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Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Concentrates-fed lamb meat is often associated with an unfavourable lipid profile (high levels of saturated and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA and PUFA). For this reason, Spanish sheep producers from Mediterranean areas are turning to traditional grazing by ewes to obtain healthier lamb meat. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of maternal grazing on the fatty acid (FA) composition of weaned lamb meat. The ewes (Segureña breed) were allocated to two different rearing systems during pregnancy (5 months) and lactation (45 days): (i) feeding indoors on barley grain and lucerne pellets; (ii) grazing on cereal stubble, fallow land and seasonal pastures consisting of Mediterranean shrubs, herbs and trees. Two groups of 20 autumn and spring lambs were sampled. The lambs were weaned at 13.1±0.9 kg and 45.0±4.1 days age and fed on grain-based concentrates until they reached 24.8±2.1 kg live weight (light lambs slaughtered at 98.3±3.6 days of age). The FA content was determined in the intramuscular loin fat by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The ewe diet did not affect the levels of the main lamb FAs (C18:1c+t, C16:0 and C18:2c), and so did not provide any additional reduction in fat saturation. Saturated fatty acids represented around 40% of total FAs determined in the meat. Ewe grazing acted as an n-3 PUFA-promoting diet, providing a lamb meat with a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Spring lamb meat had higher proportions of n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2c9t11+c11t9) to the detriment of the n-6 PUFAs (C20:4, C20:2 and C22:4), while autumn lamb meat also had higher levels of C18:3n-3 and C18:3n-6, and lower level of C20:4, which points to little seasonal differences. The n-6/n-3 ratio achieved by ewe grazing fell from 8.2 to 4.1 (Spring) and from 7.6 to 5.5 (Autumn), values which are close to those recommended in human diet for good cardiovascular health. These n-6/n-3 reductions were associated with lower levels of total PUFA and C20:4n-6. Our research concluded that grazing on stubble and Mediterranean shrubland by ewes, a sustainable rearing practice involving local agro resources, contributed to obtaining weaned lamb meat with a more favourable lipid profile and so can be recommended to sheep farmers.
Current Galactic surveys, including the Gaia mission, rely on the efficiency of the spectral analysis techniques to provide precise and accurate spectral information (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and chemical abundances) in the shortest computational time. In this work, we present a new package to preform complete spectral analyses based on the spectral synthesis technique (Tsantaki et al. 2017, submitted). We focus on deriving atmospheric parameters for FGK-type stars using both high and medium resolution (GIRAFFE) spectra. This method is implemented on the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars to confirm its validity, achieving similar accuracy for the two resolution setups.
Some studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. Very recently, a strong Tc trend was reported in ζ2 Ret relative to its companion (ζ1 Ret) and was explained by the presence of a debris disk around ζ2 Ret. We re-evaluated the presence and variability of the Tc trend in this system with a goal to understand the impact of the presence of the debris disk on a star. Our results confirm the reported abundance difference between ζ2 Ret and ζ1 Ret and its dependence on the Tc. However, we also found that the Tc trends depend on the individual spectrum used. We conclude that for the ζ Reticuli system, for example, nonphysical factors can be at the root of the Tc trends for the case of individual spectra. For more details see Adibekyan et al. (2016b).
In this work we present chemical abundances of heavy elements (Z>28) for a homogeneous sample of 1059 stars from HARPS planet search program. We also derive ages using parallaxes from Hipparcos and Gaia DR1 to compare the results. We study the [X/Fe] ratios for different populations and compare them with models of Galactic chemical evolution. We find that thick disk stars are chemically disjunt for Zn adn Eu. Moreover, the high-alpha metal-rich population presents an interesting behaviour, with clear overabundances of Cu and Zn and lower abundances of Y and Ba with respect to thin disk stars. Several abundance ratios present a significant correlation with age for chemically separated thin disk stars (regardless of their metallicity) but thick disk stars do not present that behaviour. Moreover, at supersolar metallicities the trends with age tend to be weaker for several elements.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme.
A prospective case–control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients’ adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale – International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation.
Two groups were established: adherents (99 individuals) and non-adherents (21 individuals). There were differences between the groups regarding: sex (female-to-male ratio of 4.8:1 in adherents and 1.63:1 in non-adherents), age (higher in non-adherents) and voluntary movement posturographic test results (non-adherents had poorer scores).
The patients most likely to abandon a vestibular rehabilitation programme are very elderly males with low scores for centre of gravity balancing and limits of stability.
We compare recent precise/reliable nebular abundances - as derived from high-quality optical spectra and the most recent ICFs - in a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with nucleosynthesis predictions (HeCNOCl) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ATON models in the metallicity range Z⊙/4 < Z < 2Z⊙. According to the infrared dust features, the sample is divided among carbon-, oxygen-, and double-dust chemistry (CC, OC, and DC, respectively), providing an independent proxy for the nature of the PNe progenitors. Our AGB models, with diffusive overshooting from all the convective borders, nicely reproduce the O overabundances observed in CC PNe, indicating that they evolve from low-Z low-mass (∼1 −3 M⊙) AGB stars. This indicates that O is not always a good indicator of the original ISM metallicity and that the O production by low-mass stars should be considered in galactic-evolution models. The lowest metallicity OC PNe evolve from low-mass (∼1 M⊙) O-rich AGBs, while the higher metallicity ones (all with uncertain dust classifications) display a chemical pattern similar to the DC PNe. In agreement with the recent literature, the DC PNe mostly descend from high-mass (M > 3.5 M⊙) solar/supersolar metallicity AGBs that experience hot bottom burning (HBB), but other formation channels in low-mass AGBs like extra mixing, stellar rotation, binary interaction, or He pre-enrichment cannot be disregarded until more accurate C/O ratios can be obtained. Two DC PNe show the imprint of advanced CNO processing and deep second dredge-up, suggesting progenitors masses close to the limit to evolve as core collapse supernovae (above 6 M⊙). Their actual C/O ratios, if confirmed, indicate contamination from the third dredge-up, rejecting the hypothesis that the chemical composition of such high-metallicity massive AGBs is modified exclusively by HBB.
The pseudo-Frobenius numbers of a numerical semigroup are those gaps of the numerical semigroup that are maximal for the partial order induced by the semigroup. We present a procedure to detect if a given set of integers is the set of pseudo-Frobenius numbers of a numerical semigroup and, if so, to compute the set of all numerical semigroups having this set as set of pseudo-Frobenius numbers.
Age estimation has been a limiting factor in the study of giant columnar cacti. In order to test the feasibility of using radiocarbon methods to estimate the age of the giant cardon cacti (Pachycereus pringlei), we selected six sites spanning the latitudinal and precipitation range of the species in the Baja California peninsula. In each site, we selected four individuals of different heights and sampled a spine from the lowest areole in the stem. The age of the spine was estimated using 14C dating, and the mean annual growth rate of the plant was calculated dividing the height of the lead shoot by the plant’s age. Mean annual growth rate was 0.098 m/yr, with values varying between 0.03 and 0.23 m/yr. Within the range of plants sampled, mean annual growth rates were significantly correlated with the height of the plant (r2=0.82, P<0.0001), and no other site-specific variable such as precipitation or latitude was a significant predictor of mean annual growth rates. A model integrating mean growth rate versus height showed that relatively small differences in growth rates between plants accumulate during the plants’ lifetime, so that plants of similar size may have very different ages. We conclude that 14C dating provides a robust method to explore the growth and demography of columnar cacti.
This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009–2010 and 2010–2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74–1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01–2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23–0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza.
The epidemiology of seasonal influenza is influenced by age. During the influenza season, the European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) reports weekly virological and syndromic surveillance data [mostly influenza-like illness (ILI)] based on national networks of sentinel primary-care providers. Aggregated numbers by age group are available for ILI, but not linked to the virological data. At the end of the influenza season 2012/2013, all EISN laboratories were invited to submit a subset of their virological data for this season, including information on age. The analysis by age group suggests that the overall distribution of circulating (sub)types may mask substantial differences between age groups. Thus, in cases aged 5–14 years, 75% tested positive for influenza B virus whereas all other age groups had an even distribution of influenza A and B viruses. This means that the intepretation of syndromic surveillance data without age group-specific virological data may be misleading. Surveillance at the European level would benefit from the reporting of age-specific influenza data.
Most glaciological studies in Argentina have focused on the large outlet glaciers of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI); the numerous smaller neighboring glaciers have received significantly less attention. We present an inventory of 248 medium- to small-size glaciers (0.01–25 km2) adjacent to the northeast margin of the SPI, describe their change over the period 1979–2005 and assess local and regional climatic variations in an attempt to explain the observed glacier changes. Based on an ASTER mosaic from 20 February 2005 and the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, we identified a total glacier area of 187.2 ± 7.4 km2 between 600 and 2870 m a.s.l. Glaciers are largely debris-free and are concentrated in the western, more humid sector adjacent to the SPI. Using a 20 March 1979 US military intelligence Hexagon KH-9 satellite photograph, we measured a total areal reduction of ∼33.7 km2 (15.2%) between 1979 and 2005. Ablation season temperatures from the study area have followed a regional warming trend that could partly explain the observed glacier shrinkage. Annual precipitation estimates show a gradual decrease between 1979 and 2002 that may also have contributed to the ice mass loss.
Bioactive materials based on polymer/hydroxyapatite are currently being extensively investigated as materials for promotion of bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction . In this work, a material interpenetrating based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA), Chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared following the methodology of the foaming gas Damla Çetin , generating an interpenetrated network with the chitosan filled with hydroxyapatite. The materials were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in vitro bioactivity  (SBF) and characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA studies suggested that there was not existence of possible interactions between polymers and HA but there is a thermal stability increase in the HA content. Meanwhile, SBF and its characterization by SEM, was found that the materials are bioactives as indicated by the formation of a bone-like apatite layer after immersion in simulated body ﬂuid, indicating the potential of this material for use in bone tissue engineering.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
The aim of this study was to monitor the spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 pandemic and the following two influenza seasons 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 using a Bayesian Poisson mixed regression model; and implement this model of geographical analysis in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System to obtain maps of influenza incidence for every week. In the pandemic wave the maps showed influenza activity spreading from west to east. The 2010–2011 influenza epidemic wave plotted a north-west/south-east pattern of spread. During the 2011–2012 season the spread of influenza was geographically heterogeneous. The most important source of variability in the model is the temporal term. The model of spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence is a supplementary tool of influenza surveillance in Spain.
We explore a sample of 148 solar-like stars to search for a possible correlation between the slopes of the abundance trends versus condensation temperature (known as the Tc slope) both with stellar parameters and Galactic orbital parameters in order to understand the nature of the peculiar chemical signatures of these stars and the possible connection with planet formation. We find that the Tc slope correlates at a significant level with the stellar age and the stellar surface gravity. We also find tentative evidence that the Tc slope correlates with the mean galactocentric distance of the stars (Rmean), suggesting that stars that originated in the inner Galaxy have fewer refractory elements relative to the volatile ones. We found that the chemical peculiarities (small refractory-to-volatile ratio) of planet-hosting stars is probably a reflection of their older age and their inner Galaxy origin. We conclude that the stellar age and probably Galactic birth place are key to establish the abundances of some specific elements.