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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of testing for equivalence in combination with the Bland and Altman method when assessing agreement between two dietary methods. A sample data set, with eighty subjects simulated from previously published studies, was used to compare a FFQ with three 24 h recalls (24HR) for assessing dietary I intake. The mean I intake using the FFQ was 126·51 (sd 54·06) µg and using the three 24HR was 124·23 (sd 48·62) µg. The bias was −2·28 (sd 43·93) µg with a 90 % CI 10·46, 5·89 µg. The limits of agreement (LOA) were −88·38, 83·82 µg. Four equivalence regions were compared. Using the conventional 10 % equivalence range, the methods are shown to be equivalent both by using the CI (−12·4, 12·4 µg) and the two one-sided tests approach (lower t=−2·99 (79 df), P=0·002; upper t=2·06 (79 df), P=0·021). However, we make a case that clinical decision making should be used to set the equivalence limits, and for nutrients where there are potential issues with deficiency or toxicity stricter criteria may be needed. If the equivalence region is lowered to ±5 µg, or ±10 µg, these methods are no longer equivalent, and if a wider limit of ±15 µg is accepted they are again equivalent. Using equivalence testing, acceptable agreement must be assessed a priori and justified; this makes the process of defining agreement more transparent and results easier to interpret than relying on the LOA alone.
The current NRC recommendations for broiler chickens and laying hens are cause for concern within the animal feed industry, as they are based on very old trial data. This means the work was not only conducted with old-fashioned breeds of commercial chickens, but also relied on inorganic oxides and sulphates in feed and archaic diet formulation, with different quality and types of raw materials compared to those fed now. For modern poultry producers, these recommendations are so obsolete that they may be considered redundant for practical purposes. Broiler chickens and laying hens have benefitted from improvements in genetics and feeding practices since the 1950's and 60's, when many of the trials were run. They now also have the viable option of using chemically organic forms of minerals, which are known to be better absorbed, utilised and stored in tissues compared to inorganic ores. Since 2003, a program of research has been conducted comparing commercial organic minerals (Bioplexes®, Alltech Inc, USA) with inorganic forms, which monitored performance and excretion of minerals, as well as evaluating the new (lower) levels of organic minerals required for sustaining poultry performance. This large scale project began with a series of seminars, including one day on poultry, where global experts in this area discussed the problems and issues relating to mineral nutrition. A collection of the papers from these seminars were compiled and published (Taylor-Pickard and Tucker, 2005), and gave rise to a global project to redefine mineral nutrition. The following paper reviews the work completed to date, where chemically organic forms of minerals have been used in poultry diets.
We sought to validate questionnaires concerning body image perception, body size dissatisfaction and weight-related beliefs in multi-ethnic South African mothers and their daughters.
Settings and subjects: Girls attending primary school (ages 9–12 years, n = 333) and their mothers (n = 204) were interviewed regarding their demographics and body image. Weight, height and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Body image questions and body mass index (BMI) were compared with silhouettes adapted from the Pathways Study for girls and Stunkard's body image figures for mothers. A Feel–Ideal Difference (FID) index score was created by subtracting the score of the silhouette selected by the participants as ‘Ideal’ from the one selected as most closely representing their current appearance or ‘Feel’. We hypothesised that a higher FID index score would be associated with greater body size dissatisfaction.
BMI percentiles in girls (r = 0.46, P < 0.05) and BMI in mothers (r = 0.68, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the selected silhouettes based on size. Participants who reported feelings of being ‘fat’ and those who perceived that their family and friends were more dissatisfied with their body size had significantly higher FID index scores. Scores were lower in black than white girls (all P < 0.05). No differences were found in FID index scores between ethnic groups of mothers. Internal reliability of the ‘thin’ and ‘fat’ belief constructs for girls was demonstrated by standardised Cronbach's α values ≥0.7.
Silhouettes, FID index, ‘fat’ and ‘thin’ belief constructs (in girls) are age-appropriate, culturally sensitive and can be used in further intervention studies to understand body image.
(1) To identify the major sources of nutrition information, and the perceived credibility thereof, among urban black South African women; and (2) to determine the level of knowledge regarding nutrition, particularly regarding the topic of obesity.
A cross–sectional descriptive study that was both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (individual questionnaires). Three hundred and ninety–four black women aged 17–49 years were conveniently sampled from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces in South Africa.
Four focus groups were held with 39 women to identify common themes relating to nutrition knowledge. Based on these data, a questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 394 women by trained fieldworkers.
The most frequently encountered source of nutrition information was the media, particularly the radio and TV (73.4% and 72.1% of subjects, respectively, obtained information from this source in the past year), followed by family/friends (64.6%). Despite only 48.5% of subjects having received nutrition information from a health professional, this was the most highly credible information source. Factors being most influential in choice of foods were taste, preferences of the rest of the family, and price. A lack of knowledge on certain aspects of nutrition was identified, as well as misconceptions regarding diet and obesity.
To improve nutrition knowledge and the effectiveness of nutrition education activities in South Africa, it is recommended that health and nutrition educators become more actively involved with the training of health professionals, particularly those engaged in delivery of services at primary care level, and in turn encourage health professionals to engage more with media sources. Nutrition messages delivered from health professionals via the media will enable public exposure to nutrition information which is not only easily accessible but also perceived to be highly credible.
Hcp (10.0) Co/Re superlattices were grown by dc magnetron sputtering on sapphire (11.0) substrates with the [00.1] direction of the superlattice in the film plane. The temperature-dependent magnetoresistance (MR) was measured on samples patterned by photolithography from 10 K to 300 K in a 5.5 T superconducting magnet. The pattern allows the measurement of the MR with the current (I) and the magnetic field (H) parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic easy axis (c, the [00.1] direction). Measurements at 5 K on an antiferromagnetically-coupled sample shows dips in the MR near H = 0 when H ∕∕ c and H ⊥ I, dips below the saturation value at H ∼ 2.5 kOe for H ∕∕ c and H ∕∕ I configuration due to the competition between the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR). Since the AMR is dependent on the transport within the ferromagnetic layers, the temperature dependence yields information about the relative magnitudes of interface vs. bulk spin-dependent scattering. Our analysis shows that the GMR is anisotropic and that the spin-dependent scattering occurs predominantly at the interfaces only for certain configurations.
X-ray diffraction spectra of CdTe epilayers grown with and without ZnTe buffer layers on <211> Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy consist of 422 and 331 reflections. We interpret these as evidence for the existence of twins within the volume of a <211> oriented epilayer and show that twin volume is dependent on the ZnTe buffer layer and substrate misorientation.
Elderly patients with depression and Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) were compared with age-matched control subjects using a protocol which measured Cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and N-terminal pro-opiomelanocortin (N-POMC) to determine diurnal variation and the effect of dexamethasone administration. Depressed patients had significantly elevated Cortisol concentrations both before and after dexamethasone administration. Basal ACTH and N-POMC concentrations were normal in depressed patients but were both elevated, compared with controls, after dexamethasone. By contrast, in ATD patients, Cortisol was elevated only after dexamethasone, as was ACTH, but not N-POMC. This may imply that the pattern of secretion of POMC-derived peptides underlying increased Cortisol secretion is different in ATD from that in depression.
1. Non-haem-iron absorption from a variety of cereal and fibre meals was measured in parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method.
2. The present study was undertaken to establish whether alteration of the phytate and polyphenol contents of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) affected Fe absorption from sorghum meals, and to assess the influence of fibre on Fe absorption.
3. Removing the outer layers of sorghum grain by pearling reduced the polyphenol and phytate contents by 96 and 92% respectively. This treatment significantly increased the geometric mean Fe absorption from 0.017 to 0.035 (t 3.9, p < 0.005).
4. The geometric mean Fe absorption from a sorghum cultivar that lacked polyphenols (albino sorghum) was 0.043, which was significantly greater than the 0.019 absorbed from bird-proof sorghum, a cultivar with a high polyphenol content (t 2.83, p < 0.05).
5. Fe was less well absorbed from the phytate-rich pearlings of the albino sorghum than from the pearled albino sorghum (0.015 v. 0.035 (t 8.4, P < 0.0005)). Addition of sodium phytate to a highly Fe-bioavailable broccoli (Brassica oleracea) meal reduced Fe absorption from 0.185 to 0.037.
6. The geometric mean Fe absorption from malted sorghum porridge was 0.024 when 9.5 mg ascorbic acid were added and 0.094 when the ascorbic acid was increased to 50 mg (t 3.33, P < 0.005). This enhancing effect of 50 mg ascorbic acid was significantly depressed to 0.04 by tea (t 38.1, P < 0.0005).
7. Wheat bran significantly decreased the geometric mean Fe absorption from white flour from 0.116 to 0.043 (t 7.2, P < 0.0005).
8. Some of the constituents of the dietary fibre complex, such as apple pectin, guar gum, gum tragacanth and microcrystalline cellulose did not inhibit Fe absorption. On the other hand, hemicellulose and lignin decreased absorption. The geometric mean absorption of Fe given with hemicellulose was 0.079 v. 0.269 with microcrystalline cellulose (t 2.95, P < 0.05). Addition of cocoa, which contains approximately 280 g lignin/kg, reduced the geometric mean Fe absorption from milk from 0.075 to 0.035 (t 2.7, P < 0.05).
1. Non-haem iron absorption from a variety of vegetable meals was studied in parous Indian Women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method.
2. The studies were undertaken to establish whether Fe absorption could be correlatedwith the chemical composition of the foodstuff.
3. Addition of the following organic acids commonly found in vegetables, improved the geometric mean Fe absorption from a basic rice meal as follows: from 0·028 to 0·085 with 1 g citric acid, from 0·031 to 0·081 with 15 mg ascorbic acid, from 0·048 to 0·095 with 1 g L-malic acid, from 0·041 to 0·096 with 1 g tartaric acid. The only exception was oxalic acid; the addition of 1 g calciumoxalate to cabbage (Brassica oleraceae) was associated with some depression in Fe absorption from 0·320 to 0·195.
4. There was a marked inhibition of the geometric mean absorption when 500 mg tannic acid was added to a broccoli (Brassica oleraceae) meal (0·015 v. 0·297). Sodium phytate (2 g) caused a similar, though less profound inhibition (0·035 to 0·152).
5. When 3 mg ferrous sulphate was added to different vegetables the geometric mean absorption varied widely. Vegetables of low Fe bioavailability were wheat germ (Triticum aestivum) 0·007, aubergine (Solanum melongena) 0·007, butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) 0·012, spinach (Spinacea oleraceae) 0·014, brown lentils (Lens culinaris) 0·024, beetroot greens (Beta vulgaris) 0·024 and green lentils (Lens culinaris) 0·032. In contrast, bioavailability was moderate or good with carrot (Daucus carota) 0·098, potato (Solanum tuberosum) 0·115, beetroot (Beta vulgaris) 0·185, pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) 0·206, broccoli 0·260, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) 0·224, cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) 0·263, cabbage 0·320, turnip (Brassica rapa) 0·327 and sauerkraut 0·327.
6. All the vegetables associated with moderate or good Fe bioavailability contained appreciable amounts of one or more of the organic acids, malic, citric and ascorbic acids.
7. Poor Fe bioavailability was noted in vegetables with high phytate contents (e.g. wheat germ 0·007, butter beans 0·012, brown lentils 0·024 and green lentils 0·032).
8. The fact that a number of vegetables associated with low Fe-absorption turned bluish-black when Fe was added to them, suggested that the total polyphenol content in them was high. The vegetables included aubergine spinach, brown lentils, green lentils and beetroot greens. When the total polyphenol content in all the vegetables tested was formally measured, there was a significant inverse correlation (r 0·859, P < 0·001) between it and Fe absorption. The inverse correlation between the non-hydrolysable polyphenol content and Fe absorption was r 0·901 (P < 0·001).
9. The major relevance of these findings is the fact that the total absorption of non-haem-Fe from a mixed diet may be profoundly influenced by the presence of single vegetables with either marked enhancing or inhibiting effects on Fe bioavailability.
1. The modification of iron absorption from Fe(III)EDTA by agents known to promote or inhibit absorption was examined in 101 volunteer multiparous Indian women. Fe absorption from Fe(III)EDTA was compared with absorption of intrinsic food Fe in a further twenty-eight subjects. Finally the urinary excretion of radio-Fe after oral administration of 59Fe(III)EDTA was studied in twenty-four subjects and evidence of intraluminal exchange of Fe was examined.
2. Fe absorption from maize porridge fortified with Fe(III)EDTA was more than twice that from porridge fortified with FeSO4. 7H2O.
3. Although bran decreased Fe absorption from FeSO4. 7H2O approximately 11-fold, it had no significant effect on Fe absorption from Fe(III)EDTA. Nevertheless tea, which is a more potent inhibitor of Fe absorption, decreased absorption from Fe(III)EDTA 7-fold.
4. Fe absorption from Fe(III)EDTA given in water was only increased 40% by addition of 3 mol ascorbic acid/mol Fe but by 7-fold when the relative proportions were increased to 6:1. This enhancing effect was blunted when the Fe(III)EDTA was given with maize porridge. In these circumstances, an ascorbate:iron value of 3:1 (which doubles absorption from FeSO4. 7H2O) produced no significant increase in Fe absorption, while a value of 6:1 produced only a 2.5-fold increase.
5. Fe absorption from Fe(III)EDTA was not altered by addition of maize porridge unless ascorbic acid was present.
6. Less than 1% of 59Fe administered as 59Fe(III)EDTA was excreted in the urine and there was an inverse relationship between Fe absorption and the amounts excreted (r 0.58, P > 0.05).
7. Isotope exchange between 55Fe(III)EDTA and 59FeSO4. 7H2O was demonstrated by finding a similar relative value for the two isotopes in urine and erythrocytes when the two labelled compounds were given together orally. This finding was confirmed by in vitro studies, which showed enhanced 59Fe solubilization from 59FeSO4. 7H2O in maize porridge when unlabelled Fe(III)EDTA was added.
8. Although Fe absorption from Fe(III)EDTA was marginally higher it appeared to form a common pool with intrinsic food iron in most studies. It is postulated that the mechanism whereby Fe(III)EDTA forms a common pool with intrinsic food Fe differs from that occurring with simple Fe salts. When Fe is present in the chelated form it remains in solution and is relatively well absorbed because it is protected from inhibitory ligands. Simple Fe salts, however, are not similarly protected and are absorbed as poorly as the intrinsic food Fe.
9. It is concluded that Fe(III)EDTA may be a useful compound for food fortification of cereals because the Fe is well absorbed and utilized for haemoglobin synthesis. The substances in cereals which inhibit absorption of simple Fe salts do not appear to inhibit absorption of Fe from Fe(III)EDTA.
1. Iron absorption from maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgore) beer was more than twelvefold greater than from a gruel made from the constituents used to prepare the beer.
2. The effect of changes occurring during brewing were investigated. These changes include a decrease in the solid content, and the formation of 30 ml ethanol/l and 5 ml lactic acid/].
3. The presence of solid material was found to inhibit Fe absorption markedly, especially when the solid content was 100 g/l or more.
4. The presence of ethanol potentiated Fe absorption but the effect was only modest in gruels with a high solid content.
5 Fe absorption from a 2 ml lactic acid/] solution was four-fold greater than from a hydrochloric acid solution of the same pH. When lactic acid was added to a gruel containing 200 8 solids/l the mean absorbtion rose from 0.4 to 1.2%.
6. In a direct comparison, Fe absorption from beer was significantly better than from a gruel of similar pH containing lactic acid.
7. The results suggest that at least three factors are responsible for the enhanced Fe absorption from maize and sorghum beer. These include the removal of solids during fermentation and the presence of ethanol and of lactic acid in the final brew.
8. In order to reproduce the way in which beer is brewed domestically in Fe containers, a study was done in which beer was prepared in the presence of Fe wire. Under such circumstances Fe was rapidly dissolved and the final Fe concentration of the brew was 89 mg/l. However, the nature of the Fecontaining compound or compounds was not elucidated.
1. Serum ferritin concentrations were measured in 378 Zulu children aged 1–4 years living in Nqutu, KwaZulu and in 342 children of mixed race (Cape coloureds) aged between 1 and 16 years living near Johannesburg.
2. The pattern of serum ferritin concentrations encountered in the children at different ages tended to parallel the changes in iron stores which are known to occur during development.
3. Serum ferritin concentrations showed a significant direct correlation with age, haemoglobin, serum Fe and percentage saturation of transferrin values.
4. Anaemia was most prevalent in the younger children. Of the rural and urban children aged 13–24 months 60 and 53% respectively were anaemic while only 11% of those over 24 months had haemoglobin concentrations that were below normal.
5. The prevalence of anaemia among children who had serum ferritin values below 12 μg/l was only slightly higher than that for the groups as a whole (38.8 % v. 24.3%), while the prevalence in those with values of 12 μg/l or more was only slightly less (18.2%). However, when a ferritin concentration of less than 12μg/l was associated with a percentage saturation of transferrin of less than 16%, the prevalence of anaemia was 70.0%, and only 10.2% of children in whom both values were within the normal range were anaemic.
6. Since 67% of children had either a normal serum ferritin and a normal percentage saturation of transferrin or both values below the normal range, the two measurements taken together provided a useful means of separating the children who had significant Fe deficiency from those whose Fe stores were sufficient to make the appearance of anaemia unlikely.
1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied.
2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties.
3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59Fe erythrocyte utilization method.
4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold if the ratio, ascorbic acid: Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:1, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold.
5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4. 7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect.
6. Fe from FePO4. H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize.
7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooking or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed.
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