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VLBI observations of SiO masers recover at most 40-50% of the total flux obtained by single dish observations at any spectral channel. Some previous studies seems to indicate that, at least, part of the lost flux is divided up into many weak components rather than in a large resolved emission area. Taking benefit of the high sensitivity and resolution of the HSA, we investigate the problem of the missing flux in VLBI observations of SiO maser emission at 7 mm in the AGB stars and obtain a high dynamic range map of IRC+10011. We conclude that the missing flux is mostly contained in many very weak maser components.
The interferometric and single-dish observations of the Extended Green Objects sample have been carried out in order to check the possible common pumping mechanism of class I methanol maser (cIMM) and OH(1720 MHz) maser and their identification with a front of bipolar outflow as a source of interstellar shock stimulating collisional pumping of the molecules. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of OH masers allow us to investigate structure, kinematics, and magnetic field configuration of the inner region of the source, i.e., the outflow ejection region. Analysis of magnetic field strength in a disk area is crucial to understanding of the outflow origin.
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is providing key information to the study of maser processes in the Universe, from star formation regions or circumstellar envelopes around evolved stars, to Galactic structure and cosmology, through precise astrometry. VLBI networks offer various capabilities and, most importantly, support to users, to ensure that these infrastructures are fully accesible and that the best science can emerge. In this paper we describe the advances in VLBI that enable exciting maser studies.
We present observations of cometary parent molecules at the IRAM radio telescope which led to the first detections of H2S and CH3OH in comets, and confirmed the presence of H2CO and HCN. Production rates and abundances relative to H2O are given.
The positions of circumstellar molecular masers relative to each other, to the central star, and to the compact extragalactic sources are of astrophysical and astrometrical interest. The SiO masers at λ = 7 mm are especially interesting as the maser spots are located very close to the photosphere of the star. For astrometry we would like to see a proper distribution of the maser spots and several epochs of observations in order to estimate the position of the central star and eventual motions of the spots.
The optical position of this star can be determined with ground-based astrometric facilities, and many of the stars showing SiO emission are in the Hipparcos catalogue. A link between the Optical and Radio Reference Frames is achieved in a second step relating the maser spot positions to the Extragalactic Reference Frame (EGRF) established with VLBI (Baudry et al., 1984).
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
Nançay radio astronomy station teams are involved in several aspects of the Research and Development (R&D)
for radio astronomy detectors and systems:
i) Microelectronics: Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA), receiver on chip and
system in package. The long-term goal is to provide sub-systems for
the future Square Kilometer Array and its Pathfinders. A beamformer chip has been integrated
in the FP6 SKADS dense aperture array technology demonstrator EMBRACE. Wide band SiGe LNAs are
developed, beamformers with in-chip control are studied and more
complex integrated receivers are designed for the european Aperture Array
Verification Programme demonstrator.
ii) Digital signal processing: EMBRACE beamforming has been implemented
in the digital backend and RFI-mitigation oriented
signal processing has been designed for realtime systems,
including work for FP6 SKADS and FP7 PrepSKA.
iii) A study of Phased Array Feeds has started in 2008, in order to study
the radio electric properties of PAFs at the focus of large F/D
telescopes, such as the Nançay Radio Telescope, as well as to test PAF
systems in collaboration with the SPP/IRFU and LAL/IN2P3 laboratories.
Use of n-3 fatty acids (FA) has been reported to be beneficial for cancer patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to issue recommendations on the clinical use of n-3 FA in the cancer setting. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and Healthstar databases. We selected clinical trials or prospective observational studies including patients with cancer and life expectancy >2 months, in which enteral supplements with n-3 FA were administered. Parameters evaluated individually were clinical (nutritional status, tolerance, survival and hospital stays), biochemical (inflammatory mediators), and functional (functional status, appetite and quality of life (QoL)). Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria; eight were of high quality. The panel of experts established the following evidence: (1) oral supplements with n-3 FA benefit patients with advanced cancer and weight loss, and are indicated in tumours of the upper digestive tract and pancreas; (2) the advantages observed were: increased weight and appetite, improved QoL, and reduced post-surgical morbidity; (3) there is no defined pattern for combining different n-3 FA, and it is recommended to administer >1·5 g/day; and (4) better tolerance is obtained administering low-fat formulas for a period of at least 8 weeks. All the evidences were grade B but for ‘length of treatment’ and ‘advantage of survival’ it was grade C. Our findings suggest that administration of n-3 FA (EPA and DHA) in doses of at least 1·5 g/day for a prolonged period of time to patients with advanced cancer is associated with an improvement in clinical, biological and QoL parameters.
Vermiculite single crystals swell to the gel state as a consequence of treatment with concentrated solutions of γ-aminobutyric acid.
The amount of swelling was determined, by measuring by X-ray diffraction the separation of the elementary silicate layers in the gel-like crystals.
By application of pressures into the gels along the swelling direction, a direct measure of the swelling pressure is obtained. The relation between swelling pressures and equilibrium interlayer distances is a function of both cationic concentration and dielectric constant of the solution. Measured swelling pressures are consistent with a model based on formation and interaction of diffuse double layers of aminoacid cations around the silicate particles, these having a Stern layer of an approximate thickness of 5 Å. The specific chemical adsorption potential of the system has been estimated as φ = 3·3 + 0·2 Kcal/mol.
Vermiculite single crystals immersed in aminoacid solutions of varying concentration and pH, form complexes characterized by discrete basal spacings. Organic molecules enter in the interlayer space as cations and as dipolar ions through mechanisms of ion exchange and dipole adsorption.
The basal spacings of the complexes were recorded. Based on these results the possible arrangements of the aminoacid molecules have been discussed.The main assumptions used are: (a) the electropositive groups NH3+ penetrate into the holes formed by the basal oxygens of the silicate; (13) the C-N bonds are perpendicular to the silicate sheets; (c) the hydrogen atoms of the —CH2 groups are directed towards the sheet surfaces; (d) the —COO− and —COOH groups are located in the middle plane of the interlayer space, halfway between the negative structural charges; and (e) double hydrogen bonds are formed between —COOH groups belonging to organic cations adsorbed onto opposite surfaces.
In solutions of higher concentration the crystals swell to the gel state. This phenomenon is due to: (a) the different nature of interlayer cohesion after substitution of the inorganic cations by the aminoacid cationic form; and (b) the appearance of repulsive forces between —COO− groups of adsorbed dipoles, that overcome cohesive forces.
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