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It is not clear whether patient's psycho-education enhances compliance to antipsychotic treatments and reduces the number of relapses. Here we investigated the impact of a new psycho-educational program (SOLEDUC®) on the one- and two-years rate of relapse (primary outcome measure) and a number of clinical assessments (secondary outcome measures). This was a multicentric French clinical trial (51 centers) of Phase IV, open, controlled, randomized, consisting in two parallel groups: the Soleduc group (N = 111) and the control group (N = 109). All subjects received a variable dose over the 2-year period of the same antipsychotic drug (amisulpride). Soleduc consisted of a 7-session program (1 h per session), presented three times (at baseline, 6-months and 12-months). Patients in the control group received a non-specific psychosocial training for an equivalent period of time. The models of Andersen-Gill (AG) and Prentice, Williams and Peterson (PWP) were used to analyze relapses. Patients in the Soleduc group attended 14.8 ± 6.1 sessions (mean ± SD), including 17 patients who never attended a session. Intent to treat analysis showed less patients relapsing in the Soleduc group as compared to the control group (21.6% versus 28.4% after 1 year and 84.4% versus 90.8% after 2 years), but the differences were not statistically significant. Relapse risk was significantly reduced for patients who followed at least 7 modules (p = 0.015 AG-test; p < 0.001 PWP-test). In conclusion, no significant differences in relapse rates were found between patients attending the Soleduc program and the control group. Attendance of at least 7 out of 21 program sessions was required to see a modest, but significant two-year relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Other well designed studies are required to evaluate the medical impact of patient's education programs.
currently, most of the classification studies of psychosis focused on chronic patients and employed single machine learning approaches. To overcome these limitations, we here compare, to our best knowledge for the first time, different classification methods of First Episode Psychosis (FEP) using multimodal imaging data exploited on several cortical and subcortical structures and white matter fiber bundles.
23 FEP patients and 23 age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy participants were included in the study. An innovative multivariate approach based on Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) methods was implemented on structural MRI (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
MKL provides the best classification performances in comparison with the more widely used Support Vector Machine, enabling the definition of a reliable automatic decisional system based on the integration of multimodal imaging information. Our results show a discrimination accuracy greater than 90% between healthy subjects and patients with FEP. Regions with an accuracy greater than 70% on different imaging sources and measures were middle and superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncinate fascicles and cingulum.
this study shows that multivariate machine learning approaches integrating multimodal and multisource imaging data can classify FEP patients with high accuracy. Interestingly, specific grey matter structures and white matter bundles reach high classification reliability when using different imaging modalities and indices, potentially outlining a prefronto-limbic network impaired in FEP with particular regard to the right hemisphere.
Lake Untersee is one of the largest perennially ice-covered lakes in Dronning Maud Land. We investigated the energy and water mass balance of Lake Untersee to understand its state of equilibrium. The thickness of the ice cover is strongly correlated with sublimation rates; variations in sublimation rates across the ice cover are largely determined by wind-driven turbulent heat fluxes and the number of snow-covered days. Lake extent and water level have remained stable for the past 20 years, indicating that the water mass balance is in equilibrium. The lake is damned by the Anuchin Glacier and mass balance calculation suggest that subaqueous melting of terminus ice contributes 40–45% of the annual water budget; since there is no evidence of streams flowing into the lake, the lake must be connected to a groundwater system that contributes 55–60% in order to maintain the lake budget in balance. The groundwater likely flows at a rate of ~8.8 × 10−2 m3 s−1, a reasonable estimate given the range of subglacial water flux in the region. The fate of its well-sealed ice cover is likely tied to changes in wind regime, whereas changes in water budget are more closely linked to the response of surrounding glaciers to climate change.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Most major modern families of Hymenoptera were established in the Mesozoic, but the diversifications within ecologically key trophic guilds and lineages that significantly influence the character of modern terrestrial ecosystems – bees (Apiformes), ants (Formicidae), social Vespidae, parasitoids (Ichneumonidae), and phytophagous Tenthredinoidea – were previously known to occur mostly in the middle to late Eocene. We find these changes earlier, seen here in the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands fossil deposits of western North America. Some of these may have occurred even earlier, but have been obscured by taphonomic processes. We provide an overview of the Okanagan Highlands Hymenoptera to family level and in some cases below that, with a minimum of 25 named families and at least 30 when those tentatively assigned or distinct at family level, but not named are included. Some are poorly known as fossils (Trigonalidae, Siricidae, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae), and some represent the oldest confirmed occurrences (Trigonalidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae sensu stricto, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae, and possibly Halictidae). Some taxa previously thought to be relictual or extinct by the end of the Cretaceous (Angarosphecidae, Archaeoscoliinae, some Diapriidae) are present and sometimes abundant in the early Eocene. Living relatives of some taxa are now present in different climate regimes or on different continents.
Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation.
To address these limitations, we compared 25 TRD patients, who underwent DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), with 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on gender, age and education level. Both groups did subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery assessing verbal and visuospatial memory, attention, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor functioning, planning and object naming. TRD patients were tested 3 weeks prior to DBS surgery (baseline), 3 weeks following surgery (T1) and following 52 weeks of DBS optimization (T2). HCs were tested at baseline, 6 weeks following baseline (T1) and 20–24 weeks following baseline (T2). Subsequently, TRD patients entered a randomized, double-blind crossover phase, in which they were tested in an active and a sham stimulation phase.
TRD patients did not improve on a test of immediate verbal recognition from baseline to T1, whereas HCs did (group x time: p = 0.001). Both TRD patients and HCs improved over sessions on tests measuring delayed verbal recall, visuospatial memory, planning and object naming (all p < 0.01). Active and sham stimulation did not have an impact on any of the tests differentially.
vALIC DBS neither has a lasting positive nor negative impact on cognition in TRD patients. DBS surgery might have a temporary negative effect on verbal memory.
Ground ice is one of the most important and dynamic geologic components of permafrost; however, few studies have investigated the distribution and origin of ground ice in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. In this study, ice-bearing permafrost cores were collected from 18 sites in University Valley, a small hanging glacial valley in the Quartermain Mountains. Ground ice was found to be ubiquitous in the upper 2 m of permafrost soils, with excess ice contents reaching 93%, but ground ice conditions were not homogeneous. Ground ice content was variable within polygons and along the valley floor, decreasing in the centres of polygons and increasing in the shoulders of polygons towards the mouth of the valley. Ground ice also had different origins: vapour deposition, freezing of partially evaporated snow meltwater and buried glacier ice. The variability in the distribution and origin of ground ice can be attributed to ground surface temperature and moisture conditions, which separate the valley into distinct zones. Ground ice of vapour-deposition origin was predominantly situated in perennially cryotic zones, whereas ground ice formed by the freezing of evaporated snow meltwater was predominantly found in seasonally non-cryotic zones.
Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
We present a data-assimilation technique based on a variational formulation and a Lagrange multipliers approach to enforce the Navier–Stokes equations. A general operator (referred to as the measure operator) is defined in order to mathematically describe an experimental measure. The presented method is applied to the case of mean flow measurements. Such a flow can be described by the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, which can be formulated as the classical Navier–Stokes equations driven by a forcing term involving the Reynolds stresses. The stress term is an unknown of the equations and is thus chosen as the control parameter in our study. The data-assimilation algorithm is derived to minimize the error between a mean flow measurement and the measure performed on a numerical solution of the steady, forced Navier–Stokes equations; the optimal forcing is found when this error is minimal. We demonstrate the developed data-assimilation framework on a test case: the two-dimensional flow around an infinite cylinder at a Reynolds number of
. The mean flow is computed by time-averaging instantaneous flow fields from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). We then perform several ‘measures’ on this mean flow and apply the data-assimilation method to reconstruct the full mean flow field. Spatial interpolation, extrapolation, state vector reconstruction and noise filtering are considered independently. The efficacy of the developed identification algorithm is quantified for each of these cases and compared with more traditional methods when possible. We also analyse the identified forcing in terms of unsteadiness characterization, present a way to recover the second-order statistical moments of the fluctuating velocities and finally explore the possibility of pressure reconstruction from velocity measurements.
Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this article, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive, and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research.
The rodents from the late middle Pleistocene hominin-bearing locality of J'bel Irhoud include the following species: Meriones shawii, Gerbillus grandis, Dipodillus campestris, Paraethomys ras, Lemniscomys barbarus, Mus cf. spretus, and Eliomys sp. We consider M. shawii, a living species, as identical with the middle Pleistocene Meriones maghrebianus. The mouse differs from the domestic Mus musculus but does not clearly fit into Mus spretus, either. The rare G. grandis looks identical with the form from the middle Pleistocene of Thomas quarries, which may suggest a rather early age for Irhoud. This is in agreement with the occurrence of Paraethomys, a genus unknown in the upper Pleistocene of Morocco, but the absence of the arvicolid Ellobius suggests that the site is younger than other middle Pleistocene sites, Doukkala II, Sidi Abderrahmane D2, and Irhoud-Derbala-Virage. Paleoecological indicators, such as the taxonomic habitat spectrum, or the relative abundances of Gerbillinae and Murinae, suggest a less xeric environment than in many earlier and later sites. Diversity indices, comparable to those of other middle Pleistocene sites, point to similarly favorable conditions before the major climatic crisis close to the middle/upper Pleistocene boundary that drastically reduced rodent diversity in North Africa.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
We report on 475 measurements of depth to ice-cemented ground in four high-elevation valleys of the Quartermain Mountains, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. These valleys have pervasive ice-cemented ground, and the depth to ice-cemented ground and the ice composition may be indicators of climate change. In University Valley, the measured depth to ice-cemented ground ranges from 0–98 cm. There is an overall trend of increasing depth to ice-cemented ground with distance from a small glacier at the head of the valley, with a slope of 32 cm depth per kilometre along the valley floor. For Farnell Valley, the depth to ice-cemented ground is roughly constant (c. 30 cm) in the upper and central parts of the valley, but increases sharply as the valley descends into Beacon Valley. The two valleys north of University Valley also have extensive ice-cemented ground, with depths of 20–40 cm, but exhibit no clear patterns of ice depth with location. For all valleys there is a tendency for the variability in depth to ice-cemented ground at a site to increase with increasing depth to ice. Snow recurrence, solar insolation, and surface albedo may all be factors that cause site to site variations in these valleys.
In most developed countries, motor vehicle accidents are a leading cause of death among young people, and a large proportion of motor vehicle accidents are alcohol-related. In Spain there are no currently available instruments for assessing positive expectancies related to drinking and driving behavior. Attempting to modify these expectancies may be an effective prevention approach, so there is a need for a valid and reliable scale to measure the construct. The aims of the present study were to translate, culturally adapt, and examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish-language version of the Positive Expectancies for Drinking and Driving for Youth (PEDD-Y) in a sample of Spanish young adults. A total of 352 college students with drivers licenses were recruited at a university in southeast Spain. We examined the factor structure, psychometric properties (reliability and validity) and temporal stability of the Spanish version of the PEDD-Y among Spanish young adult drivers. Findings indicated that the Spanish version of the PEDD-Y demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and was shown to significantly predict lifetime prevalence and future intentions to drink and drive as well as riding with a drunk driver. The Convenience factor performed with the most consistent reliability and predictive validity. Limitations and future research questions are discussed.
In this commentary we concur with Frost's view of the centrality of universal principles in models of word identification. However, we argue that other processes in sentence comprehension also fundamentally constrain the nature of written word identification. Furthermore, these processes appear to be universal. We, therefore, argue that universality in word identification should not be considered in isolation, but instead in the context of other linguistic processes that occur during normal reading.