To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering that mimic the extracellular matrix with bioactive and bactericidal properties could provide adequate conditions for regeneration of damaged bone. Electrospun ultrathin fiber covered with nano-hydroxyapatite is a favorable fibrous scaffold design. We developed a fast and reproducible strategy to produce polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanofibrous scaffolds with bactericidal and bioactive properties. Fibrous PVDF scaffolds were obtained first by the electrospinning method. Then, their surfaces were modified using oxygen plasma treatment followed by electrodeposition of nHAp. This process formed nanofibrous and superhydrophilic PVDF fibers (133.6 nm, fiber average diameter) covered with homogeneous nHAp (202.6 nm, average particle diameter) crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate, indicating a Ca/P molar ratio of approximately 1.64. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy spectra identified β-phase of nHAp. Thermal analysis indicated a slight reduction in stability after nHAp electrodeposition. Bactericidal assays showed that nHAp exhibited 99.8% efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The PVDF/Plasma and PVDF/nHAp groups had the highest cell viability, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity by 7 days after exposure of the scaffolds to MG63 cell culture. Therefore, the developed scaffolds are an exciting alternative for application in bone regeneration.
This study supplements spatial panel econometrics techniques with qualitative GIS to analyse spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of integrated conservation–development projects relative to poaching activity and unauthorized resource use in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Cluster and spatial regression analyses were performed on data from ranger monitoring containing > 35,000 combined observations of illegal activities in Volcanoes National Park, against tourism revenue sharing and conservation NGO funding data for 2006–2015. Results were enriched with qualitative GIS analysis from key informant interviews. We found a statistically significant negative linear effect of overall integrated conservation–development investments on unauthorized resource use in Volcanoes National Park. However, individually, funding from Rwanda's tourism revenue sharing policy did not have an effect in contrast to the significant negative effect of conservation NGO funding. In another contrast between NGO funding and tourism revenue sharing funding, spatial analysis revealed significant gaps in revenue sharing funding relative to the hotspots of illegal activities, but these gaps were not present for NGO funding. Insight from qualitative GIS analysis suggests that incongruity in prioritization by decision makers at least partly explains the differences between the effects of revenue sharing and conservation NGO investment. Although the overall results are encouraging for integrated conservation–development projects, we recommend increased spatial alignment of project funding with clusters of illegal activities, which can make investment decision-making more data-driven and projects more effective for conservation.
There is a lack of accurate screening tools for suicide risk in the patients presenting to emergency departments. The Personality and Life Event (PLE) Scale, a set of the 27 most discriminative items from a collection of questionnaires usually employed in the assessment of suicidal behavior, demostrated an elevated accuracy, sensibility, and specificity in classifying suicide attempters.
To validate the self-administered PLE Scale.
Material and methods:
In order to examine its psychometric properties, the PLE scale was administered to 59 suicide attempters, 48 psychiatric controls, and 69 medical patients attending the Puerta de Hierro emergency department. To examine its reliability, we used: 1) Cronbach's coefficient α to evaluate the internal consistency; 2) test-retest reliability to assess if the scale is stable over time. Interrater reliability is not relevant as the PLE is a self-report. To assess its construct validity, we used some of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). All analyses were carried out using SPSS v.20 (Macintosh).
The most frequent criteria for suicide attempters were item 4 (‘I often feel empty inside’; 88.1%) and 20 (‘I act on impulse’; 79,7%). Mean (± SD) of the PLE Scale in suicide attempters, psychiatric controls, and medical controls was 74.49 (± 32.44), 57.19 (± 29.63), and 17.48 (± 21.15), respectively. The PLE had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0,674).
Our preliminary findings support the reliability, construct validity, and ussefulness of the PLE to identify suicide attempters to those attending to emergency departments.
Involuntary admissions continue to be a controversial topic in psychiatry. However, it is well known that psychosocial rehabilitation treatment is more successful when the patient is involved in it improving awareness and adherence to treatment.
This study examined admissions patterns, including voluntary, involuntary, and partly voluntary admissions to a subacute psychiatric hospital.
This is a transversal study. All patients admitted for a medium-term psychiatric treatment since 01/06/2014 to 30/11/2015 were included. Patients's basic sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and compiled in a database. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS Software.
A total of 88 patients (52% men; mean age: 48.6 years) composed the sample. In 58% of cases, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were the diagnoses motivating the admission. Among 88 patients, 44 (50%) had voluntary admissions, 16 (18.2%) had involuntary admissions, 27 (30.7%) had partly voluntary admissions and just one patient (1.1%) had partly involuntary admissions. Seventy-one (80.1%) patients had voluntary admissions at discharge, and only one of them escape from hospital and did not finish the treatment.
In the short term involuntary hospitalization has benefits, however also can have adverse long-term consequences for the patient-therapist allegiance, breaking the psychotherapeutic relationship and making the patient abandon treatment. It's important to reassess the condition of admission and work with the patient the need to engage in treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
Supporting designers is one of the main motivations for design research. However, there is an ongoing debate about the ability of design research to transfer its results, which are often provided in form of design methods, into practice. This article takes the position that the transfer of design methods alone is not an appropriate indicator for assessing the impact of design research by discussing alternative pathways for impacting design practice. Impact is created by different means – first of all through the students that are trained based on the research results including design methods and tools and by the systematic way of thinking they acquired that comes along with being involved with research in this area. Despite having a considerable impact on practice, this article takes the position that the transfer of methods can be improved by moving from cultivating method menageries to facilitating the evolution of method ecosystems. It explains what is understood by a method ecosystem and discusses implications for developing future design methods and for improving existing methods. This paper takes the position that efforts on improving and maturing existing design methods should be raised to satisfy the needs of designers and to truly support them.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering applications. For enhanced bone regeneration, it is important to have printable ink materials with appealing properties such as construct interconnectivity, mechanical strength, controlled degradation rates, and the presence of bioactive materials. In this respect, we develop a composite ink composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and hydroxyapatite particles (HAps) and 3D print it into porous constructs. In vitro study revealed that composite constructs had higher mechanical properties, surface roughness, quicker degradation profile, and cellular behaviors compared to PCL counterparts. Furthermore, in vivo results showed that 3D-printed composite constructs had a positive influence on bone regeneration due to the presence of newly formed mineralized bone tissue and blood vessel formation. Therefore, 3D printable ink made of PCL/PLGA/HAp can be a highly useful material for 3D printing of bone tissue constructs.
In general, most of the studies of terrestrial-type planet formation typically use ad hoc initial conditions. In this work we improved the initial conditions described in Ronco & de Elía (2014) starting with a semi-analytical model wich simulates the evolution of the protoplanetary disk during the gas phase. The results of the semi-analytical model are then used as initial conditions for the N-body simulations. We show that the planetary systems considered are not sensitive to the particular initial distribution of embryos and planetesimals and thus, the results are globally similar to those found in the previous work.
In the standard model of core accretion, the cores of the giant planets form by the accretion of planetesimals. In this scenario, the evolution of the planetesimal population plays an important role in the formation of massive cores. Recently, we studied the role of planetesimal fragmentation in the in situ formation of a giant planet. However, the exchange of angular momentum between the planet and the gaseous disk causes the migration of the planet in the disk. In this new work, we incorporate the migration of the planet and study the role of planet migration in the formation of a massive core when the population of planetesimals evolves by planet accretion, migration, and fragmentation.
The Bastion of San Pedro is part of the defensive infrastructure projected by Spanish colonizers in San Francisco de Campeche City, in order to protect the city and their inhabitants from pirates who ravaged the region during the XVIth and XIXth centuries. The bastion is a masonry structure built by using calcareous materials according the Spanish procedures from the edge. Since its construction, it has been under the synergetic interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors that promote degradation. In this study optical microscopy (MO) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to a dispersive analysis system (SEM/EDS) were used in order to analyze the stratigraphic profile of mortar weathered samples collected from walls of the Bastion of San Pedro. According the results, the samples were formed by three substrata: an upper external layer in contact with the environment (100 to 300 µm), the other one is an inner layer with thickness around 100 to 400 µm. The last substrate was formed by the mortar matrix composed by elements such as C, O, Ca, Si and Al, that indicate their mineral origin. By the other hand, it is important to note that the upper layer contained higher proportion of C respect to the other layers. It is probably major consequence of biomass encrustation rather that atmospheric pollution according to the particular environmental conditions surrounding the building.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
The atomic and electronic structures of multilayer graphene on a monolayer boron nitride (MLBN) have been investigated by using the pseudopotential method and the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory (DFT). We show that the LDA energy band gap can be tuned in the range 41-278 meV for a multilayer graphene by using MLBN as a substrate. The dispersion of the π/π* bands slightly away from the K point is linear with the electron speed of 0.9×106 and 0.93×106 for graphene (MLG)/MLBN and ABA trilayer graphene (TLG)/MLBN systems, respectively. This behaviour becomes quadratic with a relative effective mass of 0.0021 for the bilayer graphene (BLG)/MLBN system. The calculated binding energies are in the range of 10-43 meV per C atom.
Graphyne is a generic name for a family of carbon allotrope two-dimensional structures where sp2 (single and double bonds) and sp (triple bonds) hybridized states coexists. They exhibit very interesting electronic and mechanical properties sharing some of the unique graphene characteristics. Similarly to graphene, the graphyne electronic properties can be modified by chemical functionalization, such as; hydrogenation, fluorination and oxidation. Oxidation is of particular interest since it can produce significant structural damages.
In this work we have investigated, through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics and structural changes of the oxidation of single-layer graphyne membranes at room temperature. We have considered α, β, and γ-graphyne structures. Our results showed that the oxidation reactions are strongly site dependent and that the sp-hybridized carbon atoms are the preferential sites to chemical attacks. Our results also showed that the effectiveness of the oxidation (estimated from the number of oxygen atoms covalently bonded to carbon atoms) follows the α, β, γ-graphyne structure ordering. These differences can be explained by the fact that for α-graphyne structures the oxidation reactions occur in two steps: first, the oxygen atoms are trapped at the center of the large polygonal rings and then they react with the carbon atoms composing of the triple bonds. The small rings of γ-graphyne structures prevent these reactions to occur. The effectiveness of β-graphyne oxidation is between the α- and γ-graphynes.
Diamond was investigated as one of the superior dielectric materials for advanced wakefield accelerators. Both planar and cylindrical wakefield accelerating structures were constructed. An AsTex microwave plasma-enhanced CVD system was modified for synthesis of cylindrical polycrystalline diamond tubes. Cylindrical diamond tubes were successfully synthesized from hydrogen and methane and are characterized with micro Raman, photoluminescence spectroscopy and optical tests. In addition, planar wakefield structures were constructed from commercially available diamond. Wakefield tests on a rectangular diamond structure confirm that diamond can sustain microwave electric field strengths of 0.3 GV/m at its surface without material breakdown.
Transparent films of platinum nanoparticles on graphene nanohybrids were synthesized in a two-step process. Reduction of homogeneously dispersed Pt precursor and graphene in water and solution coating/annealing afforded thin films with high catalytic performance as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The requisite dispersant consisting of poly(oxyethylene)-(POE) segments and cyclic imide functionalities allowed the in-situ reduction of dihydrogen hexachloroplatinate by ethanol and the formation of nanohybrids of graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles at 4.0 nm diameter. Characterizations of polymeric dispersants by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanohybrids by transmission electron microscope were performed. After screening various compositions of Pt/graphene, the nanohybrid film at the specific ratio of 5/1 by weight was fabricated into a counter electrode (CE) for DSSC by the solution casting method. The evaluation of cell performance demonstrated the most improved power conversion efficiency of 8.00%. This is significant achievement in comparison with 7.14% for the DSSC with the conventional platinum sputtered CE. Furthermore, the solution casting method allows the preparation of transparent CE films that are suitable for using as rear-illuminated DSSC. The approach was proven to be feasible by measuring the cell efficiency under rear light illumination. The power efficiency up to 7.01%, comparable to 8.00% by a normally front illumination, has been accomplished. In contrast, the rear illumination at merely 2.36% efficiency was obtained for the DSSC with sputtered platinum CE. Analyses of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectra were well correlated to the high efficiency of the performance caused by this nanohybrid film.
Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal array of carbon atoms in sp2-hybridized states. Graphene presents unique and exceptional electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. However, in its pristine state graphene is a gapless semiconductor, which poses some limitations to its use in some transistor electronics. Because of this there is a renewed interest in other possible two-dimensional carbon-based structures similar to graphene. Examples of this are graphynes and graphdiynes, which are two-dimensional structures, composed of carbon atoms in sp2 and sp-hybridized states. Graphdiynes (benzenoid rings connecting two acetylenic groups) were recently synthesized and they can be intrinsically nonzero gap systems. These systems can be easily hydrogenated and the amount of hydrogenation can be used to tune the band gap value. In this work we have investigated, through fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with reactive force field (ReaxFF), the structural and dynamics aspects of the hydrogenation mechanisms of graphdiyne membranes. Our results showed that depending on whether the atoms are in the benzenoid rings or as part of the acetylenic groups, the rates of hydrogenation are quite distinct and change in time in a very complex pattern. Initially, the most probable sites to be hydrogenated are the carbon atoms forming the triple bonds, as expected. But as the amount of hydrogenation increases in time this changes and then the carbon atoms forming single bonds become the preferential sites. The formation of correlated domains observed in hydrogenated graphene is no longer observed in the case of graphdiynes. We have also carried out ab initio DFT calculations for model structures in order to test the reliability of ReaxFF calculations.
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), also known as white graphite, is the inorganic analogue of graphite. Single layers of both structures have been already experimentally realized.
In this work we have investigated, through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of hydrogenation of h-BN single-layers membranes.
Our results show that the rate of hydrogenation atoms bonded to the membrane is highly dependent on the temperature and that only at low temperatures there is a preferential bond to boron atoms. Unlike graphanes (hydrogenated graphene), hydrogenated h-BN membranes do not exhibit the formation of correlated domains. Also, the out-of-plane deformations are more pronounced in comparison with the graphene case. After a critical number of incorporated hydrogen atoms the membrane become increasingly defective, lost its two-dimensional character and collapses. The hydrogen radial pair distribution and second-nearest neighbor correlations were also analyzed.
The advent of graphene created a new era in materials science. Graphene is a two-dimensional planar honeycomb array of carbon atoms in sp2-hybridized states. A natural question is whether other elements of the IV-group of the periodic table (such as silicon and germanium), could also form graphene-like structures. Structurally, the silicon equivalent to graphene is called silicene. Silicene was theoretically predicted in 1994 and recently experimentally realized by different groups. Similarly to graphene, silicene exhibits electronic and mechanical properties that can be exploited to nanoelectronics applications.
In this work we have investigated, through fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the mechanical properties of single-layer silicene under mechanical strain. These simulations were carried out using a reactive force field (ReaxFF), as implemented in the LAMMPS code. We have calculated the elastic properties and the fracture patterns.
Our results show that the dynamics of the whole fracturing processes of silicene present some similarities with that of graphene as well as some unique features.