To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Species of Anisakis typically infect the stomach of cetaceans worldwide, often causing ulcerative lesions that may compromise the host's health. These nematodes also cause anisakiasis or allergic reactions in humans. To assess the risks of this emerging zoonosis, data on long-term changes in Anisakis infections in cetaceans are necessary. Here, we compare the prevalence and severity of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in five cetacean species stranded along the north-west Spanish coast in 2017–2018 with published data from 1991–1996. Open ulcers were found in 32/43 short-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus delphis; 3/5 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba; 1/7 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus; and 1/3 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena meridionalis; a single individual of long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, was found uninfected. In common dolphins, the mean abundance of open ulcers per host was 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–1.3), with a maximum diameter (mean ± standard deviation) of 25.4 ± 16.9 mm. Stomachs with scars or extensive fibrosis putatively associated with Anisakis were detected in 14 and five animals, respectively. A molecular analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene using 18 worms from three cetacean species revealed single or mixed infections of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii. Compared with the period 1991–1996, we found a strong increase of prevalence, abundance and extension of ulcerative lesions in most cetacean species. Anisakis populations could have increased in the study area over the last decades, although we cannot rule out that a higher environmental stress has also boosted the pathological effects of these parasites.
The willow sawfly, Nematus oligospilus (Förster), is a pest in Salix commercial forests and has been reported worldwide. Female adults must recognize a suitable host plant to oviposit, since her offspring lack the ability to move to another host. We evaluated the effect of conspecific herbivory on the oviposition choices of N. oligospilus females by providing damaged (DP) and undamaged (UP) plants of Salix humboldtiana, a native willow from South America, as oviposition substrates. Local and systemic effects were studied. For the local treatment, a twig from the DP with damaged leaves was contrasted to a twig from a UP in dual choice experiments. For systemic treatment, a twig from the DP with intact leaves was contrasted to a twig from a UP. We estimated the use of olfactory and contact cues by comparing volatile emission of DP and UP, and by analysing the behaviour of the females during host recognition after landing on the leaf surface. In the context of the preference–performance hypothesis (PPH), we also tested if oviposition site selection maximizes offspring fitness by evaluating neonate hatching, larval performance and survival of larvae that were born and bred on either DP or UP. Our results demonstrate that previous conspecific herbivory on S. humboldtiana has a dramatic impact on female oviposition choices and offspring performance of the sawfly N. oligospilus. Females showed a marked preference for laying eggs on UP of S. humboldtiana. This preference was found for both local and systemic treatments. Volatile emission was quantitatively changed after conspecific damage suggesting that it could be related to N. oligospilus avoidance. In the dual choice preference experiments, the analysis of the behaviour of the females once landing on the leaf surface suggested the use of contact cues triggering egg laying on leaves from UP and avoidance of leaves from DP. Furthermore, 48 h of previous conspecific feeding was sufficient to dramatically impair neonate hatching, as well as larval development and survival, suggesting a rapid and effective reaction of the induced resistance mechanisms of the tree. In agreement with the PPH, these results support the idea that decisions made by colonizing females may result in optimal outcomes for their offspring in a barely studied insect model, and also opens the opportunity for studying tree-induced defences in the unexplored South American willow S. humboldtiana.
Conservation of animal genetic resources requires regular monitoring and interventions to maintain population size and manage genetic variability. This study uses genealogical information to evaluate the impact of conservation measures in Europe, using (i) data from the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) and (ii) a posteriori assessment of the impact of various conservation measures on the genetic variability of 17 at-risk breeds with a wide range of interventions. Analysis of data from DAD-IS showed that 68% of national breed populations reported to receive financial support showed increasing demographic trends, v. 51% for those that did not. The majority of the 17 at-risk breeds have increased their numbers of registered animals over the last 20 years, but the changes in genetic variability per breed have not always matched the trend in population size. These differences in trends observed in the different metrics might be explained by the tensions between interventions to maintain genetic variability, and development initiatives which lead to intensification of selection.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
AGB stars are important contributors of processed matter to the ISM. However, the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in its ejection are still poorly known. This process is expected to have remarkable effects in the innermost envelope, where the dust grains are formed, the gas is accelerated, the chemistry is active, and the radiative excitation becomes important. A good tracer of this region in C-rich stars is SiS, an abundant refractory molecule that can display maser lines, very sensitive to changes in the physical conditions. We present high angular resolution interferometer observations (HPBW ≳0.″.25) of the v = 0 J = 14 – 13 and 15 – 14 SiS maser lines towards the archetypal AGB star IRC+10216, carried out with CARMA and ALMA to explore the inner 1” region around the central star. We also present an ambitious monitoring of these lines along one single pulsation period carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastics that resembles oestrogen in organisms. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as BPA, increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal BPA exposure effects on nephrogenesis in a mouse model that was predisposed to T2DM. This study quantitatively evaluated the renal structural changes using stereology and histomorphometry methods. The OF1 pregnant mice were treated with a vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 μg/kg/day) during days 9–16 of gestation (early nephrogenesis). The 30-day-old offspring were sacrificed, and tissue samples were collected and prepared for histopathological and stereology studies. Glomerular abnormalities and reduced glomerular formation were observed in the BPA offspring. The kidneys of the BPA10 and BPA100 female offspring had a significantly lower glomerular number and density than those of the CONTROL female offspring. The glomerular histomorphometry revealed a significant difference between the female and male CONTROL offspring for the analysed glomerular parameters that disappeared in the BPA10 and BPA100 offspring. In addition, the kidney histopathological examination showed typical male cuboidal epithelial cells of the Bowman capsule in the female BPA offspring. Exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during embryonic development altered nephrogenesis. These structural changes could be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases later in life.
Alfalfa is recommended as a rotational crop in corn production, due to its ability to contribute to soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) stocks through atmospheric N2 fixation and above- and belowground biomass production. However, there is little information on how alfalfa management practices affect contributions to soil and subsequent corn crop yields, and research has not been targeted to organic systems. A study was conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa stand age, cutting frequency and biomass removal on soil C and N status and corn yields at three organically managed Minnesota locations. In one experiment, five cutting treatments were applied in nine environments: two, three and four cuts with biomass removal; three cuts with biomass remaining in place; and a no-cut control. In the other experiment, corn was planted following 1-, 2-, 3- or 4-year-old alfalfa stands and a no-alfalfa control. Yield was measured in the subsequent corn crop. In the cutting experiment, the two- and three-cut treatments with biomass removal reduced soil mineral N by 12.6 and 11.5%, respectively, compared with the control. Potentially mineralizable N (PMN) was not generally affected by cutting treatments. The three-cut no-removal increased potentially mineralizable C by 17% compared with the other treatments, but lowered soil total C in two environments, suggesting a priming effect in which addition of alfalfa biomass stimulated microbial mineralization of native soil C. Although both yields and soil mineral N tended to be higher in treatments where biomass remained in place, this advantage was small and inconsistent, indicating that farmers need not forgo hay harvest to obtain the rotational benefits of an alfalfa stand. The lack of overall correlation between corn grain yields and mineral and potentially mineralizable N suggests that alfalfa N contribution was not the driver of the yield increase in the no-removal treatments. Alfalfa stand age had inconsistent effects on fall-incorporated N and soil N and C parameters. Beyond the first year, increased alfalfa stand age did not increase soil mineral N or PMN. However, corn yield increased following older stands. Yields were 29, 77 and 90% higher following first-, second- and third-year alfalfa stands than the no-alfalfa control, respectively. This indicates that alfalfa may benefit succeeding corn through mechanisms other than N contribution, potentially including P solubilization and weed suppression. These effects have been less studied than N credits, but are of high value in organic cropping systems.
Hyponatraemia occurs in 4% of schizophrenic patients. Dilutional hyponatraemia, due to inappropriate retention of water and excretion of sodium, occurs with different psychotropic medications and could lead to hippocampal dysfunction. This complication is usually asymptomatic but can cause severe problems, as lethargy and confusion, difficult to diagnose in mentally ill patients.
To describe a case of a patient with psychotropic poli-therapy, admitted three times due to hyponatremia and the pharmacological changes that improved his condition.
To broadcast the intermittent hyponatraemia and polydipsia (PIP), a not rare condition, suffered by treated schizophrenic patients and discuss its physiopathology and treatment thorough a case report.
A 56-year schizophrenic male was admitted for presenting disorganized behavior, agitation, auditory hallucinations, disorientation, ataxia, vomits and urinary retention. He was on clomipramine, haloperidol and clotiapine (recently added), quetiapine, fluphenazine and clonazepam. After water restriction his symptoms improved and he was discharged. Twenty-five days later, he was readmitted for presenting the same symptoms and after water restriction, he was discharged. Five days later, he was again admitted and transferred to the psychiatric ward.
Haloperidol, fluphenazine and clomipramine were replaced by clozapine. These changes lead him to normalize the hypoosmolality and reduce his water-voracity. Endocrinology team did not label this episode of SIADH due to its borderline blood and urine parameters.
Hyponatremia is frequent in schizophrenic patients and may have severe consequences. Therefore, a prompt recognition and treatment is warranted.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Despite multiple clinical and preclinical studies investigating schizophrenia, the neurobiological basis of this disease is still unknown. The dysregulation of the serotonergic system, in particular the 5-HT2A receptor and the endocannabinoid system have been postulated as possible causes of schizophrenia.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in primary cultures of pro-neurons from the olfactory epithelium in schizophrenia patients and control subjects.
We recruited a group of 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, who were treated with atypical antipsychotics, were clinically stable and had an illness duration range from 1 up to 15 years. The patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia from the medical record and confirmed by the structured clinical interview for DSM disorders. The expression of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in primary cultures of pro-neurons from the olfactory epithelium was quantified using proximity ligation assays and confocal microscopy.
Olfactory epithelium pro-neurons were viable and expressed the neuronal marker, III-β tubulin. We also established the presence and the functionality of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in these cells using the proximity ligation and cAMP activity assays, respectively. Heteromer expression was significantly increased in schizophrenia patients with respect to controls.
This highly innovative methodology will allow the noninvasive, low-cost study of new biomarkers for schizophrenia in a model closely related to the central nervous system.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.Acknowledgments
This work was supported by grants from DIUE-Generalitat-de Catalunya (2014SGR 680), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI14/00210) and (PI10/01708) FIS-FEDER-Funds. LG is supported by the Instituto-de Salud Carlos III through a “Río Hortega” (CM14/00111).
Clozapine (CZP) is the only antipsychotic approved for resistant schizophrenia 1. Due to its side effects, CZP is not the first therapeutic option in a psychotic episode. Its anticholinergic effects often cause constipation, however, diarrhea have also been described in literature.
We describe a patient with two episodes of severe diarrhea after clozapine initiation, which lead to CZP discontinuation.
Discuss about the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in CZP patients and the needing of a further studies for clarify the more appropriate management in CZP induced diarrhea.
We present a case report of a 46 years man diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder who presented two episodes of severe diarrhea with fever, which forced his transfer to internal medicine and UCI after CZP initiation.
At the first episode analytical, radiological and histological findings led to Crohn's disease diagnosis, which required budesonide and mesalazine treatment. In the second episode, the digestive team concluded that the episode was due to clozapine toxicity despite the controversial findings (clostridium toxin and Crohn's compatible biopsies)
Diarrhea caused by CZP has been controversial in the literature. However due to the severity of digestive episodes and the paucity of alternative treatments further studies for a better understanding of its physiopathology are warranted.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of severe nausea and intractable vomiting, preceded by chronic use of cannabis. A pathognomonic characteristic is compulsive bathing in hot water. The resolution of the problem occurs when cannabis use is stopped. However, patients are often reluctant to discontinue cannabis. Treatment with anti-emetic medication is ineffective. Case series suggested haloperidol as a potential treatment. Other antipsychotics as olanzapine has been used as anti-emetic treatment in chemotherapy.
To describe three cases of patients with CHS whom showed a successful response to olanzapine, even when, haloperidol had failed.
To present an alternative treatment for CHS which can offer benefits over haloperidol.
We present three cases of patients who suffered from CHS and were admitted to emergency department. All patients were treated with olanzapine after conventional anti-hemetic treatment failure. One patient was also unsuccessfully treated with haloperidol.
All three patients showed a good response to olanzapine treatment. Different presentations were effective: velotab and intramuscular. Their nausea, vomits and agitation were ameliorated. They could be discharge after maintained remission of symptoms.
Olanzapine should be considered as an adequate treatment for CHS. Its suitable receptorial profile, its availability in different routes of administration and its side effects profile could offer some benefits over haloperidol.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Two experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Florida to evaluate the effects of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides and single versus sequential applications on Palmer amaranth control and peanut injury. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides are among the last available herbicides for the POST control of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant Palmer amaranth in peanut. Lactofen (219 g ai ha–1) applied 5 d after the initial application provided the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 7 and 14 d after initial application (DAIT). Delaying sequential applications of lactofen to 15 d resulted in the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 21 and 28 DAIT. Similar to Palmer amaranth control, foliar injury to peanut was often highest from lactofen applications, and by 28 DAIT lactofen treatments were the only treatments that caused foliar injury. Although no statistical difference was observed between yields of plots treated with acifluorfen (280 g ai ha–1), bentazon (560 g ai ha–1), 2,4-DB (280 g ae ha–1) alone or in combination with each other, plots treated with sequential applications of lactofen 5 or 15 DAIT produced the lowest yields. Sequential applications of lactofen applied 15 DAIT controlled Palmer amaranth more effectively than any other treatment but also caused the highest level of peanut injury. The use of sequential applications of lactofen was the most effective method for control of Palmer amaranth in this study, but did reduce peanut yield.