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Modern economics tantalizes historians, promising them a set of simple verbal and mathematical formulas to explain and even retrospectively predict historical actions and choices. Colin P. Elliott challenges economic historians to rethink the way they use economic theory. Building upon the approaches of Max Weber, R. G. Collingwood, Ludwig von Mises and others, Elliott reconceptualizes economic theories such as the quantity theory of money and Gresham's law as heuristic constructs - constructs which help historians identify and understand the unique modes of thought and embedding contexts which characterized economic action in the Roman Empire. The book offers novel analyses of key events in Roman monetary history, from Augustus' triumph over Mark Antony and Cleopatra, to third-century AD coinage debasements. Roman history has long been a battleground for polarizing methodological debates, but this book's accessible style and conciliatory tone invites historians, economists, sociologists and other scholars to use economic theory for understanding.
Recurrent aortic arch obstruction following the Norwood procedure is recognised as an important complication. Balloon arch angioplasty is associated with a high recoarctation rate.
We sought to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of stent implantation for recoarctation in children following Norwood or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure over the past decade at a single national cardiology centre.
Of 114 children who underwent Norwood procedure or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure between January 2003 and June 2013, 80 patients survived. Of these 15 children underwent stent implantation for recoarctation. Six of these patients had previous balloon angioplasty. The median age at stent implantation was 4.4 months (range 2–82 months). The median peak aortic arch gradient at catheterisation decreased from 26mmHg (range 10–70mmHg) to 2mmHg (range 0–20mmHg). The median luminal diameter increased from 4.7 mm (range 3.2–7.9 mm) to 8.6 mm (range 6.2–10.9 mm). The median coarctation index increased by 0.49 (range = 0.24–0.64). A Valeo stent was employed in 11 children, a Palmaz Genesis stent in 2 patients, a MultiLink stent in 1 child, and a Jomed covered stent in 1 child. Two factors were associated with the need for stent placement: previous arch angioplasty (p valve < 0.001, χ-square 11.5) and borderline left ventricle (p = 0.04, χ-square = 4.1). Stent migration occurred in one child. There were two deaths related to poor right ventricular systolic function and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Six patients underwent redilation of the stent with no complications.
The prevalence of recurrent aortic arch obstruction following Norwood/Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure was 18%. Stent implantation is safe and reliably eliminates the aortic obstruction. Redilation can be successfully achieved to accommodate somatic growth or development of stent recoarctation.
Hafting is an important part of lithic technology that can increase our understanding of socioeconomic behavior in the past. In this article, we develop a holistic approach to studying hafting by using the concept of curation within a broader assessment of lithic technological organization in early villages. Early villages were loci of socioeconomic transformation as part of the shift from mobile foraging to more sedentary cultivation lifeways. We suggest that an examination of hafting can provide new insights into how early villagers negotiated technological requirements, economic decision making, and social interactions in these novel contexts. As a case study, we develop a curation index and apply it to an archaeological context of hafted and unhafted pointed tools from the early Neolithic village of Dhra’, Jordan. This curation index allows for a discussion of the technological, economic, and social dimensions of hafting strategies at Dhra’. The presence of multiple hafting traditions within early Neolithic villages of Southwest Asia is evidence of persistent social segmentation despite food storage and ritual practices that emphasized communal integration. Through the lens of lithic technological organization, we demonstrate that hafting and curation patterns can increase our understanding of technological, economic, and social strategies in early villages.
Andrew Harding, in his excursus on ‘legal transplantation’, observed: ‘[W]e do live in a world of legal connectivity in which we share common problems which can only be addressed by a limited range of solutions which are unlikely not to have been tried before’. This prescient remark is apt in the context of the growing importance of the proportionality concept in the Australian public law arena. The proportionality concept attained particular prominence when the High Court of Australia found a freedom of political communication impliedly embedded in the Constitution. It was inevitable that with the establishment of such an implied fundamental constitutional guarantee, the High Court had to craft a principle to enable the saving or invalidation of legislation claimed to be in violation of the implied freedom.