To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A large radio continuum loop of diameter was discovered at G16.5+0.7 on the Bonn 2.7 GHz and NRO 10 GHz galactic plane surveys. The loop is associated with the H II region M16, and the diameter is 60 pc at a distance of 2.8 kpc. Figure 1 shows the loop at 2.7 GHz in gray scale. The spectrum is thermal and the total H II mass is estimated at 3×103 M⊙. If the loop is due to a shell of the same diameter, the mean electron density on the shell is about 4 cm−3. The total thermal energy is about 6×1048ergs. The characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
We have reconstructed the ice thickness distribution of the Morteratsch glacier complex, Switzerland, and used this to simulate its flow with a higher-order 3-D model. Ice thickness was measured along transects with a ground-penetrating radar and further extended over the entire glacier using the plastic flow assumption and a distance-weighted interpolation technique. We find a maximum ice thickness of 350 ±52.5 m for the central trunk of Vadret da Morteratsch, resulting from a bedrock overdeepening. The average thickness of the glacier complex is 72.2 ±18.0 m, which corresponds to a total ice volume of 1.14 ± 0.28 km3. The flow of the glacier is modelled by tuning the rate factor and the sliding parameters taking into account higher-order terms in the force balance. The observed velocities can be reproduced closely (root-mean-square error of 15.0 m a-1, R2 = 0.93) by adopting a sliding factor of 12 x 10–16 m7 N–3 a-1 and a rate factor of 1.6 x 10-16 Pa-3 a-1 . In this setting, ice deformation accounts for 70% of the surface velocity and basal sliding for the remaining 30%. The modelled velocity field reaches values up to 125 ma-1, but also indicates an almost stagnant front and confluence area, which are crucial for understanding the ongoing glacier retreat.
Physically based projections of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to future sea-level change are subject to uncertainties of the atmospheric and oceanic climatic forcing and to the formulations within the ice flow model itself. Here a higher-order, three-dimensional thermomechanical ice flow model is used, initialized to the present-day geometry. The forcing comes from a high-resolution regional climate model and from a flowline model applied to four individual marine-terminated glaciers, and results are subsequently extended to the entire ice sheet. The experiments span the next 200 years and consider climate scenario SRES A1B. The surface mass-balance (SMB) scheme is taken either from a regional climate model or from a positive-degree-day (PDD) model using temperature and precipitation anomalies from the underlying climate models. Our model results show that outlet glacier dynamics only account for 6–18% of the sea-level contribution after 200 years, confirming earlier findings that stress the dominant effect of SMB changes. Furthermore, interaction between SMB and ice discharge limits the importance of outlet glacier dynamics with increasing atmospheric forcing. Forcing from the regional climate model produces a 14–31 % higher sea-level contribution compared to a PDD model run with the same parameters as for IPCC AR4.
Objectives: We examined florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid scans across stages of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in cortical, allocortical, and subcortical regions. Stages were characterized using empirically defined methods. Methods: A total of 312 cognitively normal Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and florbetapir PET scan. Participants were classified into stages of preclinical AD using (1) a novel approach based on the number of abnormal biomarkers/cognitive markers each individual possessed, and (2) National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) criteria. Preclinical AD groups were compared to one another and to a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) sample on florbetapir standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in cortical and allocortical/subcortical regions of interest (ROIs). Results: Amyloid deposition increased across stages of preclinical AD in all cortical ROIs, with SUVRs in the later stages reaching levels seen in MCI. Several subcortical areas showed a pattern of results similar to the cortical regions; however, SUVRs in the hippocampus, pallidum, and thalamus largely did not differ across stages of preclinical AD. Conclusions: Substantial amyloid accumulation in cortical areas has already occurred before one meets criteria for a clinical diagnosis. Potential explanations for the unexpected pattern of results in some allocortical/subcortical ROIs include lack of correspondence between (1) cerebrospinal fluid and florbetapir PET measures of amyloid, or between (2) subcortical florbetapir PET SUVRs and underlying neuropathology. Findings support the utility of our novel method for staging preclinical AD. By combining imaging biomarkers with detailed cognitive assessment to better characterize preclinical AD, we can advance our understanding of who is at risk for future progression. (JINS, 2016, 22, 978–990)
The observation of an area of 120° × 56° centered on RA=8h DEC=20° at 408 MHz was the first astronomical use of the MPIfR 100-m telescope (1970) and was designed to compile a complete sky survey using also data from Jodrell Bank and Parkes (Haslam et al., 1982). The observation of the northern sky at 1420 MHz started in 1972 using the Stockert 25-m telescope and was finished in 1976 (Reich and Reich 1986). This survey has been completed to an all sky survey using data from Villa Elisa (Argentina). The two surveys are absolutely calibrated. The angular resolutions are 0.8° and 0.59°, respectively. A number of surveys of the Galactic plane have been made with the 100-m telescope at arc minute angular resolution. Surveys at 2695 MHz (|b| ≤ 5°) (Reich et al. 1990, Fürst et al. 1990) and at 1410 MHz (|b| < 4°) (Reich et al. 1990) are public.
At medium Galactic latitudes (up to |b| = 20°) the emission consists mainly of faint extended ridges or arcs superimposed on the still dominating, about 10 times stronger, diffuse Galactic emission. They have never been investigated in a systematic way although they provide important clues for the understanding of the “disk-halo connection”. This region is covered by new observations at 1400 MHz with the 100-m telescope.
Based on radio continuum surveys of the Galactic plane at wavelengths of 21 cm and 11 cm we have so far identified about 32 new supernova remnants in the area 357°.4 ≤ℓ≤ 76°. |b| ≤ 5°. This increases the number of known objects in this field by about 68%. Most of them are in the Galactic latitude range |b| 〉 0°.5. Some implications are discussed.
A radio continuum survey at medium Galactic latitudes with the 100−m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie is being carried out at a center frequency of 1.4 GHz in total power and linear polarization. We present polarization and depolarization structures detected at medium latititudes with no corresponding observable structure in total power emission. Existence of such kind of polarization structures imply that the emission, due to the Faraday modulation of the Galactic synchrotron foreground, occurs in thin sheetlike regions. This phenomenon is a sign for fluctuating local magnetic field.
We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25 m telescope at λ6 cm during the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at λ6 cm, some of which are the first ever measured or the measurements at the highest frequency, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out spectral breaks or spectral flattening that were suggested for a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of S147. By combining our λ6 cm maps with λ11 cm and λ21 cm maps from the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, we calculated the spectral index maps of several large SNRs. For many remnants we obtained for the first time polarization images, which show the intrinsic magnetic field structures at λ6 cm. We disapproved three objects as being SNRs, OA184, G192.8−1.1 and G16.8−1.1, which show a thermal spectrum and no polarization. We have discovered two large supernova remnants, G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3., in the survey maps.
As part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) we have imaged the polarized emission from the plane of the Milky Way at 1420 MHz, covering 1200 square degrees with arc-minute resolution. Structure on all scales is represented by combining aperture-synthesis data with single-antenna data. The survey depicts the Magneto-Ionic Medium at a resolution that matches images of other components of the Interstellar Medium within the CGPS database (http://www4.cadc.hia.nrc.gc.ca).
Substrates with immune-modulating actions have been identified among both macro- and micronutrients. Currently, the modes of action of individual immune-modulating substrates, and their effects on clinical outcomes, are being examined. At present, some enteral formulas are available for the clinical setting which are enriched with selected immune-modulating nutrients. The purpose of the present paper is to review the scientific rationale of enteral immunonutrition. The major aspects considered are mucosal barrier structure and function, cellular defence function and local or systemic inflammatory response. It is notable that in critical illness the mucosal barrier and cellular defence are impaired and a reinforcement with enteral immunonutrition is desirable, while local or systemic inflammatory response should be down regulated by nutritional interventions. The results available from clinical trials are conflicting. Meta-analyses of recent trials show improvements such as reduced risk of infection, fewer days on a ventilator, and reduced length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Thus, a grade A recommendation was proclaimed for the clinical use of enteral immune-modulating diets. Improvement in outcome was only seen when critical amounts of the immune-modulating formula were tolerated in patients classified as being malnourished. However, in other patients with severe sepsis, shock and organ failure, no benefit or even disadvantages from immunonutrition were reported. In such severe conditions we hypothesize that systemic inflammation might be undesirably intensified by arginine and unsaturated fatty acids, directly affecting cellular defence and inflammatory response. We therefore recommend that in patients suffering from systemic inflammatory response syndrome great caution should be exercised when immune-enhancing substrates are involved which may aggravate systemic inflammation.
It is not resolved whether the anionic channel involved in volume regulation after cell swelling comprises one or more subunits. Moreover, it remains to be determined which of the different proteins cloned so far, for which an involvement in cell volume regulation has been postulated, is the ideal candidate. In this review, we consider the role of the ICln protein, cloned from MDCK cells, in cell volume regulation.
A 482 base pair gene fragment from samples of amoebae E. histolytica and E. dispar was amplified by PCR. The
amplification products of fragments from the 2 species of amoebae presented differences in mobility in non-denaturing
polyacrylamide gel, probably due to sequence-dependent conformational alterations in the DNA fragments. The method
described here permits E. histolytica and E. dispar to be distinguished with greater sensitivity and rapidity.
The present review addresses the role of food constituents in the aetiology of metabolic conditions and chronic diseases, mostly related to energy metabolism and substrate regulation, such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Second, attention is paid to malnutrition, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, which may be a cause of concern in Europe because of the increasing number of elderly people in the population. Finally, the role of diet during exercise, a condition of enormous substrate demands, is evaluated. Based on a critical evaluation of the existing knowledge in the literature, implications for future research in relation to functional foods are discussed.
Neuropsychological assessment of monolingual Spanish-speaking people in the United States is both a common practice and an ethical dilemma. Lack of appropriate tests, the absence of norms, use of interpreters, and the multiplicity of in-house translations of commonly used measures add to the problem of accurate assessment. This paper helps address the lack of appropriate measures for the neuropsychological assessment of Latinos in the United States by providing a standardization of the Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS). Normative data on a sample of 300 Hispanic subjects stratified by gender, age, and education are provided. Current results reveal that not one measure of cognitive functioning is free from education effects. Both nonverbal measures and psychomotor speed measures were highly related to education. Age effects were noted on measures of psychomotor speed, visuospatial reasoning, and visuoconstructive skills. Gender effects were found on measures of psychomotor speed and language, with males achieving higher scores than females. The limitations of the current findings are considered. Further research for the validation of the NeSBHIS with clinical populations, as well as further normative data collection at the national and international levels, is needed. (JINS, 1996, 2, 96–104.)