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Strongly radiative shocks are characterized by an ionization front induced by the shock
wave. The role played together by opacity and geometry is critical for the physics of
these shock waves. Moreover, radiation is an obvious way of probing these shock waves,
either by self-emission or by probe absorption. These aspects will be illustrated by
recent experimental results obtained at the iodine PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System)
We use an organic template approach to prepare microporous silica with controlled pore size and narrow pore size distributions. This was accomplished by fabricating relatively dense hybrid silica matrices incorporating organic template ligands by sol-gel synthesis and then removing the organic ligands to create a microporous silica network. Comparison of computer simulation results and experimental data indicated that using this fugitive template approach, pore volume can be controlled by the amount of organic template added to the system, and pore size can be controlled by the size of the organic ligands.
The impact of parasitism on population dynamics is determined in part by the numerical responses of parasites during population fluctuations of their hosts. Vole populations fluctuate in multi-annual cycles allowing such responses to be studied over successive phases of population growth, abundance and decline. We investigate how a helminth community (5 nematode and 7 cestode species) evolved over a full 6-year Water Vole (Arvicola terrestris) population cycle. Brillouin and individual parasite species richness (IPSR) indices were used to measure the numerical response of the parasite community. We report a correlation between levels of parasite intensity and vole population cycle phases. Both indices were consistently higher during pre-decline and decline phases for male and female voles alike. The numerical response of the parasite community suggests that populations may be regulated by parasitism and that studies of this mechanism should allow both for the cyclic or non-cyclic character of the host populations and for the response of the broadest possible set of the local parasite community.
An area close to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau region and subject to intensive deforestation contains a large focus of human alveolar echinococcosis while sporadic human cases occur in the Doubs region of eastern France. The current review analyses and compares epidemiological and ecological results obtained in both regions. Analysis of rodent species assemblages within quantified rural landscapes in central China and eastern France shows a significant association between host species for the pathogenic helminth Echinococcus multilocularis, with prevalences of human alveolar echinococcosis and with land area under shrubland or grassland. This suggests that at the regional scale landscape can affect human disease distribution through interaction with small mammal communities and their population dynamics. Lidicker's ROMPA hypothesis helps to explain this association and provides a novel explanation of how landscape changes may result in increased risk of a rodent-borne zoonotic disease.
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