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The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium and the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) undertook a Common Metrics Initiative to improve research processes across the national CTSA Consortium. This was implemented by Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute at the 64 CTSA academic medical centers. Three metrics were collaboratively developed by NCATS staff, CTSA Consortium teams, and outside consultants for Institutional Review Board Review Duration, Careers in Clinical and Translational Research, and Pilot Award Publications and Subsequent Funding. The implementation program included training on the metric operational guidelines, data collection, data reporting system, and performance improvement framework. The implementation team provided small-group coaching and technical assistance. Collaborative learning sessions, driver diagrams, and change packages were used to disseminate best and promising practices. After 14 weeks, 84% of hubs had produced a value for one metric and about half had produced an initial improvement plan. Overall, hubs reported that the implementation activities facilitated their Common Metrics performance improvement process. Experiences implementing the first three metrics can inform future directions of the Common Metrics Initiative and other research groups implementing standardized metrics and performance improvement processes, potentially including other National Institutes of Health institutes and centers.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
The synthesis of biocompatible noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in a wide range of biological media with control of polycrystalinity and nanogeometry, pH sensitivity and salt tolerance has been a challenging requirements. The role of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-APTMS) and organic reducing reagents for real time synthesis of amphilic noble metal nanoparticles meeting these requirements are demonstrated justifying the following; (1) 3-APTMS capped noble metal ions are converted into respective metal nanoparticles in the presence of one of organic reducing agents i.e., cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide (THF-HPO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, t-buty dimethyl keotone, 3-Glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS); (2) 3-APTMS acts as micelle, promotes the interaction of metal ions with organic reducing agent, precisely controls the size of metal nanoparticles, pH sensititvity and salt tolerance and also provides a suitable medium for nanoparticles suspension, (3) the use of suitable organic reagent precisely controls the polarity of as made noble metal nanoparticles allowing specific biological interactions, and (4) 3-APTMS significantly increases the stability and controls the pH sensitivity and salt tolerance of metal nanoparticles. The as synthesized nanomaterials show potential viability in biomedical applications from many angles i.e. (a) as potential bioelectrocatalyst, (b) selective interaction with active proteins and cellular components, and (c) peroxidase mimetic.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes are prepared by a novel ultrashort galvanic pulse electropolymerization technique for application in solid-state supercapacitors. Microstructure studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that PEDOT electrodes deposited by pulse polymerization are highly porous as compared to the conventional potentiostatic polymerization. In addition, as revealed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies in the PEDOT films formed by pulse polymerization, the polymer chains are fully conjugated with the dopant ClO4- ions. Solid-state supercapacitor cells using pulse polymerized PEDOT electrodes and ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte were fabricated and characterized. The impedance spectroscopy studies show that the pulse polymerized PEDOT electrode have specific capacitance value of ∼ 65 F g-1 as compared to ∼52 F g-1for potentiostatically polymerized PEDOT and significantly lower interfacial and charge transfer resistance. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge characterization show highly capacitive behavior of the supercapacitor cells in the solid-state configuration.
We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.
Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors the using ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte have been fabricated and characterized. The gel polymer electrolyte has been prepared by immobilizing ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4) with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene). Cyclic voltammetry studies show highly capacitive behavior under fast scan rates. Impedance analysis show nominal charge transfer and ion diffusion at pores related resistance contributions. The graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor shows optimum capacitance of 80 mF cm-2 (equivalent to the single electrode specific capacitance of 76 F g-1). This corresponded to the specific energy of 7.4 Wh kg-1 and specific power of 4.5 kW kg-1. The supercapacitor cell shows stable cyclic performances for up to 5000 cycles and possibly beyond.
We calculated defect energies by using a Hartree-Fock method to model an inner region that includes the defect site and oneor two shells of lattice ions. This is surrounded by an embedding region that is described by a classical Mott-Littleton calculation. Electrostatic multipole consistency between the two jegions is maintained throughout.
The results of defect calculations on MgO are examined as a function of basis set. We find that a sophisticated basis set is required before a reliable defect formation energy can be guaranteed. This experience has allowed us to develop a new model for the off-center relaxation of the exciton in LiC1. These calculations have required the use of pseudo potential cores for anions and floating functions to model the diffuse electron. Lastly, we report on recent calculations concerning the stability of hole states in La2CuO4. We find considerable delocalization of the hole over both the Cu2+ ions and the 02− ions that form the Cu-O planes.
In vitro gas production (GP) of substrate incubated with cow rumen liquor is commonly used to evaluate feed nutritional quality; GP is correlated with organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy content. The hypothesis tested was that GP differs among liquors of ruminant species and is dependent on the natural dietary intake of the donors. Measurements were of 24 h GP of seven browse species using rumen liquor from a large (cow) and small (sheep) grazer and from a small intermediate feeder (goat). Mean GP for browse with goat liquor (7±2·4 ml per 200 mg substrate) was significantly (P=0·019) higher than that with cow liquor (5±1·9 ml), and GP with sheep liquor (6±1·1 ml) was intermediate, not significantly different from the cow liquor (P=0·197) and the goat liquor (P=0·061). There was a significant correlation in the ranking of the browses between goat and sheep (P=0·013) liquor using a Mantel test with 9999 permutations, which indicated a similar ranking of browses when using rumen liquor of either of these small ruminants. There were trends between both cow and sheep (P=0·096) and cow and goat (P=0·092) liquors. It was concluded that the dietary habits of ruminant species donors may affect in vitro nutritional studies when using rumen liquor.
The gravitational instability of a dusty plasma with ion dynamics taken into account is studied. For the range of parameters relevant to planetary rings and interstellar media, we demonstrate that the inclusion of ion dynamics cannot cause additional destabilization of a gravitating dusty plasma system. Streaming of the cold ions, on the other hand, enhances the Jeans condensation of a dusty plasma. Consistency of the results with previous work and new aspects arising owing to consideration of ion dynamics is discussed.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
We have carried out a multi-wavelength study of the star forming region NGC 1893 to make a comprehensive exploration of the effects of massive stars on low mass star formation. Using deep optical U BV RI broad band, Hα narrow band photometry and slit-less spectroscopy along with archival data from the surveys such as 2MASS, MSX, IRAS and NVSS, we have studied the region to understand the star formation scenario in the region.
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