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The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of ingots and rods of 2–5 mm diameter of (Ni0.92Zr0.08)100−xAlx (0 ≤ x ≤ 4 at.%) ultrafine eutectic composites have been investigated. The microstructure of the composites is comprised of micrometer size γ-Ni dendrites embedded in a nano/-ultrafine lamellar fcc γ-Ni and Ni5Zr matrix. The evolution of the microstructure at a wide range of cooling rates (10–104 K/s) has been analyzed in respect of volume fraction of the phases, lamellar spacing, and secondary dendritic arm spacing. All these composites exhibit high hardness up to 4.6 GPa and yield strength up to 1.6 GPa with large compressive plasticity up to 22% at room temperature. The effect of cooling rates on the strength and hardness, and the plasticity of the nanolamellar composites with wide range of alloy composition have been correlated.
A total of 45 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from 10 different places in India where they were associated with cases of cholera between the years 2007 and 2008 were examined by molecular methods. With the help of phenotypic and genotypic tests the strains were confirmed to be O1 El Tor biotype strains with classical ctxB gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by double – mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR showed 16 of these strains carried the ctxB-7 allele reported in Haitian strains. Sequencing of the ctxB gene in all the 45 strains revealed that in 16 strains the histidine at the 20th amino acid position had been replaced by asparagine and this single nucleotide polymorphism did not affect cholera toxin production as revealed by beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study shows that the new ctxB gene sequence was circulating in different places in India. Seven representatives of these 45 strains analysed by pulsed – field gel electrophoresis showed four distinct Not I digested profiles showing that multiple clones were causing cholera in 2007 and 2008.
There is a genetic contribution to the risk of suicide, but sparse prior research on the genetics of suicidal ideation.
Active and passive suicidal ideation were assessed in a Sri Lankan population-based twin registry (n = 3906 twins) and a matched non-twin sample (n = 2016). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations with socio-demographic factors, environmental exposures and psychiatric symptoms. The heritability of suicidal ideation was assessed using structural equation modelling.
The lifetime prevalence of any suicidal ideation was 13.0% (11.7–14.3%) for men; 21.8% (20.3–23.2%) for women, with no significant difference between twins and non-twins. Factors that predicted suicidal ideation included female gender, termination of marital relationship, low education level, urban residence, losing a parent whilst young, low standard of living and stressful life events in the preceding 12 months. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with depression, but also with abnormal fatigue and alcohol and tobacco use. The best fitting structural equation model indicated a substantial contribution from genetic factors (57%; CI 47–66) and from non-shared environmental factors (43%; CI 34–53) in both men and women. In women this genetic component was largely mediated through depression, but in men there was a significant heritable component to suicidal ideation that was independent of depression.
These are the first results to show a genetic contribution to suicidal ideation that is independent of depression outside of a high-income country. These phenomena may be generalizable, because previous research highlights similarities between the aetiology of mental disorders in Sri Lanka and higher-income countries.
We address two aspects of finitely generated modules of finite projective dimension over local rings and their connection in between: embeddability and grade of order ideals of minimal generators of syzygies. We provide a solution of the embeddability problem and prove important reductions and special cases of the order ideal conjecture. In particular, we derive that, in any local ring R of mixed characteristic p > 0, where p is a nonzero divisor, if I is an ideal of finite projective dimension over R and p 𝜖 I or p is a nonzero divisor on R/I, then every minimal generator of I is a nonzero divisor. Hence, if P is a prime ideal of finite projective dimension in a local ring R, then every minimal generator of P is a nonzero divisor in R.
We report on the effects of the frequency dispersion in light sensitive materials used in photoimpedance wireless sensors. An example of such a sensor is a gated semiconductor connecting two or more fixed capacitances. The impedance of the device under illumination is changed by the change in the photoresistance of the semiconductor layer and the change in the gate-semiconductor capacitance. We report on the design and simulation of the frequency dispersion of the impedance of this device in silicon and discuss the physics and device performance. We also evaluate the dynamic range and sensitivity of the wireless photoimpedance sensors and show their advantages for wireless sensing applications compared to more conventional light sensors.
We develop a framework for analysing the outcome of resource competition based on
bifurcation theory. We elaborate our methodology by readdressing the problem of
competition of two species for two resources in a chemostat environment. In the case of
perfect-essential resources it has been extensively discussed using Tilman’s
representation of resource quarter plane plots. Our mathematically rigorous analysis
yields bifurcation diagrams with a striking similarity to Tilman’s method including the
interpretation of the consumption vector and the resource supply vector. However, our
approach is not restricted to a particular class of models but also works with other
trophic interaction formulations. This is illustrated by the analysis of a model
considering interactively-essential or complementary resources instead of
prefect-essential resources. Additionally, our approach can also be used for other
ecosystem compositions: multiple resources–multiple species communities with equilibrium
or oscillatory dynamics. Hence, it gives not only a new interpretation of Tilman’s
graphical approach, but it constitutes an extension of competition analyses to communities
with many species as well as non-equilibrium dynamics.
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Schlecht. emend. Snyd. & Hans. f. sp. ciceri is prevalent in most chickpea-growing countries and is a major devastating disease. Host plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. Indigenous chickpea germplasm reveals a heterogeneous genetic make-up and the response of resistance to wilt is an unexplored potential source for disease resistance. There are 70 indigenous germplasm lines selected on the basis of their agronomic performance and diverse areas of collections in the country. Of these, four accessions had a highly resistant score of 1 and six had a score of 3 using a 1–9 rating scale, indicating their level of resistance to Fusarium wilt (race 4). Other germplasm accessions of chickpea were found to be moderately resistant to highly susceptible disease reaction. Likewise, the same set of germplasm was also screened for Meloidogyne incognita (race 1) using pot culture under controlled condition. Only one accession was found to be resistant to this pest. These resistant gene sources can be utilised effectively for race-specific chickpea wilt and root-knot resistance breeding programmes.
A temporal relationship of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in pigs, mosquitoes and humans revealed that sentinel pig seroconversions were significantly associated with human cases 4 weeks before (P = 0·04) their occurrence, highly correlated during the same time and 2 weeks before case occurrence (P < 0·001), and remained significantly correlated up to 2 weeks after human case occurrence (P < 0·01). JEV was detected in the same month in pigs and mosquitoes, and peaks of pig seroconversion were preceded by 1–2 months of peaks of infection in vectors. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that detection of JEV-positive mosquitoes was significantly associated with the median time to occurrence of seroconversion in pigs (P < 0·05). This study will not only help in predicting JEV activity but also accelerate timely vector control measures and vaccination programmes for pigs and humans to reduce the Japanese encephalitis risk in endemic areas.
The excess mortality following first-contact psychosis is well recognized. However, the causes of death in a complete incidence cohort and mortality patterns over time compared with the general population are unknown.
All 2723 patients who presented for the first time with psychosis in three defined catchment areas of the UK in London (1965–2004, n=2056), Nottingham (1997–1999, n=203) and Dumfries and Galloway (1979–1998, n=464) were traced after a mean of 11.5 years follow-up and death certificates were obtained. Data analysis was by indirect standardization.
The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for first-contact psychosis was 184 [95% confidence interval (CI) 167–202]. Most deaths (84.2%, 374/444) were from natural causes, although suicide had the highest SMR (1165, 95% CI 873–1524). Diseases of the respiratory system and infectious diseases had the highest SMR of the natural causes of death (232, 95% CI 183–291). The risk of death from diseases of the circulatory system was also elevated compared with the general population (SMR 139, 95% CI 117–164) whereas there was no such difference for neoplasms (SMR 111, 95% CI 86–141). There was strong evidence that the mortality gap compared with the general population for all causes of death (p<0.001) and all natural causes (p=0.01) increased over the four decades of the study. There was weak evidence that cardiovascular deaths may be increasing relative to the general population (p=0.07).
People with first-contact psychosis have an overall mortality risk that is nearly double that of the general population. Most excess deaths are from natural causes. The widening of the mortality gap over the last four decades should be of concern to all clinicians involved in delivering healthcare.
Four series of samples, prepared at 250° C by decomposition of a mixture of silane and argon in a radio frequency powered deposition systems (rf-PECVD), have been studied. The dilution rates were 1 %, 1.5 %, 5 % and 10 % of silane in argon and the total pressure was 0.5 Torr for the first series and 0.2 Torr for the others. Structural and transport properties of the materials have been studied as function of power density. Structural studies show the transition from purely amorphous material towards microcrystalline material with increasing rf power density. The transport parameters were measured in the as-deposited, light-soaked and annealed states and compared to those obtained on state of the art material. The best material obtained is clearly device grade material. This study shows that argon dilution allows to tailor the material for a given application.
The multilayers of ferroelectric (FE) Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) and ferromagnetic (FM) CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films with 3, 5, and 9 layers having configurations PZT/CFO (PC) and CFO/PZT (CP) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition technique. We have investigated the effect of inter-diffusion at the interface of multilayers (MLs) and reversing the order of FE and FM layers in the multilayers configuration on the electrical/magnetic properties. The TEM of the films showed that the layer structure was not maintained and the inter-diffusion of the CFO into PZT and vice verse were observed at the interface of MLs. Both the PC and CP configurations of multilayer films exhibited pseudo FE hysteresis loop and proper FM hysteresis loops at room temperature. Reversing the multilayer configuration from CP to PC resulted in increasing the pseudo remanent polarization, however this behavior was not observed in magnetic properties. The frequency and temperature dependences of the impedance and modulus spectroscopy of the multilayer PC and CP films were studied in the ranges of 102 to 106 Hz and 200 to 650 K respectively. The electrical response of all multilayer films investigated could be resolved into two contributions. We attributed these to the grain and grain boundary effects in impedance and modulus formalism. We found that the difference between the grain and grain boundary capacitive effect decreased due to increase of the number of layers.
In this short report, we describe some of the structural defects present in laser deposited Y‐Ba‐Cu‐O thin films. Many of the defects observed are polytypoidic variants, related to the layered structure of these cuprates. One possible model by which flux pinning can be achieved is presented.
In order to produce a three-dimensional interconected graphitic network, foams were produced from carbon fiber precursor pitch and processed similarly to high modulus carbon fibers. Uniform size distributions of open spherical cell graphitic carbon foams were produced by microcellular foam blowing of anisotropic pitch using homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The widths of cell walls and ligaments were in the range of the diameters of pitch-based carbon fibers (7-10 μm) and possessed significant alignment of anisotropic pitch crystallites.
Quantitative tests for interfacial adhesion between films and substrates are of criticalimportance in micro-electronic applications. However, many of the available tests are applicable to a limited array of materials systems, or are experimentally complex. In thispaper, a constant depth scratch test, which has been designed to circumvent the limitations associated with currently available tests, is presented along with theoretical developments for the quantification of interfacial shear strength. Because of a fixed scratchgeometry, the test is amenable to straightforward analytical formulations unlike other versions of scratch tests. It is unique in its experimental simplicity, and allows evaluation of interface strength as function of position on the sample. Sample outputs from the test based on Cr films on glass substrates are presented.
A constant depth scratch test (CDST) has been recently developed to quantify the shear strength of film-substrate interfaces. This test is capable of measuring interfacial adhesion as a function of position on the sample surface during a continuous scratch. Unlike many of the currently available tests which are applicable to a limited array of materials systems, or are experimentally complex, this test is quite versatile, and is relatively straightforward to conduct and interpret because of the constant depth geometry. The theoretical basis and the experimental set-up for the test have been previously presented. In this paper, extensions of the theoretical formulation to account for different debonding behaviors of different film-substrate systems are discussed. Experimental results generated with a number of systems, including chromium on glass, gold on aluminum nitride, gold on aluminum nitride with a chromium inter-layer, and polycrystalline diamond on aluminum nitride are presented.
Research of the strain effect on semiconductors and their heterostructures has generated increasing interests due to its important device applications. We have developed a eutectic bonding technique to create in-plane anisotropic strain in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) thin films. MQW thin films grown on (100) GaAs substrates were bonded to (100) GaAs, (100) Si and Y-cut LiNbO3 submounts with a Au/Sn eutectic alloy. The bonding materials consist of Au/Sn multilayer (80 wt% Au and 20 wt% Sn; 0.95μm) with a Cr (500Å) adhesion layer. The bonding process was optimized by carefully choosing the annealing conditions. After bonding, the substrates of the MQWs were removed by wet chemical etching. The in-plane strain was induced in MQW thin film due to the different thermal expansion between the thin film and submount. The strain was characterized using X-ray rocking curve. The microstructures of bonding interfaces and MQW thin films were examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM). This bonding technique can be used for many new device applications which take the advantage of in-plane strain, as well as for device integration.
Thermal oxidation of Silicon in the thin regime is of vital importance to VLSI device engineers because thin layers of SiO2 are exclusively used as the gate dielectric for high performance of MOS devices. There exists a number of models to explain this kinetics of oxidation. However there is a considerable variance among the reported rate constants, which are supposed to describe the oxidation process. Rather than arriving at an alternative model, the present study aims at simulation of existing models of oxidation in dry oxygen, with a recent set of experimental data and arrive at the best possible model and provide accurate rate constants for oxidation in dry oxygen. These experimental data have been obtained, earlier, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and ellip-sometry techniques to measure thicknesses of silicon oxide, grown at 800° in dry oxygen, in the thickness range of 2–20 nm.