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The analysis of multi-phase pharmaceuticals, particularly when similar structures are involved (i.e. polymorphs, salts or hydrates), can often be a difficult task. Historically, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been utilized to study pharmaceutical samples. Relative to other materials, diffraction data for pharmaceuticals are often complex due to the large number of diffraction maxima caused by the size of the molecule and/or the molecular symmetry. Multi-phase mixtures tend to have a large number of overlapping peaks which can hinder the difftactionist's ability to identify phases and interpret the data. When similar structures are analyzed calorimetrically, their thermal events may severely overlap (as will be shown), preventing accurate interpretation of the data. In addition there are several types of thermal events which may not be related to structural transitions. A common one in pharmaceuticals is the loss of solvent or absorbed (versus molecular) water.
Capillary collimators have found a number of uses in fluorescence, diffraction and other x-ray fields. Most of these applications are realized with single, straight glass capillaries. Focussing of synchrotron x-radiation beams has been shown with tapered capillaries. In addition, numerous straight and bent capillaries, bundled into lens-like optics, offer experimenters many other possibilities for better use of the x-radiation from tubes, synchrotron radiation, and plasma sources or the x-ray intensity collected from samples.
We wanted to present our experience with the extended endoscopic approach to clival pathology, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid leak and reconstruction challenges.
We examined a consecutive series of 37 patients undergoing the extended endoscopic approach for skull base tumours, 9 patients with clival pathology. Patients were examined for the incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak in relation to tumour pathology, location, size, reconstruction and lumbar drain.
The overall incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak was 10.8 per cent. Seventy-five per cent of patients who had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak underwent a transclival approach (p < 0.05). All patients with clival pathology who underwent an intradural dissection had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak (p < 0.05).
Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates after the extended endoscopic approach have improved significantly after advancements including the vascularised nasoseptal flap. Despite this, transclival approaches continue to pose much difficulty. Further investigation is necessary to develop technical improvements that can meet the unique challenges associated with this region.
Thin films of Sr2TiO4 were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and laser-MBE on -SrTiO3single crystal substrates. Films grown by standard PLD display only a single peak in the X-ray diffraction spectra, corresponding to the (006) peak of the K2NiF4 parent structure. Using a Laser-MBE, controlled two-dimensional growth and RHEED intensity oscillations can be routinely obtained. The period of the RHEED intensity oscillations was confirmed to correspond to the deposition of one-half the unit cell. In contrast to PLD-grown films, the (004) and (006) peaks are observed in XRD spectra for the Laser-MBE-grown films. The intensity of the (004) peak is discussed and modeled with respect to in-plane disorder arising from substrate step-edges and out-of-plane film-substrate structural mismatches. That a single, half unit-cell can be deposited allows one to "flip" the terminating surface of SrTiO3 in a controlled and simple manner from a pure TiO2 layer to a SrO layer. Experimental evidence of the importance of such surface control is given for the SrCuO2 structural stability.
High quality and lattice matched buffer layers are needed for the growth of device quality GaN thin films on sapphire for optoelectronic applications. In this context, we report the fabrication of AlN thin films having low defect densities through a novel process called solid phase epitaxial recrystallization (SPER). In this process, as-grown crystalline AlN thin films, having a large defect concentration (such as threading dislocations due to a large lattice mismatch between AlN and sapphire and low angle grain boundaries), were thermally annealed in an inert atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 1200-1600° for 30 min. The as-grown and annealed samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The ion channeling/RBS and TEM results clearly indicate a substantial reduction in the defect density for the recrystallized AlN films. The surface morphology of the SPER AlN films was smooth with a surface roughness close to the unit cell height. The optical bandgap was sharp as compared to as-grown films, with a bandgap of 6.2 eV. The recrystallized films having smooth surface morphology and low defect densities may be useful for the growth of device quality GaN films on sapphire.
Recent results indicate that certain organic molecules whose electronic structures are characterized by extended pi-molecular orbitals can exhibit significant second and third order nonlinear optical (NLO) effects . Unfortunately, this same arrangement which leads to the NLO effects, can also result in essentially one-dimensional bonding coordination. This in turn means that crystals grown from these materials do not readily form good three-dimensional optical-quality crystals, but rather tend to form needles. In addition, pure organic crystals are usually bonded by weak van der Waals forces, often resulting in poor mechanical properties. Indeed, organic impurities are frequently incorporated into these systems during crystallization resulting in poor crystallinity, spurious absorptions, and low damage thresholds. This is particularly true in the case of polymeric NLO materials, where impurities result from the polymerization steps and/or starting materials.
Epitaxial regrowth of deposited amorphous silicon has been previously described utilizing ion implantation amorphization, ion mixing and thermal anneal. This paper evaluates the effects of these process steps on crystalline quality utilizing Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), x-ray diffraction rocking curves and Raman scattering.
In situ (during implantation) regrowth results in defective crystallinity. In contrast, when there is no in situ regrowth, the post anneal crystallinity is equivalent by RBS and x-ray evaluation to virgin single crystal wafers. In situ regrowth is most pronounced during the high beam current ion mixing type implants which produce wafer temperatures of about 250°C. The final crystalline quality which results from different sequences of amorphization and ion mixing implants, is strongly dependent upon the amount of in situ regrowth which has occurred. The greater the in situ regrowth the poorer the final crystalline quality.
Gallium nitride has generated much interest due to its ability to emit light in the blue to UV range . We have investigated the ohmic contact properties of various metals evaporated onto highly auto-doped n-type GaN thin films which were grown on basal sapphire substrates by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Electrical measurements of transmission line structures with the metals In, InSn and AuGeNi revealed a wide range of contact resistivity (10∼2 to 10-6 Ω-cm2) which changed with annealing.
Bulk single crystals of GaN were used for epitaxial growth of GaN films by molecular beam epitaxy. Low temperature photoluminescence yields much higher intensity emission in the near bandedge region for epitaxial films with respect to the situation in bulk crystals. Character of this luminescence changes also. Dominant band-to-band transitions in the bulk crystals are exchanged by bound exciton and/or donor-acceptor pair transitions observed in the epitaxial layers. We will compare the obtained results with the available data on the homoepitaxial samples grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method and discuss the importance of establishing the basic information on energetic positions of excitonic transitions in stress free samples.
An environmental friendly, aqueous based, thin film technology is investigated that is quite versatile in forming a variety of polymer substrates. The polymer substrates are potentially capable of being utilized as high resolution resists for semiconductor chip production. This process is based on polymerization of monomers partitioned within a two dimensional surfactant template adsorbed on the surface of a silicon wafer. The surfactant template (bilayer) serves to localize the polymerization reaction at the liquid‐solid interface and thereby resulting in the coverage of the silicon wafer with a nano‐thin polymer film. On a polished silicon wafer with a 4 nm silicon oxide layer, film thickness up to 130 nm have been obtained for polystyrene and for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which is also used as a standard photoresist mask in electron beam lithography.
In 1985 an outbreak of ornithosis affected 13 of 80 (16%) workers in a duck-processing plant. New employees were three times more likely to become cases than established employees. The highest attack rate was in those on the production line. Following the outbreak, an occupational health scheme was set up to monitor the health of new recruits to the company. Serological evidence of recent infection was demonstrated in 18 of 37 (49%) new employees tested in the first 3 months of employment. Five (14%) also had clinical evidence of ornithosis. Veterinary investigation of the ducks demonstrated a high proportion with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. It is suggested that ornithosis may be more common in duck processors than ins processors than is currently supposed. Strategies to reduce occupational risks are discussed.
In November and December 1992, an outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis occurred in Bradford, a city in the North of England. In all 125 cases were involved, the majority of whom lived in part of the city which received its drinking water supply from a single water treatment works. A case control study demonstrated an association between illness and the consumption of tapwater from this source; those drinking large volumes being more likely to have been ill. Treated water from the defined source yielded cryptosporidial oocysts. Heavy rainfall was recorded in the catchment area of the reservoir supplying raw water to the treatment works, immediately prior to the probable time of infection, based on dates of onset of illness.
The dielectric properties of Maxwellian plasmas are approximated using both Padé approximants to the dispersion function and direct approximation of the distribution. Physical constraints on permissible approximations are discussed, and it is found that some previously published results can lead to predictions of qualitatively incorrect wave properties, including unphysical negative damping. Approximate dispersion functions for Maxwellian distributions are given explicitly, and some of the effects of these approximations on the resulting dispersion are discussed. The approximations discussed here are of use both in analytic work and in accelerating large-scale numerical computations.
In March 1999, a large community outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection occurred in North Cumbria. A total of 114 individuals were reported to the Outbreak Control Team (OCT); 88 had laboratory confirmed E. coli O157. Twenty-eight (32%) of the confirmed cases were admitted to hospital, including three children (3·4%) with haemolytic uraemic syndrome. There were no deaths. A case-control study found that illness was strongly associated with drinking pasteurized milk from a local farm (P=<0·0001) on single variable analysis. Microbiological investigations at the farm revealed E. coli O157 phage type (PT) 21/28 VT 2 which was indistinguishable from the human isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. At the time of occurrence this was the largest E. coli O157 outbreak in England and Wales and the first E. coli O157 PT 21/28 VT 2 outbreak associated with pasteurized milk. This outbreak highlights lessons to be learnt regarding on-farm pasteurization.
A total of 263 individual badgers Meles meles provided 718 blood samples which were screened for parasites. This revealed that 77.2% of individuals tested positive for Babesia missirolii at least once over 3 years, whereas 7.7% did so for Trypanosoma pestanai. However, the prevalence was highest in younger age classes, except in 1990 when it was high in most categories. There was some evidence that following a positive test for Babesia badgers were more likely to be caught again in subsequent years when compared to individuals testing negative. For Trypanosoma, although prevalence decreased from a peak of 29.2% from June onwards in 1990, we found no significant corollaries of infection. These results are discussed in the light of inter-annual variation in weather and other factors.
Malignant cartilaginous tumours of the larynx are very rare, and usually arise from the cricoid cartilage. We report the first documented case of a chondrosarcoma of the epiglottis. The diagnosis, histology and treatment of these tumours are discussed.