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Ices of various compositions and in various phases and combinations with one another are found on planetary surfaces through remote sensing techniques, of which optical spectroscopy is the most powerful and diagnostic. Ices also are found in combination with minerals and organic materials; some complex organic materials are the result of energetic processing of ices, while some may represent organic matter from other sources. Remote spectroscopic observations from Earth-based telescopes and planetary probes are usually interpreted with the aid of radiative transfer models that account for the compositions, particle properties, mixing configurations and other parameters relevant to the materials under consideration. This chapter reviews the spectroscopic character of planetary ices in pure states and in combinations with one another, and with minerals and organic solid materials found by remote sensing techniques and by the analysis of analog materials, both naturally occurring and synthesized in the laboratory and thus available for analytical studies.
The near-infrared reflectance spectra of Pluto and its satellites are rich with diagnostic absorption bands of ices of CH4, N2, CO, H2O, and an incompletely identified ammonia-bearing molecule. Following years of investigation of the spectra of Pluto and Charon with ground-based telescopes, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained spectral maps of these bodies and three small satellites on its passage through the system on July 14, 2015, showing the distribution of these ices, as well as a colored, non-ice component. Spectral modeling mapped the distribution of the various ices and showed their abundance and mixing details in relationship to regions of differing surface elevation, albedo, and geologic structure. Additionally, owing to their greatly different degrees of volatility, the ices of Pluto are distributed in patterns responsive to Pluto’s climatic changes on both short and long terms. The surface of Charon is dominated spectrally by H2O ice with one or more ammoniated compounds, and three of the four very small satellites show both H2O ice and the ammonia signature.
The Cassini Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) spans a wavelength range of 0.34 to 5.2 µm. Executing numerous close targeted flybys of the major moons of Saturn, as well as serendipitous flybys of the smaller moons, VIMS gathered millions of spectra of these bodies during its 13-year mission, some at spatial resolutions of a few hundred meters. The surfaces of the inner moons are dominated by water ice, while Iapetus, Hyperion, and Titan have substantial amounts of dark materials, including hydrocarbons, on their surfaces. Phoebe is grayer in color in the visible than Saturn’s other low-albedo moons. The surfaces of the inner small moons are also dominated by water ice, and they share compositional similarities to the main rings. The optical properties of the main moons are affected by particles from Saturn’s rings: the inner moons are coated by the E-ring, which originates from cryoactivity on Enceladus, while Iapetus and Hyperion are coated by particles from the Phoebe ring. Cassini VIMS detected previously unknown volatiles and organics on these moons, including CO2, H2, organic molecules as complex as aromatic hydrocarbons, nano-iron, and nano-iron oxides.
Lake Untersee is one of the largest perennially ice-covered lakes in Dronning Maud Land. We investigated the energy and water mass balance of Lake Untersee to understand its state of equilibrium. The thickness of the ice cover is strongly correlated with sublimation rates; variations in sublimation rates across the ice cover are largely determined by wind-driven turbulent heat fluxes and the number of snow-covered days. Lake extent and water level have remained stable for the past 20 years, indicating that the water mass balance is in equilibrium. The lake is damned by the Anuchin Glacier and mass balance calculation suggest that subaqueous melting of terminus ice contributes 40–45% of the annual water budget; since there is no evidence of streams flowing into the lake, the lake must be connected to a groundwater system that contributes 55–60% in order to maintain the lake budget in balance. The groundwater likely flows at a rate of ~8.8 × 10−2 m3 s−1, a reasonable estimate given the range of subglacial water flux in the region. The fate of its well-sealed ice cover is likely tied to changes in wind regime, whereas changes in water budget are more closely linked to the response of surrounding glaciers to climate change.
Introduction: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) most commonly occurs in non-monitored areas, where we observed a 10min delay before defibrillation (Phase I). Nurses (RNs) and respiratory therapists (RTs) cannot legally use Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) during IHCA without a medical directive. We sought to evaluate IHCA outcomes following usual implementation (Phase II) vs. a Theory-Based educational program (Phase III) allowing RNs and RTs to use AEDs during IHCA. Methods: We completed a pragmatic before-after study of consecutive IHCA. We used ICD-10 codes to identify potentially eligible cases and included IHCA cases for which resuscitation was attempted. We obtained consensus on all data definitions before initiation of standardized-piloted data extraction by trained investigators. Phase I (Jan.2012-Aug.2013) consisted of baseline data. We implemented the AED medical directive in Phase II (Sept.2013-Aug.2016) using usual implementation strategies. In Phase III (Sept.2016-Dec.2017) we added an educational video informed by key constructs from a Theory of Planned Behavior survey. We report univariate comparisons of Utstein IHCA outcomes using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: There were 753 IHCA for which resuscitation was attempted with the following similar characteristics (Phase I n = 195; II n = 372; III n = 186): median age 68, 60.0% male, 79.3% witnessed, 29.7% non-monitored medical ward, 23.9% cardiac cause, 47.9% initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity and 27.2% ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (VF/VT). Comparing Phases I, II and III: an AED was used 0 times (0.0%), 21 times (5.6%), 15 times (8.1%); time to 1st rhythm analysis was 6min, 3min, 1min; and time to 1st shock was 10min, 10min and 7min. Comparing Phases I and III: time to 1st shock decreased by 3min (95%CI -7; 1), sustained ROSC increased from 29.7% to 33.3% (AD3.6%; 95%CI -10.8; 17.8), and survival to discharge increased from 24.6% to 25.8% (AD1.2%; 95%CI -7.5; 9.9). In the VF/VT subgroup, time to first shock decreased from 9 to 3 min (AD-6min; 95%CI -12; 0) and survival increased from 23.1% to 38.7% (AD15.6%; 95%CI -4.3; 35.4). Conclusion: The implementation of a medical directive allowing for AED use by RNs and RRTs successfully improved key outcomes for IHCA victims, particularly following the Theory-Based education video. The expansion of this project to other hospitals and health care professionals could significantly impact survival for VF/VT patients.
In experimental and clinical studies, green or black tea consumption has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. However, these studies involved high levels of tea consumption and may not reflect patterns in the general population. Here, we examined the association between black or green tea consumption and oxidative stress in a cross-sectional study of 889 premenopausal US women aged 35–54 years. Tea consumption was measured using the Block-98 FFQ. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (F2-IsoP) and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP-M) were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. These compounds were measured by MS and normalised to creatinine. Linear regression was used to calculate the geometric mean differences (GMD) and 95% CI for log-transformed urinary F2-IsoP or 15-F2t-IsoP-M in relation to black or green tea consumption. We further examined whether adjusting for caffeine impacted associations between tea and oxidative stress. Geometric means of urinary F2-IsoP and 15-F2t-IsoP-M were 1·44 (95% CI 1·39, 1·49) and 0·71 (95% CI 0·69, 0·73) ng/mg creatinine, respectively. Overall, green tea consumption was not associated with urinary F2-IsoP or 15-F2t-IsoP-M. High-level black tea consumption (≥5 cups/week compared with 0) was associated with higher 15-F2t-IsoP-M concentrations (adjusted GMD=0·10, 95 % CI 0·02–0.19) but not F2-IsoP. Adjusting for caffeine nullified the association between black tea and 15-F2t-IsoP-M. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that dietary tea consumption is inversely associated with oxidative stress.
Lake Untersee is a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake that consists of two basins. The deepest basin, next to the Anuchin Glacier is aerobic to its maximum depth of 160 m. The shallower basin has a maximum depth of 100 m, is anoxic below 80 m, and is shielded from convective currents. The thermal profile in the anoxic basin is unusual in that the water temperature below 50 m is constant at 4°C but rises to 5°C between 70 m and 80 m depth, then drops to 3.7°C at the bottom. Field measurements were used to conduct a thermal and stability analysis of the anoxic basin. The shape of the thermal maximum implies two discrete locations of energy input, one of 0.11 W m-2 at 71 m depth and one of 0.06 W m-2 at 80 m depth. Heat from microbial activity cannot account for the required amount of energy at either depth. Instead, absorption of solar radiation due to an increase in water opacity at these depths can account for the required energy input. Hence, while microbial metabolism is not an important source of heat, biomass increases opacity in the water column resulting in greater absorption of sunlight.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
The balance of the world economy is shifting away from the established economies of Europe, Japan, and the USA, towards the emerging economies of Asia, especially India and China. With contributions from some of the world's leading growth theorists, this book analyses the long-term process of structural change and productivity growth across the world from a unique comparative perspective. Ongoing research from the World KLEMS Initiative is used to comparatively study new sources of growth - including the role of investment in intangible assets, human capital, technology catch-up, and trade in global value chains. This book provides comparisons of industries and economies that are key to analysing the impacts of international trade and investment. This makes it an ideal read for academics and students interested in understanding current patterns of economic growth. It will also be of value to professionals with an interest in the drivers of economic growth and crisis.
Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite. Urinary F2-isoprostane and its metabolite were measured in urine samples collected at enrolment from 912 premenopausal women (aged 35–54 years) participating in the Sister Study. Physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary intakes were self-reported via questionnaires. With adjustment for potential confounders, the geometric means of F2-isoprostane and its metabolite were calculated according to quartiles of dietary intakes, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and linear regression models were used to evaluate trends. Significant inverse associations were found between F2-isoprostane and/or its metabolite and physical activity, vegetables, fruits, vitamin C, α-carotene, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin A, Se, lutein+zeaxanthin and long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Although trans fats were positively associated with both F2-isoprostane and its metabolite, other dietary fat subgroups including SFA, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, MUFA, PUFA, short-chain n-3 fatty acids, long-chain n-3 fatty acids and total fat were not associated with either F2-isoprostane or its metabolite. Our findings suggest that lower intake of antioxidant nutrients and higher intake of trans fats may be associated with greater oxidative stress among premenopausal women.
We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or ‘not encephalitis’; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were ‘unknown’. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those associated with emerging infectious diseases. Active surveillance significantly increases the ascertainment of encephalitis cases compared with passive approaches.
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense, low glycemic index food that supports healthy weight management in people and was examined for dogs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and nutrient utilisation of navy (NB) and black (BB) bean-based diets in overweight or obese companion dogs undergoing a weight loss intervention. A nutritionally complete, dry extruded dog food was used as the control (CON) diet and two isocaloric, nutrient matched bean diets, containing either 25% w/w cooked BB or NB powder formed the test diets. Diets were fed to adult, overweight companion dogs for either four weeks (short-term study, n = 30) or for twenty-six weeks (long-term study, n = 15) at 60% of maintenance calories for ideal weight. Apparent weight loss increased over time in both the short- and long-term studies (p < 0.001) but was not different between the three study groups: apparent weight loss was between 4.05% – 6.14% for the short-term study and 14.0% – 17.9% in the long-term study. The ATTD was within expected ranges for all groups, whereby total dry matter and crude protein ATTD was 7–8% higher in the BB diet compared to CON (P < 0.05), crude fat ATTD was similar across all diets, and nitrogen free extract ATTD was 5–6% higher in both BB and NB compared to CON (P < 0.05). Metabolisable energy was similar for all diets, and ranged from 3,434–3,632 kcal/kg. At the end of each study period, dogs had haemoglobin levels ≥12 g/dl, packed cell volume ≥36%, albumin ≥2.4 g/dl, ALP ≤ 300 IU/l and all median values for each group were within defined limits for nutritional adequacy. This investigation demonstrated that BB and NB diets were safe, digestible, and supported weight loss in calorically restricted, overweight or obese, adult companion dogs.