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Occupational participation is important for personality disordered offenders (PDOs) because it is integral to health and desistance from offending. What influences occupational participation is unknown for PDOs in the community, limiting effective intervention to affect change. In England and Wales, the Offender Personality Disorder Pathway aims to improve outcomes for people considered highly likely to have a severe personality disorder and who present a high risk of reoffending, who are determined to be PDOs on the basis of a structured assessment. This study identified the influencers of occupational participation for the population who receive this service.
In this critical realist, qualitative study, narrative interviews were conducted with 18 PDOs supervised by probation in England. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to establish influencers of occupational participation.
Four themes describe influencers of occupational participation: function of occupations; influence of the past; external forces; and learning and adaptation. The latter theme reflected understandings of occupational adaptation described by the Model of Human Occupation.
An intervention to increase prosocial occupational participation should be developed and evaluated for PDOs in the community, taking account of occupational participation over the life course.
The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees.
Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings.
A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis.
It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC. Limitations of the study include potential selection bias, use of screening tools, use of single-site study, high refusal rates, the lack of interpreters and lack of women and children in study sample. Future studies should involve the in-reach team to recruit participants and should be run by a steering group consisting of clinicians from the IRC as well as academics.
We examine three-dimensional (3D) effects on the flapping dynamics of a flag, modelled as a thin membrane, in uniform fluid inflow. We consider periodic spanwise variations of length
(ignoring edge effects), so that the 3D effects are characterized by the dimensionless spanwise wavelength
is the chord length. We perform linear stability analysis (LSA) to show increase in stability with
, with the purely 2D mode being the most unstable. To confirm the LSA and to study nonlinear responses of 3D flapping, we obtain direct numerical simulations, up to Reynolds number 1000 based on
, coupling solvers for the Navier–Stokes equations and that for a thin membrane structure undergoing arbitrarily large displacement. For nonlinear flapping evolution, we identify and characterize the effect of
on the distinct flag motions and wake vortex structures, corresponding to spanwise standing wave (SW) and travelling wave (TW) modes, in the absence and presence of cross-flow respectively. For both SW and TW, the response is characterized by an initial instability growth phase (I), followed by a nonlinear development phase (II) consisting of multiple unstable 3D modes, and tending, in long time, towards a quasi-steady limit-cycle response (III) dominated by a single (most unstable) mode. Phase I follows closely the predictions of LSA for initial instability and growth rates, with the latter increased for TW due to suppression of restoring forces by the cross-flow. Phase II is characterized by multiple competing flapping modes with energy cascading towards the more unstable mode(s). The wake is characterized by interwoven (SW) and oblique continuous (TW) shed vortices. For phase III, the persistent single dominant mode for SW is the (most unstable) 2D flag displacement with a continuous parallel wake structure; and for TW, the fundamental oblique travelling-wave flag displacement corresponding to the given
with continuous oblique shedding. The transition to phase III occurs slower for greater
. For the total forces, drag decreases for both SW and TW with decreasing
, while lift is negligible in phase I and II and comparable in magnitude to drag in phase III for any
Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995–1999 and 2004–2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time
phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to
address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small
space missions. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that
uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than
slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB
position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for
the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies. Its fast
response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide
unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRB as a new standard
candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in
early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched
UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) aims to detect the earliest moment of Gamma-Ray
Bursts (GRBs) which is not well known, resulting into the enhancement of GRB mechanism
understanding. The pathfinder mission was proposed to be a scaled-down version of UFFO,
and only contains the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) measuring the
X-ray/gamma-ray with the wide-field of view and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) with a
rapid-response for the UV/optical photons. Once the UBAT detects a GRB candidate with the
position accuracy of 10 arcmin, the SMT steers the UV/optical photons from the candidate
to the telescope by the fast rotatable mirror and provides the early UV/optical photons
measurements with 4 arcsec accuracy. The SMT has a modified Ritchey-Chrètien telescope
with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter including the rotatable mirror and the image
readout by the intensified charge-coupled device. There is a key board called the UFFO
Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) that manages the communication of each telescope and also
of the satellite and the UFFO overall operation. This pathfinder is designed and built
within the limited size and weight of ~20 kg and the low power consumption up to
~30 W. We will discuss the design and performance of the UFFO-pathfinder, and its
integration to the Lomonosov satellite.
One of the key aspects of the upcoming Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) pathfinder for
Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) identification is the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope
(UBAT). The scientific propose of UBAT is to detect and locate as fast as possible the
GRBs in the sky. This is achieved by using a coded mask aperture camera scheme with a wide
field of view (FOV) and selecting a X-ray detector of high quantum efficiency and large
detection area. This X-ray detector of high quantum efficiency and large detection area is
called the UBAT detector. The UBAT detector consists of 48 × 48 Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate
(YSO) scintillator crystal arrays and Multi Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), analog
electronics equipped with ASIC chips, digital electronics equipped with Field Programmable
Gate Array (FPGA) chips, and a mechanical structure that supports all components of the
UBAT detector. The total number of the pixels in the UBAT detector is 2304, and the total
effective detection area is 191 cm2. We will present the design and
construction, and performance of the UBAT detector including the responses of the UBAT
detector to X-ray sources.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using hard X-ray from GRBs. It also contains the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) for the fast detection of UV-optical photons from GRBs. It is designed to begin the UV-optical observations in less than a few seconds after the trigger. The UBAT is based on a coded-mask X-ray camera with a wide field of view (FOV) and is composed of the coded mask, a hopper and a detector module. The SMT has a fast rotatable mirror which allows a fast UV-optical detection after the trigger. The telescope is a modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter, and an image intensifier readout by CCD. The UFFO pathfinder is scheduled to launch into orbit on 2012 June by the Lomonosov spacecraft. It is a scaled-down version of UFFO in order to make the first systematic study of early UV/optical light curves, including the rise phase of GRBs. We expect UBAT to trigger ~44 GRBs/yr and expect SMT to detect ~10 GRBs/yr.
Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype N2 genes of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) detected in Ireland between 2003 and 2007. Nucleotide sequences were compared to previously published sequences from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information. Sequences from viruses of the same subtype isolated in different years were compared to examine the possibility that LPAIVs may have been maintained in Ireland from year to year. All viruses had closest identity with published sequences of European lineage, supporting the conclusion that LPAIVs had been introduced to Ireland by dabbling ducks that had migrated from Europe. The data suggested that different subtypes of virus had been introduced each year. However, there was evidence that some LPAIVs may have been maintained in the sedentary waterfowl population for consecutive seasons. Furthermore, almost identical H6 and H10 sequences with different N types were found in isolates from the same season, suggesting that reassortment had occurred.
Specimens for the detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) were collected from 1937 waterfowl on the Wexford Sloblands, a major wetland reserve in southeast Ireland, between January 2003 and September 2007. During the same period, 1404 waterfowl were sampled at other locations in Ireland. Specimens were tested either by virus isolation or real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT–PCR). A total of 32 isolates of AIV, comprising nine subtypes, was obtained from specimens from the Sloblands compared with just one isolate from elsewhere in Ireland. Samples from nine other waterfowl, five of which were from the Sloblands, tested positive for AIV by rtRT–PCR. Ecological factors are likely to have contributed to the higher detection rate of AIV at the Sloblands compared with the rest of Ireland. It was concluded that targeted surveillance at such sites is a cost-effective means of monitoring the circulation of new AIVs in waterfowl, whereas widespread opportunistic sampling is unproductive and wasteful of resources.
We consider the flapping stability and response of a thin two-dimensional flag of high extensional rigidity and low bending rigidity. The three relevant non-dimensional parameters governing the problem are the structure-to-fluid mass ratio, μ = ρsh/(ρfL); the Reynolds number, Rey = VL/ν; and the non-dimensional bending rigidity, KB = EI/(ρfV2L3). The soft cloth of a flag is represented by very low bending rigidity and the subsequent dominance of flow-induced tension as the main structural restoring force. We first perform linear analysis to help understand the relevant mechanisms of the problem and guide the computational investigation. To study the nonlinear stability and response, we develop a fluid–structure direct simulation (FSDS) capability, coupling a direct numerical simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations to a solver for thin-membrane dynamics of arbitrarily large motion. With the flow grid fitted to the structural boundary, external forcing to the structure is calculated from the boundary fluid dynamics. Using a systematic series of FSDS runs, we pursue a detailed analysis of the response as a function of mass ratio for the case of very low bending rigidity (KB = 10−4) and relatively high Reynolds number (Rey = 103). We discover three distinct regimes of response as a function of mass ratio μ: (I) a small μ regime of fixed-point stability; (II) an intermediate μ regime of period-one limit-cycle flapping with amplitude increasing with increasing μ; and (III) a large μ regime of chaotic flapping. Parametric stability dependencies predicted by the linear analysis are confirmed by the nonlinear FSDS, and hysteresis in stability is explained with a nonlinear softening spring model. The chaotic flapping response shows up as a breaking of the limit cycle by inclusion of the 3/2 superharmonic. This occurs as the increased flapping amplitude yields a flapping Strouhal number (St = 2Af/V) in the neighbourhood of the natural vortex wake Strouhal number, St ≃ 0.2. The limit-cycle von Kármán vortex wake transitions in chaos to a wake with clusters of higher intensity vortices. For the largest mass ratios, strong vortex pairs are distributed away from the wake centreline during intermittent violent snapping events, characterized by rapid changes in tension and dynamic buckling.
Polymer-single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films were prepared and characterized as part of an effort to develop polymeric materials with improved combinations of properties for potential use on future spacecraft. Next generation spacecraft will require ultra-lightweight materials that possess specific and unique combinations of properties such as radiation and atomic oxygen resistance, low solar absorptivity, high thermal emissitivity, electrical conductivity, tear resistance, ability to be folded and seamed, and good mechanical properties. The objective of this work is to incorporate sufficient electrical conductivity into space durable polyimides to mitigate static charge build-up. The challenge is to obtain this level of conductivity (10-8 S/cm) without degrading other properties of importance, particularly optical transparency. Several different approaches were attempted to fully disperse the SWNTs into the polymer matrix. These included high shear mixing, sonication, and synthesizing the polymers in the presence of pre-dispersed SWNTs. Acceptable levels of conductivity were obtained at loading levels less than one tenth weight percent SWNT without significantly sacrificing optical properties. Characterization of the nanocomposite films and the effect of SWNT concentration and dispersion on the conductivity, solar absorptivity, thermal emissivity, mechanical and thermal properties were discussed. Fibers and non-woven porous mats of SWNT reinforced polymer nanocomposite were produced using electrospinning.
The consensus statement by the Royal College of Psychiatrists recommended that patients on high dose antipsychotic medication receive regular electro-cardiographic monitoring to identify prolongation of the QT interval. A survey of trainee psychiatrists in three hospitals investigated the accuracy with which trainees could identify this abnormality and found only 20% could do so.
Changes in splanchnic energy and N metabolism were studied in sheep, prepared with vascular catheters across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and the Liver, and maintained on supramaintenance intakes of either grass or grass + barley pellets. The animals were challenged, on both diets, with 4 d intra- mesenteric vein infusions of NH4CI (25 µmol/min) plus NH4HCO3 (at either 0 or 125 µmol/min). On the final day of each treatment the natural abundance NH4Cl was replaced with 15NH4Cl over a 10 h infusion while over the same period [l-13C]leucine was infused via a jugular vein. Measurements were made of blood flow plus mass transfers of NH3, urea, free amino acids and O2, across the PDV and liver. Enrichments of [14N15N]urea and [15N15N]urea plus [15N]glutamine, aspartate and glutamate were also monitored. Whole-body urea flux was determined by infusion of [14C]urea. At the end of the study the animals were infused for 3 h with 15NH4CI, killed and liver samples assayed for intracellular free amino acid enrichments and concentrations. Blood flows across the splanchnic region were unaffected by either diet or level of ammonium salt infusion. At the lower ammonium salt infusion there was a trend for greater absorption of NH3 across the PDV (P<0·10) with grass + barley than with the grass diet, while removal of urea was unaltered. At the higher ammonium salt infusions there was a significantly greater appearance of NH, across the PDV and this exceeded the extra infused. Urea-N removal, however, was also elevated and by more than that required to account for the additional NH3. The PDV contributed 19–28% to whole-body O2 consumption and the liver 23–32%. Hepatic extraction of absorbed NH3 was complete on all treatments and systemic pH remained constant. The fractions of urea-N apparently derived from NH3, were similar on the grass (0·59–0·64) and grass + barley (0·64–0·67) diets. Hepatic production of urea agreed well with urea flux measurements. Between the two levels of ammonium salt infusion and within diets the additional NH3 removed across the PDV was accounted for by the increased urea-N production. The [14N15N]: [15N15N] ratio of the urea produced was 97:3, while the enrichment of hepatic intracellular free aspartate was lower than that of [14N15N]urea. Glutamine enrichments were 0·23–0·37 those of [14N15N]urea, indicating a minor role for those hepatocytes (probably perivenous) which contain glutamine synthetase (EC 220.127.116.11). Leucine kinetics, either for the whole body or splanchnic tissues, were not different between diets or level of ammonium salt infusion, except for oxidation which was less on the grassfbarley ration. Amino acid concentrations were lower on the grass + barley diet but net PDV absorptions were similar. The pattern of essential amino acids absorbed into the PDV showed good agreement with the published composition of mixed rumen microbial protein. Fractional disappearances of absorbed free essential amino acids across the liver varied from 0·4 (branched chains) to near unity (histidine, phenylalanine)