To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme.
A prospective case–control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients’ adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale – International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation.
Two groups were established: adherents (99 individuals) and non-adherents (21 individuals). There were differences between the groups regarding: sex (female-to-male ratio of 4.8:1 in adherents and 1.63:1 in non-adherents), age (higher in non-adherents) and voluntary movement posturographic test results (non-adherents had poorer scores).
The patients most likely to abandon a vestibular rehabilitation programme are very elderly males with low scores for centre of gravity balancing and limits of stability.
To describe the epidemiology of infections related to the use of implantable central venous access devices (CVADs) in cancer patients and to evaluate measures aimed at reducing the rates of such infections.
Prospective cohort study.
Referral hospital for cancer in São Paulo, Brazil.
We prospectively evaluated all implantable CVADs employed between January 2009 and December 2011. Inpatients and outpatients were followed until catheter removal, transfer to another facility, or death.
Outcome measures were bloodstream infection and pocket infection. We also evaluated the effects that the creation of a multidisciplinary team for CVAD care, avoiding in-hospital implantation of CVADs, and limiting CVAD insertion in neutropenic patients have on the rates of such infections.
During the study period, 966 CVADs (mostly venous ports) were implanted in 933 patients, for a combined total of 243,792 catheter-days. We identified 184 episodes of infection: 154 (84%) were bloodstream infections, 21 (11%) were pocket infections, and 9 (5%) were surgical site infections. During the study period, the rate of CVAD-related infection dropped from 2.2 to 0.24 per 1,000 catheter-days (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that relevant risk factors for such infection include surgical reintervention, implantation in a neutropenic patient, in-hospital implantation, use of a cuffed catheter, and nonchemotherapy indication for catheter use.
Establishing a multidisciplinary team specifically focused on CVAD care, together with systematic reporting of infections, appears to reduce the rates of infection related to the use of these devices.
To investigate the prevalence, duration, and etiology of bacteremia following dental extractions performed after a single administration of Chlorhexidine mouthwash.
Design and Setting.
A randomized, controlled trial performed in a university hospital.
A series of 106 patients with mental and behavioral disabilities who underwent dental extractions under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to a control group or Chlorhexidine group. The exclusion criteria applied were use of antibiotics in the previous 3 months, use of oral antiseptics, any type of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, and disease that predisposes the patient to infections or bleeding. The Chlorhexidine group had 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash administered for 30 seconds before any dental manipulation. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 seconds, 15 minutes, and 1 hour after the dental extractions. Subculture and further identification of the isolated bacteria were performed by conventional microbiological techniques.
The prevalence of bacteremia after dental extraction in the control and Chlorhexidine groups were 96% and 79%, respectively, at 30 seconds (P = .008), 64% and 30% at 15 minutes (P <.001), and 20% and 2% at 1 hour (P = .005). The most frequently identified bacteria were Streptococcus species in both the control and Chlorhexidine groups (64% and 68%, respectively), particularly viridans group streptococci.
We recommend the routine use of a 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash before dental extractions to reduce the risk of postextraction bacteremia.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.