Results from recent biological studies (including three Alvin dives in July 1997) of the southernmost deep-sea hydrothermal area known on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), the Logatchev hydrothermal area, are described. The Logatchev area includes three vent fields, each with a different geological setting corresponding to: (1) a large sulphide mound with ‘smoking craters’; (2) an active chimney complex (known as ‘Irina-2’); and (3) a diffuse flow through soft sediment (‘Anya's Garden’). Hydrothermal communities found at these fields differ considerably: Anya's Garden is dominated by vesicomyid clams, Ectenagena sp. aff. kaikoi, Irina-2 by mytilid mussels, Bathymodiolus sp. aff. puteoserpentis, with swarms of shrimps and other rich associated fauna, whereas on the main mound the fauna as a whole is less abundant and less diverse. This is the first record of a living clam population on the MAR. Other bivalves found on the clam field included thyasirids, Thyasira (Parathyasira) spp., not reported previously from deep-sea hot vent communities. The biomass on the mussel bed at Irina-2 exceeds 70 kg m−2 (wet weight with shells) and is the highest known on the MAR. The large shrimp population at Irina-2 includes swarms of Rimicaris exoculata. A diverse shrimp fauna (including a new species Alvinocaris sp. aff. muricola) on the mussel bed is dominated by Mirocaris keldyshi. Overall the Logatchev area is dominated by mussels which may be attributable to the presence of both methane-oxidizing (dominant type) and sulphur-oxidizing bacterial symbionts in their gills. The diversity of vent organisms and biotopes at Logatchev appears to be the highest on the MAR.