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This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
This chapter seeks to investigate the nature of strategic capabilities required for Indian firms to successfully transcend domestic markets and venture abroad. The study is based on intensive case studies of four Indian firms in the manufacturing and services sectors. The findings indicates that the capabilities considered most important by the firm leaders for the internationalization of their activities were ability to develop resources internally, entrepreneurship, and ability to adjust to poor infrastructure need. Three interesting patterns also emerged in the way firms choose to expand their operations to other markets: capability complementing, capability augmenting, and new capability development. Overall, the study indicates that the competencies required to succeed are also significantly influenced by the industry type and prior history of internationalization by associated companies. To gain a better understanding of these issues it would be necessary to moderate for industry, size, and ownership effects.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
The terminal phase of cancer represents a major crisis for the family system. Regardless of the caregiving role they undertake, family members are forced to address multiple impacts when facing the approaching death of their terminally ill loved one. International guidelines recognize the importance of integrating the family into a care plan. However, more needs to be known about how to deliver optimal family support. The purpose of this study is to review the current state of the art in family/caregiver-focused interventions of people with terminal cancer in palliative care.
For this purpose, an overview of the literature's systematic reviews on the topic was conducted to select Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on family/caregiver-focused interventions.
Nine interventions were found in the systematic reviews of literature and meta-analysis. These family/caregiver-focused interventions were then thoroughly and critically analyzed. Despite the heterogeneity with regard to their characteristics, the interventions commonly focused on caregiving matters, were brief in duration, and delivered by non-mental health experts. The efficacy of such interventions was seen as modest.
Significance of results
Family/caregiver-focused interventions in palliative care remain a matter of concern and more research is needed to identify adequate and effective ways of helping families that face the crisis of terminal illness in the system.
Provisia™ rice was developed recently by the BASF Corporation for control of grass weeds and is complementary to existing Clearfield® technology. Our previous research showed that resistance of Provisia™ rice to the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase herbicide quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) in laboratory and greenhouse environments is governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene. However, these results may not be consistent in different populations or field environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current research is to determine the inheritance of resistance to QPE in rice using different segregating populations evaluated under U.S. field environments. The second objective is to evaluate the response of QPE-resistant breeding lines to various herbicide concentrations at two U.S. locations. Chi-square tests of 12 F2 populations evaluated in Louisiana during 2014 and 2015 indicated that QPE seedling resistance at 240 g ai ha−1 was governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene with no observable maternal effects. Similar results were obtained in five F3 populations derived from the aforementioned F2 populations. Allele-specific SNP markers for QPE resistance also followed Mendelian segregation in the five F2 populations. For the second objective, six QPE-resistant inbred lines showed transient leaf injury at 1× (120 g ai ha−1) or 2× (240 g ai ha−1) field rates 7 and 21 d after treatment (DAT). However, a trend of reduced injury (recovery) from 7 through 33 DAT was observed for all breeding material. No differences in grain yield were found between untreated QPE-resistant lines and those treated with 1× or 2× QPE field rate. Single gene inheritance and good levels of QPE herbicide field resistance in different genetic populations suggest feasibility for rapid and effective development of new QPE-resistant varieties and effective stewardship of the Provisia™ technology.
Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.
Today, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technology enables us to carry out very precise measurements of radiocarbon (14C). Unfortunately, due to fluctuations in the 14C calibration curve, the resulting calibrated time intervals vary from decades up to centuries in calibrated age. Within a time scale of several decades, we can find several time intervals on the 14C calibration curve which correspond with periods of rapid increases in atmospheric 14CO2 activity. Some of these “high slope” parts of the calibration curve could be used for fine time resolution for radiocarbon dating of individual samples. Nevertheless, there are certain limitations owing to the properties of the samples measured. We have prepared a time-resolution curve for the 14C dating method, applying calibration curve IntCal13 and assuming an uncertainty of 14C analyses ±15 yr BP (for recent samples). Our curve of the time resolution covers the last 50 ka. We found several time intervals with time resolution below 50 yr BP for the last 3 ka. Several time intervals which can enable substantially better time resolution compared to neighboring parts of the calibration curve were also found for periods older than 3 ka.
Our ability to reliably use radiocarbon (14C) dates of mollusk shells to estimate calendar ages may depend on the feeding preference and habitat of a particular species and the geology of the region. Gastropods that feed by scraping are prone to incorporation of carbon from the substrate into their shells as evidenced by studies comparing the radiocarbon dates of shells and flesh from different species on different substrates (Dye 1994; Hogg et al. 1998). Limpet shells (Patella sp.) are commonly found in prehistoric midden deposits in the British Isles and elsewhere, however these shells have largely been avoided for radiocarbon dating in regions of limestone outcrops. Results from limpets (Patella vulgata) collected alive on limestone and volcanic substrates on the coasts of Ireland indicate that the shells were formed in equilibrium with the seawater, with no significant 14C offsets. Limpets collected from the east coast of Northern Ireland have elevated 14C due to the output of Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In all locations, the flesh was depleted in 14C compared to the shells. The results will have an important consequence for radiocarbon dating of midden deposits as well as the bone of humans and animals who fed on the limpets.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The ALMA-ALPINE [CII] survey (A2C2S) aims at characterizing the properties of normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) observed in the [CII]-158μm line in the period of rapid mass assembly at redshifts 4 < z < 6. Here we present the survey and the selection of 118 galaxies observed with ALMA, selected from large samples of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts derived from UV-rest frame. The observed properties derived from the ALMA data are presented and discussed in terms of the overall detection rate in [CII] and far-IR continuum. The sample is representative of the SFG population at these redshifts. The overall detection rate is 61% down to a flux limit of 0.07 mJy. From a visual inspection of the [CII] data cubes together with the large wealth of ancillary data we find a surprisingly wide range of galaxy types, including 32.4% mergers, 25.7% extended and dispersion dominated, 13.5% rotating discs, and 16.2% compact, the remaining being too faint to be classified. ALPINE sets a reference sample for the gas distribution in normal star-forming galaxies at a key epoch in galaxy assembly, ideally suited for studies with future facilities like JWST and ELTs.
We present 0.″2–0.″4 resolution ALMA images of the submillimeter dust continuum and the CO, H2O, and H2O+ line emission in a z = 3.63 strongly lensed dusty starburst. We construct the lens model for the system with an MCMC technique. While the average magnification for the dust continuum is about 11, the magnification of the line emission varies from 5 to 22 across the source, resolving the source down to sub-kpc scales. The ISM content reveals that it is a pre-coalescence major merger of two ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, both with a large amount of molecular gas reservoir. The approaching galaxy in the south shows no apparent kinematic structure with a half-light radius of 0.4 kpc, while the preceding one resembles a 1.2 kpc rotating disk, separated by a projected distance of 1.3 kpc. The distribution of dust and gas emission suggests a large amount of cold ISM concentrated in the interacting region.
Sugarcane growers in Florida have been reporting reduced control of fall panicum with asulam, the main herbicide used for POST grass control. Therefore, outside container experiments were conducted to determine the response of four fall panicum populations from Florida to asulam applied alone and to evaluate whether tank-mix combination with trifloxysulfuron enhances control. Asulam was applied at 230 to 7,400 g ai ha−1, corresponding to 1/16 to 2X the maximum labeled rate for a single application in sugarcane, with or without combination with trifloxysulfuron at 16 g ai ha−1. Three fall panicum populations were collected from fields in which reduced control had been reported, while one population was from a field not used for sugarcane production but adjacent to a sugarcane field. The potency of asulam based on ED50 values (the rate required to cause 50% dry weight reduction at 28 d after treatment) ranged from 2,249 to 5,412 g ha−1 for tolerant populations with reported reduced fall panicum control compared with 1,808 g ha−1 for the susceptible population from the field not used for sugarcane production, showing that the latter was most sensitive to asulam. Addition of trifloxysulfuron to asulam increased potency on fall panicum by 5- to 15-fold, indicating that the tank mix enhanced dry weight reduction for all populations. The probability of fall panicum survival (regrowth after aboveground biomass harvesting) at the labeled rate of asulam ranged from 2% to 47% compared with 0% to 6% when trifloxysulfuron was added to the tank mix. Our results show differential response of fall panicum populations in Florida to asulam, which can be overcome by tank mixing with trifloxysulfuron even for populations that are difficult to control in sugarcane, but no evolution of resistance to asulam.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
In this work, we analysed the physical parameters of the spotless actives regions observed during solar minimum 23 – 24 (2007 – 2010). The study was based on radio maps at 17 GHz obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) and magnetograms provided by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The results shows that the spotless active regions presents the same radio characteristics of a ordinary one, they can live in the solar surface for long periods (>10 days), and also can present small flares.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.