Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) develops in the seeds of Vigna unguiculata in the Sahel region of Africa. The reproductive activity of this species and the development of its offspring were studied during the dry season at Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), two zones with different climatic conditions. The length of imaginal life of the females and the developmental time varied with changes in climatic conditions, the lowest values for both parameters being found at the end of the dry season when temperature and humidity increased. In the two zones, variations in the density of the bruchid populations have been studied in experimental stores. The density of the bruchid population was low at the beginning of the study and increased when temperature and humidity rose. The introduction of Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) adults to the stores caused a significant reduction in the numbers of C. maculatus adults. The density of the D. basalis populations was low from December to February and increased when temperatures and then humidity became higher. The increase of the D. basalis population and the rate of parasitism were greater at Bobo Dioulasso than at Ouagadougou. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that fecundity, duration of adult life and developmental times depend on humidity. This study has shown the importance of local climatic conditions on parasitoid reproduction and development and also in the control of bruchid populations in stores.