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Measurements of a variety of physical properties of muscle tissue have been proposed as objective tests for meat tenderness. We have attempted to single out a specific physical factor, namely tensile stress, and to determine its effect on the ultrastructure of raw and cooked muscle tissue. Extension of this approach to the other physical factors involved in mastication will hopefully establish the structural factors important to meat tenderness.
The bovine semitendenosus muscle (eye round) was obtained either commercially or excised from a carcass aged under controlled conditions for 10 days. Small strips (¼” x ¼” x 1-½”), raw and cooked at 90°C, were subjected to tensile stress and then fixed in glutaraldehyde. A motorized minitensile stage (Fig. 1), designed to be small enough to operate within the SEM, stressed the muscle samples while viewed by a stereomicroscope and simultaneously monitored with a closed circuit TV system. Identical areas of samples subjected to tensile stress could be observed in both the light and scanning electron microscopes (Fig. 2).
SEM of normal arterial endothelium has shown a constant picture of fine longitudinal ridges or folds. These folds are about 15 microns across, and their smooth undulations comprise a “normal” pattern which permits assessment of various types of early endothelial damage.
SEM affords rapid, stereoscopic study of relatively large areas of endothelium with ultrafine detail. Some microvascular maneuvers may mechanically distort or obliterate normal endothelial ridging. In addition, fibrin-platelet-red blood cell deposits may cover damaged endothelium.
Eighty canine middle cerebral arteries, 1.0 - 1.5 mm in diameter, were studied with SEM following: a) microtourniquet and microclip occlusion, b) pinching with jeweler's forceps, c) arteriotomy and suture, d) bipolar coagulation of a side branch 1 mm from the parent artery, 20 mv for 20 seconds, and e) end-to-side microanastomosis.
The initial event in arterial thrombosis is platelet adherence, and then platelet aggregation. These platelet clumps will begin to disperse or “wash out” 20 minutes post aggregation, so that 60 minutes later, platelet dispersion is fairly complete, if total arterial thrombosis and fibrin deposition have not occurred.
There is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of Cannabis. While delta-9-THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, impairs memory and induces anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely and increases the risk of psychotic disorders in regular cannabis users, CBD does not impair memory, may have anxiolytic and possibly antipsychotic effects. Hence, we compared directly the acute neural effects of these two active ingredients of cannabis, by combining pharmacological challenge with fMRI. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design and oral challenge with 10mg of delta-9-THC, 600mg of CBD or placebo in 15 healthy volunteers, we examined whether delta-9-THC and CBD have opposing effects on the neural substrates of verbal memory and fear processing and whether they also have opposing effects on the neural substrates of anxiety and psychotic symptoms induced by delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC induced anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely while there was a trend for a reduction in anxiety but no change in psychotic symptoms with CBD. During the memory task, delta-9-THC attenuated and CBD increased activation in the striatum bilaterally. Effect of delta-9-THC on striatal activation was inversely correlated with the psychotic symptoms induced by it concomitantly. During the processing of fearful faces, delta-9-THC increased and CBD attenuated activation in the amygdala and these effects correlated with their anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects respectively. These opposing effects of CBD on the key neural substrates for psychotic symptoms and anxiety induced by delta-9-THC may suggest its possible therapeutic role in countering these conditions.
Environmental information from place-names has largely been overlooked by geoarchaeologists and fluvial geomorphologists in analyses of the depositional histories of rivers and floodplains. Here, new flood chronologies for the rivers Teme, Severn, and Wye are presented, modelled from stable river sections excavated at Broadwas, Buildwas, and Rotherwas. These are connected by the Old English term *wæsse, interpreted as ‘land by a meandering river which floods and drains quickly’. The results reveal that, in all three places, flooding during the early medieval period occurred more frequently between AD 350–700 than between AD 700–1100, but that over time each river's flooding regime became more complex including high magnitude single events. In the sampled locations, the fluvial dynamics of localized flood events had much in common, and almost certainly differed in nature from other sections of their rivers, refining our understanding of the precise nature of flooding which their names sought to communicate. This study shows how the toponymic record can be helpful in the long-term reconstruction of historic river activity and for our understanding of past human perceptions of riverine environments.
A developing application of laser-driven currents is the generation of magnetic fields of picosecond–nanosecond duration with magnitudes exceeding
. Single-loop and helical coil targets can direct laser-driven discharge currents along wires to generate spatially uniform, quasi-static magnetic fields on the millimetre scale. Here, we present proton deflectometry across two axes of a single-loop coil ranging from 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Comparison with proton tracking simulations shows that measured magnetic fields are the result of kiloampere currents in the coil and electric charges distributed around the coil target. Using this dual-axis platform for proton deflectometry, robust measurements can be made of the evolution of magnetic fields in a capacitor coil target.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study was to prospectively assess caregiver-perceived barriers to accessing post-acute care for their injured child and determine if caregivers report ongoing, unmet health needs for their children after trauma. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a prospective cohort study that followed 50 participants for 6 months and administered surveys to parents of children who are admitted to a pediatric level 1 trauma center for injury. Surveys were given bi-weekly regarding care children received after hospital discharge. At 3 months, parents were surveyed over the phone on whether they were able to access all needed health services and if there were any perceived barriers to obtaining or providing at-home care. At 6 months, parents were given the Child & Family Follow-up Survey to assess ongoing physical, mental, social, and scholastic needs. Free responses and transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and frequencies are reported for discrete data. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of 50 families recruited, 47 completed follow-up assessments. At 3 months, common themes regarding challenges after hospital discharge included difficulty scheduling specialist care; uncertainty in managing their child’s pain; transitioning home without enough knowledge to meet their child’s medical needs; lack of communication between multiple providers; distress at having providers release children to full activities before caregivers were comfortable. At 6 months, approximately 24% of parents reported children had ongoing cognitive limitations, 29% reported emotional problems, 19% reported physical limitations, 33.3% reported difficulty in school, and 15% reported play/social difficulties. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Evidence suggests families face significant barriers in accessing follow-up care, despite nearly universal health insurance coverage for children. Further, a large percentage of parents report ongoing health needs, despite the majority of the cohort having only mild or moderate severity injuries. Making follow-up care more patient-centered for families of traumatically injured children may improve compliance with medical regiments and reduce the likelihood of future disability. Examples of this may be coordinating care among multiple specialty providers, so that patients with multiple injuries can schedule multiple follow-up appointments on the same day. Additionally, more caregiver education on administering pain medication, caring for wounds, and safe practices for returning to full activities would be beneficial for families.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
Studies of the presence of magnetic fields in Herbig Ae/Be stars are extremely important because they enable us to improve our insight into how the magnetic fields of these stars are generated and how they interact with their environment, including their impact on the planet formation process and the planet-disk interaction. We report new detections of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields in the close Herbig Ae double-lined spectroscopic binary AK Sco and in the presumed spectroscopic Herbig Ae binary HD 95881 (Järvinen et al. 2018) based on observations obtained with HARPSpol attached to ESO’s 3.6 m telescope. Such studies are important because only very few close spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods below 20 d are known among Herbig Ae stars. Our detections favour the conclusion that the previously suggested low incidence (5-10%) of magnetic Herbig Ae stars can be explained by the weakness of these fields and the limited accuracy of the published measurements. The search for magnetic fields and the determination of their geometries in close binary systems will play an important role for understanding the mechanisms that are responsible for the magnetic field generation.
Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products have been used to improve the performance of nursery pigs. However, research on the influence of this supplement on health is lacking. This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kg) were individually housed in stainless steel pens with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival, assigned to one of three groups (n=10/treatment), and fed for 18 days: (1) Control, fed a non-medicated starter diet; (2) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 1 kg/metric ton (SGX1) and (3) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 2 kg/metric ton (SGX2). On day 7 pigs were anesthetized for insertion of an i.p. temperature device, and similarly on day 14 for insertion of a jugular catheter. Pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25 µg/kg BW) on day 15. Blood samples were collected at 0.5 h (serum) and 1 h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from −2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS administration at 0 h. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 7, 14 and 18. The supplemented pigs had increased BW and average daily gain before the challenge. In response to LPS, there was a greater increase in i.p. temperature in Control pigs compared with supplemented pigs. In addition, cortisol was reduced in SGX2 pigs while cortisol was elevated in SGX1 pigs at several time points post-challenge. White blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were decreased in SGX1 and SGX2 compared with Control pigs. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine response varied by treatment and dose of treatment. Specifically, serum TNF-α was greatest in SGX2, intermediate in Control, and least in SGX1 pigs, while the magnitude and temporal pattern of IFN-γ in SGX2 pigs was delayed and reduced. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were reduced in both SGX treatment groups compared with Control pigs. These data demonstrate that different supplementation feed inclusion rates produced differential responses, and that feeding SynGenX to weaned pigs attenuated the APR to an LPS challenge.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to determine predictors and motives for sustained opioid use, prescription misuse, and nonmedical opioid use in the adolescent trauma population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a prospective cohort study that will follow patients for 1 year and administer surveys to patients on prescription opioid usage; substance use; utilization of pain management and mental health services; mental and physical health conditions; and behavioral and social risk factors. Patient eligibility criteria include: (1) patient is 12–18 years of age; (2) admitted for trauma; (3) english speaking; (4) resides within Indianapolis, IN metropolitan area; and (5) consent can be obtained from a parent or guardian. Patients with severe brain injuries or other injuries that prevent survey participation will be excluded. The patient sample will comprise of 50 traumatically injured adolescents admitted for trauma who will be followed for 12 months after discharge. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect that the results of this study will identify multiple risk factors for sustained opioid use that can be used to create targeted interventions to reduce opioid misuse in the adolescent trauma population. Clinical predictors such as opioid type, dosage, and duration that can be modified to reduce the risk of long-term opioid use will be identified. We expect to elucidate clinical, behavioral, and social risk factors that increase the likelihood adolescents will misuse their medication and initiate nonmedical opioid use. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Trauma is a surgical specialty that often has limited collaboration with behavioral health providers. Collaborative care models for trauma patients to adequately address the psychological impact of a traumatic injury have become more common in recent years. These models have primarily been concerned with the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder. We would like to apply the findings of our research to better understand what motivates adolescents to misuse pain medications as well as how clinical, individual, behavioral, and social factors affect medication usage. This may help identify patients at greater risk of developing a SUD by asking questions not commonly addressed in the hospital setting. For example, similar to how trauma centers have mandated brief interventions on alcohol use be performed for center verification, screening patients’ on their social environment may identify patients at greater risk for SUD than assumed. The long-term goal would be to prevent opioid use disorders in injured adolescents by providing better post-acute care support, possibly by developing and implementing a collaborative care model that addresses opioid use. Additionally, we believe our findings could be applied in the acute care setting as well to help inform opioid prescribing and pain management methods in the acute phase of an injury. Genetic testing to determine which opioid to prescribe pediatric surgical patients is starting to be done at some pediatric hospitals. Certain genes determine which specific opioid is most effective in controlling a patient’s pain and, further, using the optimal opioid medication can also reduce overdose. Our findings may help refine prescribing patterns that could increase or decrease the likelihood of developing SUD in patients with certain genetic, clinical, behavioral, and social characteristics.
Copper-alumina and copper-silica aerogels formed by impregnation of a copper(II) salt into an alumina or silica wet gel before supercritical extraction have been found to contain copper in multiple oxidation states: Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2. These aerogels are effective at catalyzing the reduction of NO and the oxidation of HCs and CO under conditions similar to those found in automotive three way catalysts. In this work we have developed a preparation method incorporating Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles directly into silica aerogels. Nanoparticles in the form of (a) Cu0 nanorods (100 nm diameter, 10-20 μm length); (b) Cu+1 nanoparticles (350 nm diameter); and (c) Cu+2 nanoparticles (25-55 nm diameter) were added (0.5-15% by weight) to separate precursor mixtures consisting of tetramethyl orthosilicate, methanol, water and ammonia. These precursor mixtures were then processed using a rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method to form aerogels. The resulting aerogels show evidence of nanoparticles dispersed throughout the silica aerogel structure. Addition of Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles decreases the surface area of the aerogels significantly. X-Ray diffraction shows that regardless of initial oxidation state of the nanoparticles, crystalline Cu0 is detected after RSCE processing to 290 °C. Following heat treatment at 700 °C, crystalline Cu+2 is detected. The copper containing silica aerogels are found to be catalytically active with light-off temperatures (50% conversion) for NO and CO at 400 °C in three-way catalytic applications.
Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
Community-based conservation efforts are designed to foster local stewardship of important ecological resources. However, inequitable distribution of costs and benefits in communities surrounding protected areas can negatively impact livelihoods, increase wealth disparities and create conflict. To examine the potential for conflict between host communities involved in a community-based conservation program and neighbouring (non-host) communities, we explored local residents’ attitudes towards conservation at Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS) in Sierra Leone. Intercept surveys (n = 368) were conducted in 18 villages (eight host, ten non-host) within 8 km of TIWS during 2010. Results revealed significant differences between residents of the host and non-host villages with respect to attitudes towards resource use and overall support for site protection. The most substantial discrepancies centred on perceived benefits associated with TIWS, and these drastically different perspectives generated a high potential for conflict. To minimize conflict and foster broader community support for conservation, managers must carefully consider how benefits associated with protected areas are communicated and distributed across protected area-proximate landscapes.
This study aims to compare conventional simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) planning technique with a hybrid SIB intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique with varying open tangent to IMRT field dose ratios. Furthermore, we investigated which of the dose ratios proves the most favourable as a class solution across a sample.
In total, 15 patients with conventional SIB treatment plans were re-planned with hybrid SIB IMRT technique using three differing open field:IMRT dose ratios, that is, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. Plans were compared using dosimetric comparison of organs at risk (OARs) and homogeneity and conformity indexes across target structures.
All hybrid plans reduced dose maximums and showed a reduction of high doses to both lungs but increased lower doses, that is, V5, with similar results discovered for the heart. Contralateral breast dose was shown to decrease V5 and V1 measures by hybrid arms, whereas increasing the V2. Left anterior descending artery dose and non-irradiated structures were reduced by all hybrid arms. The homogeneity and conformity increased across all hybrid arms. Qualitative assessment of all plans also favoured hybrid plans.
Hybrid plans produced superior dose conformity, homogeneity, reduced dose maximums and showed an improvement in most OAR parameters. The 70:30 hybrid technique exhibited greater benefits as a class solution to the sample than conventional plans due to superior dose conformity and homogeneity to target volumes.
Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are significant for their low infectious dose, their potential clinical severity and the frequency with which they generate outbreaks. To describe the relative importance of different outbreak transmission routes for VTEC infection in Ireland, we reviewed outbreak notification data for the period 2004–2012, describing the burden and characteristics of foodborne, waterborne, animal contact and person-to-person outbreaks. Outbreaks where person-to-person spread was reported as the sole transmission route accounted for more than half of all outbreaks and outbreaks cases, most notably in childcare facilities. The next most significant transmission route was waterborne spread from untreated or poorly treated private water supplies. The focus for reducing incidence of VTEC should be on reducing waterborne and person-to-person transmission, by publicizing Health Service Executive materials developed for consumers on private well management, and for childcare facility managers and public health professionals on prevention of person-to-person spread.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).