 years ago and then taught and carried out research for a long time in Australia. Now he is pioneering research and teaching in legal and forensic psychology in Cyprus.
Protective and risk factors were examined in three samples, each of about 500 boys. Cross-sectional analyses examined a large number of independent variables for their potential protective and risk effects on different levels of seriousness of boys' delinquency. The results showed that protective and risk effects often co-occurred in the same variables, that few variables had risk effects only, and none had protective effects oniy. Protective effects were as likely to promote nondelinquency as to suppress serious delinquency, whereas risk effects were as likely to suppress nondelinquency as to promote serious delinquency. Certain variables were mostly associated with distinctions between nondelinquency and minor delinquency, other variables were related to the distinction between minor delinquency and serious delinquency, and a third group of variables was associated with both distinctions. Developmental analyses indicated that the magnitude of protective and risk effects increased with age. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.
A national survey was conducted of 3150 notified cases of whooping cough in order to determine age-specific pertussis vaccine efficacy by the ‘screening’ method. The cases were collected over two periods, one just prior to the start and one at the first peak of the whooping cough epidemic of 1989–90. Vaccination status was determined by a postal questionnaire to the reporting doctor and clinical data were also collected to provide efficacy estimates according to standardized case definitions. Overall, observed vaccine efficacy was high but differed between epidemic (87%) and non-epidemic (93%) periods (P = 0·03). Efficacy estimates were generally higher for typical or severe cases than for children with an atypical illness. Vaccine efficacy declined with age (P < 0·01) but estimates remained high up to the age of 8 years. This study will provide baseline data for comparison with efficacy observed from similar studies of children immunized at an accelerated schedule and from phase III studies of acellular pertussis vaccines performed elsewhere.
To investigate the feasibility of using a record linkage method for identifying vaccine attributable adverse events, computerized hospital admissions and vaccination records from South East Kent district were linked and checked for accuracy. Records for 90% of children under 2 years of age admitted to hospital over a 2-year period were matched with vaccination records using a computer algorithm based on name, date of birth, sex, and post-code supplemented by visual inspection. Relative to this gold standard, matching on date of birth, sex and postcode alone had a sensitivity of 60% and an incorrect match rate of 0·2% after matches to more than one vaccine recipient were excluded. Manual checking of a sample of admissions showed that only 4% had been assigned incorrect International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes. Routine record linkage of ICD admission codes to vaccination records therefore yields data of good quality which may be used for surveillance purposes.