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In this paper, we examine some of the physics behind Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) flying machines, and some of the emerging technologies that are driving the recent upsurge of new VTOL projects. The paper attempts to put these into context by examining some of the projects that have been publicised over the past couple of years, particularly those that transition from hovering into wing-borne flight. Although much progress has been made, there still needs to be significant breakthroughs in technologies, particularly battery technology, before the dream of fast, quiet and environmentally friendly inter-city VTOL aircraft can be realised.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
Current methods of control recruitment for case-control studies can be slow (a particular issue for outbreak investigations), resource-intensive and subject to a range of biases. Commercial market panels are a potential source of rapidly recruited controls. Our study evaluated food exposure data from these panel controls, compared with an established reference dataset. Market panel data were collected from two companies using retrospective internet-based surveys; these were compared with reference data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare exposure to each of the 71 food items between the market panel and NDNS participants. We compared 2103 panel controls with 2696 reference participants. Adjusted for socio-demographic factors, exposure to 90% of foods was statistically different between both panels and the reference data. However, these differences were likely to be of limited practical importance for 89% of Panel A foods and 79% of Panel B foods. Market panel food exposures were comparable with reference data for common food exposures but more likely to be different for uncommon exposures. This approach should be considered for outbreak investigation, in conjunction with other considerations such as population at risk, timeliness of response and study resources.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
At weaning, piglets must adapt to considerable changes in their environmental, immunological, and nutritional status. This period of adaptation is accompanied by a reduction in piglet growth rate that has been associated with the shift from sow’s milk to a solid dry diet. Consequently, feeding management strategies that result in increased feed intake may increase piglet growth rate postweaning. This study evaluated the effects of providing feed as a gruel and feeding on floor mats on piglet performance for three weeks after weaning
When emptying finishing barns, it is common practice on U.S. operations to dispatch pigs over a two- to three-week period with the heaviest animals being selected first. However, there has been little research carried out under commercial conditions on the effect of removing pigs from a pen at slaughter weight on the performance of the remaining animals. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of removing the heaviest 30% of animals from a pen on the subsequent growth performance of the remaining pigs.
Wean-to-finish production, which involves taking pigs from weaning to slaughter in the same building, is becoming widely adopted in the US swine industry. This production system is being advocated largely because of claims of improved animal performance and a decrease in labor needed for animal movement compared to conventional multiple-stage systems. One of the potential disadvantages of this system is the considerable underutilization of floor space during the early growth period if pigs are penned in the group sizes that are appropriate for finishing pigs. However, increasing the stocking rate initially at weaning, with some of these pigs subsequently being moved to another finishing facility, may increase output from the system. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate effects of initial stocking rate and of feeder-trough space in commercial wean-to-finish facilities on pig performance from weaning to slaughter.
Due to the hostile conditions at the surface, any life forms existing on Mars today would most likely inhabit a subsurface environment where conditions are potentially wetter and warmer, but organic compounds may be lacking and light energy for photosynthesis would be absent. Methanogens, members of the domain Archaea, are microorganisms from planet Earth that can grow under these relatively extreme conditions. We have demonstrated that certain methanogenic species can indeed grow on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1, with limited amounts of water, under conditions approaching a possible subsurface environment on Mars.
To what extent is there spatial and temporal patterning in the spread of our genus around the planet, and what environmental and behavioural factors specify this patterning? The prevailing model of Pleistocene dispersals of Homo holds that this process was essentially terrestrial, with oceans and seas inhibiting and directing the movement of hominins out of Africa (e.g. Mellars 2006; Dennell & Petraglia 2012; Gamble 2013), although some scholars propose short-range maritime hops at both the Strait of Gibraltar and Bab-el-Mandeb (Lambeck et al.2011; Rolland 2013). The relatively recent discovery of stone tools with apparently Lower and Middle Palaeolithic characteristics on islands in the eastern Mediterranean and in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) has, however, been used by some scholars to challenge this terrestrial model.
Despite overwhelming evidence demonstrating a persisting gap in life expectancy between those with psychotic illness and the general population, there has been no widespread implementation of interventions to improve the physical wellbeing of people with psychotic illness. This article explores opportunities to ‘Bridge the Gap’ in life expectancy. We describe an Australian evidence-based intervention that has substantially improved the physical health of young people recently commenced on antipsychotic medication. Further epidemiological research, accompanied by cultural change within mental health services, is an essential precursor to the implementation of effective and sustainable lifestyle interventions. There are other relatively neglected areas of physical wellbeing for people with psychotic illness, such as screening and diagnosis of malignancies, which need more research and clinical attention. While there has been progress with intervention development and evaluation, translation of evidence-based short-term intervention studies into feasible and sustainable system-wide changes within routine mental health service settings remains a challenge. Developing an implementation framework to support such change is an urgent priority so as to bridge the persisting premature mortality in people living with psychotic illness.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
Both PRSM and JEC would like to put on record their respect for and gratitude to Lady Mallowan and Professor Wiseman, on the occasion of their 80th and 70th birthdays respectively, both of whom have not only made significant contributions to Mesopotamian studies but have also done so much to further the work of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq. Their services to the School, over many years and sometimes in difficult circumstances, have earned them a lasting place in the history of the School and ensured the best thanks of all those interested in its welfare.
When the hoard of tools excavated by Loftus at Tell Sifr in Iraq, in 1854, was reassembled for publication some years ago (Moorey, 1971), a number of items mentioned by Loftus (1857, 268) could not be traced in the British Museum reserve collections nor was it then possible to arrange for the analysis of selected objects. In the intervening years the missing items have been located. The parts of two sheet-metal cauldrons (Figs. 1–3), with cast handle fittings, have now been identified whereas in 1970 only a single fragment was located (Moorey, 1971, no. 83). The “copper ingot” reported by Loftus has now also been traced (Fig. 4), as have a copper or bronze ferrule (Fig. 5) and the “dice-box” (Fig. 6). It has been possible to increase the significance of this still unique find by some investigation of the metals and alloys from which it was made (Table 1). The following notes are supplementary in every way to the original paper, whose substance is not repeated here. The numbering of objects in the previous paper is retained.
This book is a re-introduction to psychology. It focuses on great scholarly thinkers, beginning with Plato, Marcus Aurelius and St Augustine, who gave the field its foundational ideas long before better known 'founders', such as Galton, Fechner, Wundt and Watson, appeared on the scene. Psychology can only achieve its full breadth and potential when we fully appreciate its scholarly legacy. Bruce Alexander and Curtis Shelton also argue that the fundamental contradictions built into psychology's history have never been resolved, and that a truly pragmatic approach, as defined by William James, can produce a 'layered' psychology that will enable psychologists to face the fearsome challenges of the twenty-first century. A History of Psychology in Western Civilization claims that contemporary psychology has overemphasized the methods of physical science and that psychology will need a broader scientific orientation alongside a scholarly focus in order to fully engage the future.
The idea that psychology and medicine are closely intertwined is anything but new. It can be traced back to the Greek physician Hippocrates and his colleagues around 400 BC. In the Middle Ages, the Persian physician and philosopher Avicenna completed the Canon of Medicine, which described several psychological disorders and elaborated the relationship of the four humors of ancient medicine to emotional, mental, moral, and behavioral aspects of life. The Canon of Medicine was a standard medical text in medieval Europe after the twelfth century and remained in use in a few universities until the seventeenth century, along with texts by Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen (Lutz, 2002, p. 60).
In the nineteenth century, European physicians, including Pierre Janet, Jean-Martin Charcot, and Josef Breuer, began modernizing the medical perspective on psychology. However, it was an Austrian doctor named Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) who succeeded in bringing it to the attention of the world. In the decades before World War I, Freud hitched his audacious ideas about unconscious sexuality and aggression to the rising stars of the modernizing medical perspective on psychology and of scientific medicine in general. This new constellation proved so dazzling that it captured the imaginations of psychologists, physicians, and the general public.
“Another curious aspect of the theory of evolution is that everybody thinks he understands it.”
Jacques Monod (1975, p. 12)
The best-known statement of the evolutionary perspective on psychology was written by Charles Darwin (1809–1882). Other evolutionary thinkers are easy to overlook today because Darwin’s well-deserved fame so greatly outshines those who preceded him – as well as those who followed him. Yet, the core of evolution – the idea that change is the basic fact of nature – is as old as scholarly history itself. Leahey (2001, p. 155) described the rise of Darwin’s influence in modern times with the phrase “Heraclitus triumphant,” referring to Heraclitus of Ephesus, a Greek philosopher who lived about a hundred years before Plato. In his theory of flux, Heraclitus proposed that everything on earth is constantly changing. We know of Heraclitus today only from short quotations in other ancient scholars’ works, but he wrote at least one book that was taken very seriously in the ancient world, particularly by Plato and by the Stoics.
Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC), who was a great naturalist and classifier of plant and animal species, also had a deep connection with evolution. Although Aristotle could not actually be labeled an evolutionist, historians of biology have recognized that he provided essential ideas that made the later development of evolutionary theory possible. First, he emphasized the principle of continuity. After examining many specimens of animals, he saw that they did not fall into completely distinct types, but varied along a continuum so that the border separating one type from another was somewhat arbitrary. This principle later proved essential to understanding the origin of species in evolutionary terms (Lovejoy, 1936, pp. 56–58). Second, Aristotle recognized that each maturing individual creature developed in a way that was largely predictable.
For eleven long centuries after St. Augustine, Western Europe’s perspective on psychology remained overwhelmingly Roman Catholic. During this period, a feudal system emerged, subjecting peasants to their lords, lords to their kings, and kings to the Pope. Western Europe was loosely united as a vast, ramshackle hierarchy called “Christendom.” The early part of this eleven-century period is sometimes called the “Dark Ages” because, apart from Church doctrine, the art and philosophy of the fallen ancient world lay dormant.
Yet, from the first centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, technological innovation flourished (Noble, 1997, chaps. 1–2) and vigorous local communities filled the political vacuum left by the Imperial collapse (Toynbee, 1935, Vol. 2). A rebirth of formal scholarship, primarily as study of Aristotle and logical analysis of theological questions, occurred roughly between AD 1000 and 1300, even though the Roman Church continued its tight control over what could be written and said. Toward the end of this period, St. Thomas Aquinas showed how religion and science could function semi-independently, maintaining separate domains of knowledge in which each could pursue its truths without great offense to the other.