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High BMI has been associated with psychiatric rehospitalisation.
We aimed to replicate this finding in a large Swiss psychiatric cohort and to examine whether other metabolic disturbances are independently associated with psychiatric readmission.
Data on 16’727 hospitalizations of 7’786 patients admitted between January 1st, 2007 and December 31st, 2019 at the Department of Psychiatry of the Lausanne University Hospital, were collected. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation definition. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate the associations between psychiatric readmission and metabolic syndrome and/or its five components.
The readmitted population (N=2’935; 37.7% patients) had higher BMI, and were more likely to have central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Multivariate analyses confirmed that having a BMI ≥ 25 kg.m-2 was associated with psychiatric readmission (25 kg.m-2≤ BMI< 30 kg.m-2: OR = 1.88; 95%CI [1.55-2.29]; BMI≥30 kg.m-2: OR = 3.5; 95%CI [2.85-4.30]) when compared to patients with 18.5≤BMI<25 kg.m-2. Interestingly, novel factors associated with readmission were identified including metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.57, 95%CI [1.05-2.33]), central obesity (OR = 1.81, 95%CI [1.33-2.46]), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.59; 95%CI [1.38-1.83]), HDL hypocholesterolemia (OR = 1.22; 95%CI [1.06-1.40]) and hyperglycemia (OR = 1.58; 95%CI [1.35-1.85]).
Metabolic syndrome, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, HDL hypocholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and obesity were associated with psychiatric readmission. Possible causes will be presented and discussed (e.g. reduced adherence to treatment in patients with metabolic disorders, multiple psychotropic treatments in non-responders increasing the risk of metabolic worsening).
Many psychotropic drugs can induce weight gain with differences in their metabolic risk profiles (i.e. high, medium or low-risk).
To compare the weight evolution of patients switching versus patients keeping their psychotropic drugs with different risk-profiles.
Data for patients switching or keeping the same drug were obtained from the Psyclin (from 2007 to 2015) and Psymetab (2007- 2019) cohort studies, conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland. Patients either switched from a high to a low-risk, a high to a medium-risk, a medium to a low-risk drug, or for a drug with the same risk category. Patients not switching either kept a high, medium or low-risk drug. The evolution of weight is currently being analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model.
Preliminary results showed that switching from a high to low-risk molecule had the strongest impact on weight changes. The analysis being ongoing, the quantitative results will be presented at the congress.
Switching from a high-risk to a low-risk molecule is likely to have the strongest impact on weight changes.
Metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications are a major drawback to patients’ effective treatment. Among the mechanisms underlying their development, DNA methylation may be involved.
The aim of this study was to estimate DNA methylation changes occurring secondary to psychotropic treatment and evaluate associations between 1-month metabolic changes and baseline DNA methylation or 1-month DNA methylation changes, using an epigenome-wide approach.
Seventy-nine psychiatric patients recruited as part of PsyMetab study, who started a treatment with either an antipsychotic, a mood stabilizer or mirtazapine were selected. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Illumina Methylation EPIC BeadChip at baseline and after one month of treatment.
A global methylation increase was observed after 1 month of treatment, which was more pronounced in patients whose weight remained stable (i.e., <2.5% weight increase). Epigenome-wide significant methylation changes were observed at 52 loci in the whole cohort and at one site, namely cg12209987, located in an intergenic region within an enhancer, specifically in patients who underwent important early weight gain (i.e., ≥5% weight increase) during the same period of treatment (p<5*10-8). Multivariable analysis confirmed an association between an increase in methylation at this locus and weight gain in the whole cohort (p=0.004). Epigenome-wide association analyses failed to identify any significant link between other metabolic changes (e.g. glucose or lipid levels) and methylation data.
These findings give new insight into the mechanisms of psychotropic drug-induced weight gain. With improved understanding of the metabolic side effects, the use of precision medicine with epigenetics may become possible
We started a systematic search for periodic variable-star candidates in the EROS-2 database in the context of preparatory work for the Gaia satellite mission. The goal is to evaluate different classification tools and strategies, and to identify a large sample of variable candidates. In this paper we present the results of an assessment study of a three-step identification and classification process. In the study we took a sample of about 80,000 stars from one of the LMC EROS fields.
The measurement of the positions, distances, motions and luminosities of stars represents the foundations of modern astronomical knowledge. Launched at the end of the eighties, the ESA Hipparcos satellite was the first space mission dedicated to such measurements. Hipparcos improved position accuracies by a factor of 100 compared to typical ground-based results and provided astrometric and photometric multi-epoch observations of 118,000 stars over the entire sky. The impact of Hipparcos on astrophysics has been extremely valuable and diverse. Building on this important European success, the ESA Gaia cornerstone mission promises an even more impressive advance. Compared to Hipparcos, it will bring a gain of a factor 50 to 100 in position accuracy and of a factor of 10,000 in star number, collecting photometric, spectrophotometric and spectroscopic data for one billion celestial objects. During its 5-year flight, Gaia will measure objects repeatedly, up to a few hundred times, providing an unprecedented database to study the variability of all types of celestial objects. Gaia will bring outstanding contributions, directly or indirectly, to most fields of research in astrophysics, such as the study of our Galaxy and of its stellar constituents, and the search for planets outside the solar system.
Two upcoming large scale surveys, the ESA Gaia and LSST projects, will bring a new era in astronomy. The number of binary systems that will be observed and detected by these projects is enormous, estimations range from millions for Gaia to several tens of millions for LSST. We review some tools that should be developed and also what can be gained from these missions on the subject of binaries and exoplanets from the astrometry, photometry, radial velocity and their alert systems.
The ESA Gaia mission will provide a multi-epoch database for a billion of objects,
including variable objects that comprise stars, active galactic nuclei and asteroids. We
highlight a few of Gaia’s properties that will benefit the study of variable objects, and
illustrate with two examples the work being done in the preparation of the data processing
and object characterization. The first example relates to the analysis of the nearly
simultaneous multi-band data of Gaia with the Principal Component Analysis techniques, and
the second example concerns the classification of Gaia time series into variability types.
The results of the ground-based processing of Gaia’s variable objects data will be made
available to the scientific community through the intermediate and final ESA releases
throughout the mission.
We present an analysis of the radial velocities and velocity dispersions for 27 bright globular clusters in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A). For 22 clusters we combine our new velocity dispersion measurements with the information on the structural parameters, either from the literature when available or from our own data, in order to derive the cluster masses and mass-to-light (M/L) ratios. The masses range from 1.2 × 105M⊙, typical of Galactic globular clusters, to 1.4 × 107M⊙, similar to more massive dwarf globular transition objects (DGTOs) or ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs) and to nuclei of nucleated dE galaxies. The average M/LV is 3±1, larger than the average M/LV of globular clusters in the Local Group galaxies. The correlations of structural parameters, velocity dispersion, masses and M/LV for the bright globular clusters extend the properties established for the most massive Local Group clusters towards those characteristic of dwarf elliptical galaxy nuclei and DGTOs/UCDs. The detection of the mass-radius and the mass-M/LV relations for the globular clusters with masses greater than ~ 2 × 106M⊙ provides the link between “normal” old globular clusters, young massive clusters, and evolved massive objects.
During the first year in operation, INTEGRAL has detected more than 28 new bright sources which emit the bulk of their emission above 10 keV. Follow-up observations of a subset of these sources in the X-ray band with XMM-Newton indicate that 80% of them are very strongly absorbed. More than half of these absorbed sources show strong pulsations with long periods ranging from 139 to 1300s, i.e., they are slow X-ray pulsars. Many of these new sources are super-giant high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) in which the stellar wind of the companion star is accreted onto the compact object. The large local absorption in these new sources can be understood if the compact objects are buried deep in their stellar winds. These new objects represent half of the population of active super-giant HMXB.
The projected velocity dispersion in the core of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) intermediate-age globular cluster NGC 1978 is deduced from integrated light spectra. A numerical cross-correlation technique gives a projected velocity dispersion σp(core) = 5.8±1.2 km s−1. Multimass anisotropic King-Michie dynamical models are applied to the observational constraints given by the surface brightness profile and the above central projected velocity dispersion. Depending on the model, the values obtained for the total mass of the cluster range from 0.36 to 1.44 106M⊙, corresponding to mass-to-light ratios M/LV ranging from 1.2 to 4.2 (M/LV)⊙, values typical of galactic globular clusters.
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