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The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows. Gestation length of PO sows increased by 1 day (P<0.05). Maternal BW changes were similar throughout the trial, but loss of backfat during lactation was reduced in PO animals (C: −3.6±0.8 mm; PO: −0.1±0.8 mm; P<0.01). Milk fat was increased by PO supplementation (C day 3: 8.0±0.3% fat; PO day 3: 9.1±0.3% fat; C day 7: 7.8±0.5% fat; PO day 7: 9.9±0.5% fat; P<0.05) and hence milk energy yield of PO sows was also elevated (P<0.05). The proportion of saturated fatty acids was greater in colostrum from PO sows (C: 29.19±0.31 g/100 g of fat; PO: 30.77±0.36 g/100 g of fat; P<0.01). Blood samples taken on 105 days of gestation, within 24 h of farrowing, day 7 of lactation and at weaning (28±3 days post-farrowing) showed there were no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin or IGF-1 throughout the trial. However, circulating plasma concentrations of both glucose and leptin were elevated during lactation in PO sows (P<0.05 and P<0.005, respectively) and thyroxine was greater at weaning in PO sows (P<0.05). Piglet weight and body composition were similar at birth, as were piglet growth rates throughout the pre-weaning period. A period of 7 days after birth, C piglets contained more body fat, as indicated by their lower fat-free mass per kg (C: 66.4±0.8 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 69.7±0.8 arbitrary unit/kg; P<0.01), but by day 14 of life this situation was reversed (C: 65.8±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 63.6±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; P<0.05). Following weaning, PO sows exhibited an increased ratio of male to female offspring at their subsequent farrowing (C: 1.0±0.3; PO: 2.2±0.2; P<0.05). We conclude that supplementation of sow diets with PO during late gestation and lactation appears to increase sow milk fat content and hence energy supply to piglets. Furthermore, elevated glucose concentrations in the sow during lactation may be suggestive of impaired glucose homoeostasis.
The fatty acid and vitamin E concentration in the diets of growing pigs are known to affect backfat and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution of a carbohydrate dietary source (maize) by a series of oils on the fatty acid (FA) composition of backfat and marbling fat at slaughter. Vitamin E concentration in muscle (longissimus dorsi ) was also determined.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
To identify whether clinical information routinely collected and recorded on clinical files is available for the identification of metabolic syndrome and to assess the prevalence of risk factors for the syndrome in a sample of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and mental illness treated with antipsychotic medication.
A retrospective analysis was performed for 76 adults with ID and comorbid mental illness, for whom treatment with antipsychotic medication was established. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. The Student t-test for parametric data and χ2-test for non-parametrical data were used.
Five of the six criteria for metabolic syndrome were available in all or a high proportion of the files, however no measurement for waist circumference was recorded in any of the files. Aripiprazole appears to be the least risky antipsychotic for metabolic syndrome.
It is important to develop a systematic protocol to record diagnostic variables for metabolic syndrome in at risk populations such as those with ID and mental illness treated with regular antipsychotics.
We have carried out an investigation of the laser doping of Si with rare-earth ions. In this technique a silicon surface coated with a thin layer of the rare-earth metal is melted with a pulsed laser, the dopant is mixed in the molten layer, and incorporated in the crystal during regrowth. Er was chosen for the main part of our work as it is the best characterized of the rare-earth ions in Si. Luminescence is observed around 1.54µm and is assigned to optical transitions on Er3+ ions. This preliminary study shows that this new technique is viable for the production of optically active Er3+ in Si.
We present a new and simple approach to the theory of multiple operator integrals that applies to unbounded operators affiliated with general von Neumann algebras. For semifinite von Neumann algebras we give applications to the Fréchet differentiation of operator functions that sharpen existing results, and establish the Birman–Solomyak representation of the spectral shift function of M.G. Krein in terms of an average of spectral measures in the type II setting. We also exhibit a surprising connection between the spectral shift function and spectral flow.
Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.
The role of dietary fat during early pregnancy in sows has not yet been fully established. The aim of the study was to determine the consequences of altering the fatty acid profile of sow diets during the first half of gestation; oils of different fatty acid composition were chosen as energy supplements to provide diets with different fatty acid profiles. A group of 48 multiparous sows were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding during the first 60 days of gestation (term ≈ 115 days). Sows were allocated (eight per treatment) to either 3 kg/day of commercial sow pellets (control; C) or an experimental diet consisting of 3 kg/day of commercial sow pellets supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of excess pellets (E), palm oil (P), olive oil (O), sunflower oil (S) or fish oil (F). Differential effects were observed with respect to the fatty acid profile of the diet during the first half of gestation. P sows gave birth to the largest litters. Both P and O supplementation of the maternal diet resulted in heavier piglets at birth, after correction for differences in litter size. P piglets possessed the most fat at birth and remained fatter throughout the pre-weaning period; in contrast, the offspring of O sows contained the least fat throughout life (0 to 140 days of age). The offspring of F sows exhibited improved growth performance during the neonatal period. In conclusion, altering the fatty acid profile of sow diets during the first half of gestation has long-term consequences for the growth and development of their offspring.
This study aimed to determine the consequences of altering the fatty acid profile of sow diets during mid-to-late gestation; oils of different fatty acid composition were chosen as energy supplements to provide diets with different fatty acid profiles. Forty-eight multiparous sows were used to evaluate the effects of fat supplementation from day 60 of gestation until parturition. Sows were allocated to either 3 kg/day of commercial sow pellets (control; C) or an experimental diet consisting of 3 kg/day of commercial sow pellets supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of excess pellets (E), palm oil (P), olive oil (O), sunflower oil (S) or fish oil (F). From days 0 to 60 of gestation, all sows were given 3 kg/day of sow pellets as for the C group. The E diet resulted in the heaviest piglets at birth whereas the offspring of O and S sows were the lightest at birth. The offspring of S sows remained lighter throughout the pre-weaning period, and were also the leanest by 14 days of age. In contrast, pigs born to S sows possessed more fat by the time they reached commercial end point (≈140 days of age). In conclusion, altering the fatty acid profile of the sow diet during the second half of gestation has long-term consequences for the development of their offspring.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
The principal result of the paper reduces the study of certain weakly compact
sets in Banach spaces of measurable operators to that of the corresponding sets
of generalized singular value functions. In particular, under natural conditions, it
is shown that the orbit of a relatively weakly compact subset of the Köthe dual
of a symmetric space of measurable operators affiliated with some semi-finite von
Neumann algebra is again relatively weakly compact.