To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) made landfall in the Philippines. The literature characterizing the medical, surgical, and obstetrics burden following typhoons is lacking. This study aimed to improve disaster preparedness by analyzing medical diagnoses presenting to a city district hospital before, during, and after Typhoon Haiyan.
The assessment of disease burden and trends was based on logbooks from a local hospital and a nongovernmental organization field hospital for the medicine, surgical, and obstetrics wards before, during, and after the typhoon.
The hospital provided no services several days after typhoon impact, but there was an overall increase in patient admissions once the hospital reopened. An increase in gastroenteritis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and motor vehicle collision-related injuries was seen during the impact phase. A dengue fever outbreak occurred during the post-impact phase. There was a noticeable shift in a greater percentage of emergent surgical cases performed versus elective cases during the impact and post-impact phases.
Overall, several public health measures can prevent the increase in illnesses seen after a disaster. To prepare for the nonfatal burden of disease after a typhoon, health care facilities should increase their resources to accommodate the surge in patient volume. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:240–247)
Metamemory describes the monitoring and knowledge about one's memory capabilities. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to be less able in differentiating between correct and false answers (smaller confidence gap) when asked to provide retrospective confidence ratings in previous studies. Furthermore, higher proportions of very-high-confident but false responses have been found in this patient group (high knowledge corruption). Whether and how these biases contribute to the early pathogenesis of psychosis is yet unclear. This study thus aimed at investigating metamemory function in the early course of psychosis.
Patients in an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS, n = 34), patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP, n = 21) and healthy controls (HCs, n = 38) were compared on a verbal recognition task combined with retrospective confidence-level ratings.
FEP patients showed the smallest confidence gap, followed by ARMS patients, followed by HCs. All groups differed significantly from each other. Regarding knowledge corruption, FEP patients differed significantly from HCs, whereas a statistical trend was revealed in comparison of ARMS and FEP groups. Correlations were revealed between metamemory, measures of positive symptoms and working memory performance.
These data underline the presence of a metamemory bias in ARMS patients which is even more pronounced in FEP patients. The bias might represent an early cognitive marker of the beginning psychotic state. Longitudinal studies are needed to unravel whether metacognitive deficits predict the transition to psychosis and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.
Reconstruction with a vascularised flap provides the most reliable outcome, with post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates of less than 5 per cent. This article aims to review and summarise the critical technical aspects of the vascularised flaps most commonly used for skull base reconstruction.
Vascularised flaps are classified as intranasal or extranasal. The intranasal group includes the Hadad–Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap, the Caicedo reverse nasoseptal flap, the nasoseptal rescue flap, the posteriorly or anteriorly based lateral wall flaps, and the middle turbinate flap. Extranasal flaps include the transfrontal pericranial and transpterygoid temporoparietal flaps.
The Hadad–Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap is overwhelmingly favoured for reconstructing extensive defects of anterior, middle and posterior cranial base. Its pertinent technical features are described. However, it is essential to master the skills required for the various extranasal or regional vascularised flaps because each can offer a reconstructive alternative for specific patients, especially when open approaches are needed and/or intranasal vascularised flaps are not feasible.
The connection between the bi-polar hafnia-based resistive-RAM (RRAM) operational characteristics and dielectric structural properties is considered. Specifically, the atomic-level description of RRAM, which operations involve the repeatable rupture/recreation of a localized conductive path, reveals that its performance is determined by the outcome of the initial forming process defining the structural characteristics of the conductive filament and distribution of the oxygen ions released from the filament region. The post-forming ions spatial distribution in the cell is found to be linked to a degree of dielectric oxygen deficiency, which may either assist or suppress the resistive switching processes.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is
Schizophrenia out-patients have deficits in affective theory of mind (ToM) but also on more basal levels of social cognition, such as the processing of neutral and emotional expressions. These deficits are associated with changes in brain activation in the amygdala and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, until now there have been no studies that examined these different levels of social cognition and their neurobiological underpinnings in patients within one design.
Sixteen medicated schizophrenia out-patients and 16 matched healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a social cognition task that allows the investigation of affective ToM (aToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions.
Patients showed a deficit in emotion recognition and a more prominent deficit in aToM. The performance in aToM and in emotion recognition was correlated in the control group but not in the schizophrenia group. Region-of-interest analysis of functional brain imaging data revealed no difference between groups during aToM, but a hyperactivation in the schizophrenia group in the left amygdala and right STS during emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions.
The results indicate that schizophrenia out-patients have deficits at several levels of social cognition and provide the first evidence that deficits on higher-order social cognitive processes in schizophrenia may be traced back to an aberrant processing of faces per se.
During 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the US Gulf Coast, displacing approximately two million people. With >250,000 evacuees in shelters, volunteers from the American Red Cross (ARC) and other nongovernmental and faith-based organizations provided services. The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition, pre-deployment training, and recognition of scenarios with outbreak potential by shelter health staff.
A rapid assessment using a 36-item questionnaire was conducted through in-person interviews with shelter health staff immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Data were collected by sampling at shelters located throughout five ARC regions in Texas. The survey focused on: (1) public health capacity; (2) level of public health awareness among staff; (3) public health training prior to deployment; and (4) interest in technical support for public health concerns. In addition, health staff volunteers were asked to manage 11 clinical scenarios with possible public health implications.
Forty-three health staff at 24 shelters were interviewed. Nurses comprised the majority of shelter health volunteers and were present in 93% of shelters; however, there were no public health providers present as staff in any shelter. Less than one-third of shelter health staff had public health training, and only 55% had received public health information specific to managing the health needs of evacuees. Only 37% of the shelters had a systematic method for screening the healthcare needs of evacuees upon arrival. Although specific clinical scenarios involving case clusters were referred appropriately, 60% of the time, 75% of all clinical scenarios with epidemic potential did not elicit proper notification of public health authorities by shelter health staff. In contrast, clinical scenarios requiring medical attention were correctly referred >90% of the time. Greater access and support from health and public health experts was endorsed by 93% of respondents.
Public health training for sheltering operations must be enhanced and should be a required component of pre-deployment instruction. Development of a standardized shelter intake health screening instrument may facilitate assessment of needs and appropriate resource allocation. Shelter health staff did not recognize or report the majority of cases with epidemic potential to public health authorities. Direct technical support to shelter health staff for public health concerns could bridge existing gaps and assist surveillance efforts.
The potential for outbreaks of epidemic disease among displaced residents was a significant public health concern in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In response, the Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) and the American Red Cross (ARC) implemented a novel infectious disease surveillance system, in the form of a telephone “hotline”, to detect and rapidly respond to health threats in shelters.
All ARC-managed shelters in Mississippi were included in the surveillance system. A symptom-based, case reporting method was developed and distributed to shelter staff, who were linked with MDH and ARC professionals by a toll-free telephone service. Hotline staff investigated potential infectious disease outbreaks, provided assistance to shelter staff regarding optimal patient care, and helped facilitate the evaluation of ill evacuees by local medical personnel.
Forty-three shelters sheltering 3,520 evacuees participated in the program. Seventeen shelters made 29 calls notifying the hotline of the following cases: (1) fever (6 cases); (2) respiratory infections (37 cases); (3) bloody diarrhea (2 cases); (4) watery diarrhea (15 cases); and (5) other, including rashes (33 cases). Thirty-four of these patients were referred to a local physician or hospital for further diagnosis and disease management. Three cases of chickenpox were identified. No significant infectious disease outbreaks occurred and no deaths were reported.
The surveillance system used direct verbal communication between shelter staff and hotline managers to enable more rapid reporting, mapping, investigation, and intervention, far beyond the capabilities of a more passive or paper-based system. It also allowed for immediate feedback and education for staff unfamiliar with the diseases and reporting process. Replication of this program should be considered during future disasters when health surveillance of a large, disseminated shelter population is necessary.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.