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Despite being commonly used in research and clinical practice, the evidence regarding the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) remains equivocal and this has implications on how the scale scores should be aggregated. Researchers continue to debate whether the BDI-II is best viewed as a unidimensional scale, or whether specific subscales have utility. The present study sought to test a comprehensive range of competing factor analytic models of the BDI-II, including traditional non-hierarchical multidimensional models and confirmatory bifactor models.
Participants (n=370) were clinical outpatients diagnosed with either depressive episode or adjustment disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis and confirmatory bifactor modelling were used to test 15 competing models. The unidimensionality of the best fitting model was assessed using three strength indices (explained common variance, percentage of uncontaminated correlations and ω hierarchical).
Overall, bifactor solutions provided superior fit than both unidimensional and non-hierarchical multidimensional models. The best fitting model consisted of a general depression factor and three specific factors: cognitive, somatic and affective. High factor loadings and strength indices for the general depression factor supported the view that the BDI-II measures a single latent construct.
The BDI-II should primarily be viewed as a unidimensional scale, and should be scored as such. Although it is not recommended that scores on individual subscales are used in isolation, they may prove useful in clinical assessment and/or treatment planning if used in conjunction with total scores.
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
A few studies have examined the association between vitamin D and telomere length, and fewer still have examined the relationship in black or male populations. We investigated the cross-sectional association between the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in plasma and relative leucocyte telomere length (LTL) in 1154 US radiologic technologists who were 48–93 years old (373 white females, 278 white males, 338 black females, 165 black males). Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was measured by the chemiluminescence immunoassay, and relative LTL was measured by quantitative PCR. Logistic regression was used to obtain OR and 95 % CI for long v. short (based on median) LTL in relation to continuous 25(OH)D, quartiles of 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D deficiency. We found no significant association between continuous 25(OH)D and long LTL in all participants (Ptrend=0·440), nor in white females (Ptrend=0·845), white males (Ptrend=0·636), black females (Ptrend=0·967) or black males (Ptrend=0·484). Vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D<30 nmol/l), however, was significantly associated with short LTL in whites (P=0·024), but not in other groups. In this population, we found little evidence to support associations between 25(OH)D and long LTL over the entire range of 25(OH)D in the overall study population or by sex and race.
Radiocarbon activity, He concentrations, and other geochemical parameters were measured in groundwater from the confined Black Creek (BC) and Upper Cape Fear (UCF) aquifers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. 14C ages adjusted for geochemical and diffusion effects ranged from 400 to 21,900 BP in the BC, and 13,400 to 26,000 BP in the underlying UCF; ages increased coastward in both aquifers. Long-term average linear groundwater velocity is about 2.5 m/yr for the BC, and somewhat larger for the UCF. Aquifer-aquitard exchange is an important influence on the DIC concentration, 14C activity, and estimated age of aquifer groundwater. Accounting for this exchange in 14C age calculations places the groundwater samples with the lowest estimated recharge temperatures nearest in time to the last glacial maximum. Traditional geochemical correction models that do not account for aquifer-aquitard exchange significantly overestimate groundwater age. He concentration in groundwater varies with both age and stratigraphic position. Dissolved He data provide strong evidence of upward vertical He transport through the study aquifers; data from the UCF are broadly consistent with the pattern expected for a confined aquifer receiving a concentrated, localized He flux from below (based on a previously published model for this situation), in this case most likely from crystalline bedrock. He has potential as an indicator of groundwater age in the study aquifers, if interpreted within an appropriate analytical framework that includes the observed strong vertical transport. δ18O in the oldest groundwater is enriched (relative to modern groundwater) by 1 to 1.2‰, the opposite of the δ18O depletion found in many old groundwaters but consistent with the enrichment found in groundwater in this age range in Georgia and Florida.
Spectra at 16 - 45 μm of several regions within the central 80″ of the Galaxy have been obtained at 20″ resolution using the Goddard Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer No. 2 on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. A broad band of excess emission extending from 24 to 45 μm is present in the spectra at positions covering the “tongue” and the inner edge of the circumnuclear disk. A similar dust emission feature has been observed in some carbon-rich evolved stars and in a nitrogen-rich evolved massive star. The observations reported here are the first detection of this dust emission feature in the interstellar medium. After considering several possible candidates of the carrier for this 30 μm dust feature, we find that MgS is the best owing to its good fit to the observed spectra. The origin of this ~ 30 μm feature in the Galactic center is unknown. Based on the theoretical results of dust condensation and elemental abundances in a supernova, we find that the supernovae in the central 500 pc could provide the amount of MgS dust, which we proposed as the carrier of the 30 μm dust feature, observed in the central 3 pc.
The editorial considers how psychiatrists can deal with concerns relating to confidentiality that are prominent in patients and their carers. Confidentiality is paramount but there are situations when it can be breached. Some of these relate to emergency situations, others apply in less compelling circumstances. The ethical principles relating to confidentiality will be discussed. An assessment of capacity is central to the person’s ability to consent/refuse information gathering or disclosure. Even when capacity is present, there are strategies that psychiatrists can use to respect patient autonomy while meeting the needs of carers. The possibility of training in negotiating these should be considered, as should advance directives.
We report the case of a 52-year-old male with pre-motor Huntington’s disease (HD) who has undergone detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination. This patient’s negative symptomatology and behavioural change are having a detrimental impact on his social, occupational and interpersonal life, in the absence of motor symptoms.
The patient has undergone repeat neuropsychological testing (T1 aged 50; T2 aged 52) with particular focus on executive function and social cognition on repeat testing.
This case details a specific manifestation of HD relating to behavioural, psychiatric and social affective deficits.
This case illustrates how social cognitive changes can occur in HD, months and even years prior to the onset of motor features and how such unrecognized deficits can have a deleterious impact on an individual’s functional ability and lifestyle, before the disease is traditionally considered to have become manifest.
Drillholes made by naticid and muricid gastropods are frequently used in evolutionary and ecological studies because they provide direct, preservable evidence of predation. The muricid Ecphora is common in many Neogene Atlantic Coastal Plain assemblages in the United States, but is frequently ignored in studies of naticid predation. We used a combination of Pliocene fossil, modern beach, and experimentally derived samples to evaluate the hypothesis that Ecphora was an important source of drillholes in infaunal bivalve prey shared with naticids. We focused on the large, thick-shelled venerid, Mercenaria, which is commonly drilled by naticids today. Laboratory experiments, modern beach samples, and the published literature confirm that naticids preferentially drill near the umbo (significant clumping of holes), show a significant correlation between prey size and predator size (estimated by outer borehole diameter), and prefer Mercenaria <50 mm antero-posterior width when other prey are present. Fossil samples containing Ecphora (with or without other large muricids) show no drillhole site stereotypy (no significant clumping, greater variability in placement), no significant predator: prey size correlation, drilled prey shells larger than the largest modern naticids could produce in an experimental setting, and drillholes larger in diameter than those estimated for the largest Pliocene naticids, thus supporting our hypothesis. Substantial overlap in the placement of holes drilled by naticids and muricids, however, made identifying predators from drillhole position problematic. The lack of overlapping ranges of prey shell thickness between fossil and other samples precluded the use of drillhole morphology to establish predator identity (e.g., ratio of inner borehole diameter to outer borehole diameter, drillhole angle). Whereas the difficulty in determining predator identity from drillholes limits the types of analyses that can be reliably performed in mixed-predator assemblages, recognizing Ecphora as a prominent drilling predator creates the opportunity to investigate previously unrecognized questions.
We present star formation rates and nebular abundances of 59 different star-forming regions in 16 nearby galaxies. The star-forming regions were selected to be bright in Hα and were observed with the SNIFS integral field spectrograph on the UH 2.2m telescope. The spectra span the wavelength range between 3200Å and 1μm. We find that the local star formation rates depend on the local abundances in that low SFRs show a dependence but high SFR appear insensitive to it.
Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas that is a bi-product of industrial approaches to energy production. Forests and nonagricultural lands act as a natural sink for CO2 removal from the atmosphere; however, the amount of emitted CO2 is significantly larger than the capacity of these natural sinks. This is particularly problematic as two cornerstones of our modern world, electricity generation and transportation, hold the largest share in greenhouse gas (such as CO2) emission. This leads to malignant impacts on the natural environment and human life, such as global warming. The obvious approach to reduce the amount of generated CO2 is to limit the use of fossil fuels. However, coal-fired power plants remain the largest source of electricity generation in 2014 and an equally potent and financially reasonable source is yet to be fully developed. Hence, new systems and strategies are crucial for the remediation of CO2. In this work, we present novel TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesized via a facile solution-phase method, which show a significant visible light absorption. The synthesized nanoparticles can be applied towards photoreduction of CO2 for hydrocarbon solar fuels production. A thorough photoemission spectroscopy analysis outlined the energy structure of the materials which uncovered a sub-bandgap absorption in the visible range due to the presence of intragap states. The origins of intragap states were investigated in greater detail using various characterization techniques. An in-depth chemical composition study of the developed material using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the synthesized material is considerably un-doped. Further structural analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that distances between visible lattice fringes are matched with ordered crystalline phases of TiO2. The core emission study using XPS revealed that the oxygen vacancy defects in the structure--i.e. likely due the synthesis--are responsible for intragap states formation. Charge dynamics were investigated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR spectra were dominated by signals from oxygen-centered surface hole trapping sites with principle g values [2.003, 2.010, 2.023]--i.e. Ti4+ ˗ O2- on anatase. A faint signal was also observed as a function of visible light illumination at 5 K with principle g value of 1.975 that is suggestive of Ti3+ in rutile, a typical product of UV light exposure. In general, this study demonstrates the potential of a relatively inexpensive material for photoreduction of CO2 and generation of solar fuels.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
In the 1970s a public controversy erupted over the proposed use of brain operations to curtail violent behavior. Civil libertarians, civil rights and community activists, leaders of the anti-psychiatry movement, and some U.S. Congressmen charged psychosurgeons and the National Institute of Mental Health, with furthering a political project: the suppression of dissent. Several government-sponsored investigations into psychosurgery rebutted this charge and led to an official qualified endorsement of the practice while calling attention to the need for more “scientific” understanding and better ethical safeguards. This paper argues that the psychosurgery debate of the 1970s was more than a power struggle between members of the public and the psychiatric establishment. The debate represented a clash between a postmodern skepticism about science and renewed focus on ultimate ends, on the one hand, and a modern faith in standards and procedures, a preoccupation with means, on the other. These diverging commitments made the dispute ultimately irresolvable.
Given the finite nature of global phosphorus (P) resources, there is an increasing concern about balancing agronomic and environmental impacts from P usage on dairy farms. Data from a 3-year (2009–2011) survey were used to assess farm-gate P balances and P use efficiency (PUE) on 21 intensive grass-based dairy farms operating under the good agricultural practice (GAP) regulations in Ireland. Mean stocking rate (SR) was 2·06 livestock units (LU)/ha, mean P surplus was 5·09 kg/ha, or 0·004 kg P/kg milk solids (MS), and mean PUE was 0·70. Phosphorus imports were dominated by inorganic fertilizer (7·61 kg P/ha) and feeds (7·62 kg P/ha), while exports were dominated by milk (6·66 kg P/ha) and livestock (5·10 kg P/ha). Comparison to similar studies carried out before the introduction of the GAP regulations in 2006 indicated that P surplus, both per ha and per kg MS, has significantly decreased (by 74 and 81%, respectively) and PUE increased (by 48%), mostly due to decreased inorganic fertilizer P import and improvements in P management. There has been a notable shift towards spring application of organic manures, indicating improved awareness of the fertilizer value of organic manures and good compliance with the GAP regulations regarding fertilizer application timing. These results suggested a positive impact of the GAP regulations on dairy farm P surplus and PUE, indicating an improvement in both environmental and economic sustainability of dairy production through improved resource use efficiencies. Such improvements will be necessary to achieve national targets of improved water quality and increased dairy production. Results suggest that optimizing fertilizer and feed P imports combined with improved on-farm P recycling are the most effective way to increase PUE. Equally, continued monitoring of soil test P (STP) and P management will be necessary to ensure that adequate soil P fertility is maintained. Mean P surplus was lower and PUE was much higher than the overall mean surplus (15·92 kg P/ha) and PUE (0·47) from three studies of continental and English dairy farms, largely due to the low import system that is more typical in Ireland, with seasonal milk production (compact spring calving), low use of imported feeds and high use of grazed grass.
Pregabalin is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that is primarily prescribed in psychiatry for management of generalized anxiety disorder. The belief in its low potential for abuse has placed it in a superior position to other anxiolytic agents. However, more recent, concerns have been raised about the addictive potential of pregabalin. This problem has not received much attention nor has the mechanism of its development. There is also a lack of understanding of the difference in the experience of abusing pregabalin in contrast to abusing other illicit drugs. We report the case of a 55-year-old patient with a background history of multiple psychoactive substances misuse who elaborated on his own personal experience of pregabalin abuse. He consumed a month’s supply of this medication over 2 days and realized an enhancement in sexual desire and excitement. This effect should be considered when prescribing pregabalin.