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The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood.
Seventy unmedicated women varying in history of threat-related ELS completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan to evaluate voxelwise static (overall) and dynamic (variability over a series of sliding windows) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of bilateral amygdala. In a separate session and subset of participants (n = 42), measures of salivary cortisol and affect were collected during a social-evaluative stress challenge.
Higher severity of threat-related ELS was related to more strongly negative static RSFC between amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and elevated dynamic RSFC between amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Static amygdala-DLPFC antagonism mediated the relationship between higher severity of threat-related ELS and blunted cortisol response to stress, but increased dynamic amygdala-rACC connectivity weakened this mediated effect and was related to more positive post-stress mood.
Threat-related ELS was associated with RSFC within lateral corticolimbic circuits, which in turn was related to blunted physiological response to acute stress. Notably, increased flexibility between the amygdala and rACC compensated for this static disruption, suggesting that more dynamic medial corticolimbic circuits might be key to restoring healthy stress response.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
Conducting an accurate census or survey requires active public participation. Without complete participation from all population segments, particularly among those who are hard to count, results will be skewed and not reflect the resident population’s reality. “Hard-to-count” populations are those who are less likely to participate than others in a national census or survey. Hard-to-count populations often include immigrants, those who speak a language other than the nation’s dominant language, renters, people or households living in poverty, and people who feel marginalized or abused by the prevailing society or government (see Chapter 1 in this volume). This chapter discusses how an active public engagement campaign through grass-roots community organizations can ignite participation among those least likely to participate.
Why a grass-roots campaign is critical
According to Rice and Atkin (2013), public communication campaigns are defined as purposive attempts to inform or influence behaviors of large audiences within a given time period using an organized set of communication activities and featuring an array of mediated messages in multiple channels to produce noncommercial benefits to individuals and society. In assessing the impact of public communication campaigns, they note that most experts conclude that such campaigns tend to have a modest rather than strong impact, notably on the health behaviors. There can be a multitude of factors that contribute to the limited impact of these campaigns. For example, Rice and Atkin suggest meager dissemination budgets, unsophisticated application of theory and models, poorly conceived strategic approaches, and promoting complex or difficult behaviors are among the key contributors. They also note that the difficult task of targeting resistant audience segments can be a significant factor. When considering the challenges of reaching hard-to-count population segments in the context of a census public communication campaign, this latter point certainly is a critical consideration, and for this reason alone, it makes sense to have a strong focus on grass-roots efforts.
Two community-based density case-control studies were performed to assess risk factors for cholera transmission during inter-peak periods of the ongoing epidemic in two Haitian urban settings, Gonaives and Carrefour. The strongest associations were: close contact with cholera patients (sharing latrines, visiting cholera patients, helping someone with diarrhoea), eating food from street vendors and washing dishes with untreated water. Protective factors were: drinking chlorinated water, receiving prevention messages via television, church or training sessions, and high household socioeconomic level. These findings suggest that, in addition to contaminated water, factors related to direct and indirect inter-human contact play an important role in cholera transmission during inter-peak periods. In order to reduce cholera transmission in Haiti intensive preventive measures such as hygiene promotion and awareness campaigns should be implemented during inter-peak lulls, when prevention activities are typically scaled back.
It is well known that the cadmium chloride annealing treatment is an essential step in the manufacture of efficient thin film cadmium telluride solar cells. It has been recognized that the combination of annealing at ∼4000C together with the addition of cadmium chloride at the surface induces re-crystallisation of the cadmium telluride layer and also affects the n-type cadmium sulfide. We have applied advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to distinguish the effect of the annealing and the cadmium chloride treatments on the properties of the cadmium telluride deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and relate these observations to device performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a variation in stacking fault density with annealing temperature and annealing time. Stacking faults observed within the cadmium telluride grains in TEM were partially removed post annealing; these findings show that temperature alone has a role in the reduction of stacking faults. However, since we have previously observed almost complete removal of stacking faults with annealing in combination with cadmium chloride, the cadmium chloride is essential to defect removal and high efficiency cells.
Measurements are presented which show the effect of proton irradiation on the irreversibility line and critical current in Tl2 CaBa2Cu2O8 thin films. These data show that the irreversibility line is dependent on the defect structure and that the pinning energy is increased by proton irradiation. This leads to an increase in the critical current density at 60 K for the lowest radiation dose. Further irradiation reduces the critical current, even while the irreversibility line is enhanced.
Laser-assisted deposition of GaAs, AlAs and [AIGa]As thin films on Ge(100) substrates from trimethylgallium-trimethylarsenic and trimethylaluminumtrimethylarsenic Lewis acid-base adduct source materials is reported. A parametric study has been performed in which reactive gas pressure, substrate temperature, laser fluence, laser wavelength (248 nm or 193 nm). and orientation of the laser beam with respect to the substrate have been varied. In the case of irradiation parallel to the substrate, stoichiometric films of GaAs and [AIGa]As have been obtained. The data suggest that for irradiation perpendicular to the substrate a competition exists between desorption and photodeposition, which adversely affects film stoichiometry under the conditions studied.
InP and GaInP layers were heteroepitaxially grown on (100) Si substrates by atmospheric pressure MOCVD. TEM and photoluminescence (PL) were used to measure the defect density and the minority carrier lifetime in these structures. The direct growth of InP on Si resulted in either polycrystalline or heavily faulted single-crystal layers. The use of GaAs buffer layers in InP/Si structures gave rise to significantly improved morphology and reduced the threading dislocation density. The best InP/Si layers in this study were obtained by using GaAs-GaInAs graded buffers. Additionally, the growth of high quality GaInP on Si was demonstrated. The minority carrier lifetime of 7 ns in these layers is the highest of any III-V/Si semiconductor measured in our laboratory.
Pulsed laser annealing and ion beam mixing have been used as surface modification techniques to enhance the physical properties of polycrystalline α-SiC. Thin Ni overlayers (20 nm - 100 nm) were evaporated onto the SiC surface. The specimens were subsequently irradiated with pulses of a ruby or krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser or bombarded with high energy Xe+ or Si+ ions. Both processes are non-equilibrium methods and each has been shown to induce unique microstructural changes at the SiC surface which are not attainable by conventional thermal treatments. Under particular (and optimum) processing conditions, these changes considerably increased the mechanical properties of the SiC; following laser irradiation, the fracture strength of the SiC was increased by as much as 50%, but after ion beam mixing, no strength increase was observed.
High resolution cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Rutherford backscattering techniques were used to characterize the extent of mixing between the Ni and the SiC as a result of the surface modification.
The electronic structure of the Pu-based superconductor PuCoGa5 and the Pauli paramagnet UCoGa5 is investigated using photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission data of PuCoGa5 reveal features at the Fermi energy EF and about 1-1.5 eV below EF indicative of itinerant and localized f-electrons, respectively. Angle-resolved spectra of UCoGa5 show two peaks at similar energies that are highly dispersive, providing evidence for itinerant character of the f-electrons in this material. A comparison of the PuCoGa5 and UCoGa5 data to the spectra of α-Pu and δ-Pu serves to place PuCoGa5 within the context of the more general electronic structure problem in elemental Pu.
The surface temperature of GaAs during pulsed laser heating is obtained from the measured velocity distributions of evaporated atoms. For nanosecond pulses the observed solid-liquid transition temperature agrees with the equilibrium melting point TM. With picosecond pulses the temperature rises above TM by several hundred degrees before melting can be detected. This result is interpreted as evidence of superheating.
The electronic structure of single crystal UO2 and polycrystalline δ-Pu is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. These two actinide materials exhibit properties consistent with the 5f electrons at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. The results for δ-Pu may be viewed as the 5f electrons exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons. For UO2 where angle-resolved photoemission is available, one observes dispersion in the 5f features indicative of the 5f electrons being influenced by the periodic potential of the lattice rather than purely influenced by the site to which the 5f electrons are generally localized.
Manganese has four allotropes with an equilibrium melting point of the high temperature δ-phase at 1517 K and calculated metastable melting points for the ϒ, β and α phases at 1501 K, 1481 K and 1395 K, respectively. Our observations for Mn irradiated with a pulsed laser and supporting estimates of maximum allotropic transition rates indicate that transformations between allotropes are suppressed during heating with ~ 25 ns laser pulses, as well as during subsequent cooling. Upon pulsed heating of β-Mn to the melt threshold, the melt is undercooled 122 K below the δ-Mn melting point. For incident laser pulse energy densities near the melting threshold, resolidification involves regrowth of β-Mn from the substrate. At energy densities well above threshold, the ϒ-Mn phase forms by separate nucleation and growth from the undercooled melt, and is retained upon rapid solidification. From these results and analyses, we conclude that significant melt undercooling, which may exceed 100 K, can occur during pulsed laser melting of metallic crystals and that the resulting crystalline structure is determined by both thermodynamics and nucleation kinetics.
LMTO-ASA calculations were performed on a 26-atom supercell model of a Σ3(111) grain boundary (GB) in bcc Fe. The supercell emulated two GB's with 11 (111)planes of Fe atoms between the GB planes. One of the GB's was clean, with a structural vacancy at the GB core in the center of a trigonal prism of Fe atoms, while on the other GB this site was occupied by a H atom. The interplanar spacings of the supercell were relaxed using a modified embedded atom method. As in the case of P and S in a similar GB environment in Fe there is only a weak interaction between H and nearest Fe atoms. Almost all the Fe d-states are nonbonding. A very weak covalent bond exists between H and Fe due to s-d hybridization, the hybrid bonding part located far below the Fermi energy. This bond is mostly of σ-type, connecting H with the Fe atoms in the GB plane; the δ-component of this bond across the GB is weaker. A weak electrostatic interaction attracts Fe-atoms across the clean GB, but results in repulsion if a H atom is present. The magnetic contribution to intergranular cohesion is decreased when H is present due the suppression of the magnetic moments of the nearest Fe atoms both in the GB plane and directly across the GB.
The characteristics of A112Mo formed in aluminum annealed after implantation with selected maximum molybdenum concentrations were examined by analytical electron microscopy techniques. The A112MO was isolated as the only precipitate in the microstructure for maximum as-implanted molybdenum concentrations up to 11 atomic percent. The morphology of the A112MO can be selected by choosing the maximum as-implanted molybdenum level over the same concentration range. A predominantly lamellar A112MO precipitate structure formed when aluminum was annealed at 550°C after implantation with maximum molybdenum concentrations in the range of 3.3 - 4.4 at.%. The orientation of the body centered cubic (bcc) A112Mo precipitate with respect to the face centered cubic (fcc) matrix can be expressed as (123)p || (002)m and p || m. An explanation for the experimentally observed orientation relationship was developed based on the characteristic relationships between the bcc A112MO precipitate and the fcc matrix. A continuous film of A112MO formed in the surface modified region when aluminum was annealed after implantation with maximum molybdenum concentrations in the approximate range of 8-11 at.%. The microstructure of the A112Mo film was found to depend on the annealing temperature. A granular film formed after annealing at 550°C whereas a mottled film formed after annealing at 400°C. Sequential annealing experiments revealed that the mottled film transforms to a granular film which indicates the mottled film is metastable.
It is shown that the composition and structure of CdTe and CdS surfaces can be reversibly controlled by excimer laser irradiation at fluences below the melting threshold. The removal rate is observed to depend exponentially on laser fluence up to the melting threshold. The translational energies of products desorbed from laser-irradiated CdTe surfaces were determined using time-of-flight spectrometry and are well-described by a Maxwellian velocity distribution. The dynamics of the photo-stimulated desorption process are correlated with the laser-induced changes in composition, and it is shown that the data are consistent with a thermal mechanism for desorption. A model is introduced which describes the reversible, fluence-dependent changes in composition and structure in terms of the kinetic competition between formation and desorption processes at the semiconductor surface.
The behavior of pulsed laser-induced “explosively” propagating buried molten layers (BL) in ion implantation-amorphized silicon has been studied in a time- and spatially-resolved way, using nanosecond time-resolved reflectivity measurements, “Z-contrast” scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging of implanted Cu ions transported by the BL, and helium ion backscattering measurements. Infrared (1152 nm) reflectivity measurements allow the initial formation and subsequent motion of the BL to be followed continuously in time. The BL velocity is found to be a function of both its depth below the surface and of the incident KrF laser energy density (El); a maximum velocity of about 14 m/s is observed, implying an undercoolingvelocity relationship of about 14 K/(m/s). Z-contrast STEM measurements show that the final BL thickness is less than 15 nm. Time-resolved optical, TEM and ion backscattering measurements of the final BL depth, as a function of E1, are also found to be in excellent agreement with one another.