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Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
The current study investigated use of a controlled misting environment to simulate field conditions that have been implicated in high levels of the malting barley defect, grain skinning. More than 200 spring barley varieties were assessed to identify those varieties that were particularly resistant or susceptible to the defect. Relationships between skinning severity and the traits ear length, floret number, grain number and grain weight were examined among the varieties. In a panel of seven varieties chosen as treatment controls, misting was found to significantly increase skinning severity. The misting treatment had no effect on measured ear traits of these varieties. Among the 200 varieties grown under the misting treatment, there was a continuous spectrum of skinning severities, which were not correlated with ear length, floret number, grain number or grain weight. Using the misting treatment, differences in susceptibility to grain skinning could be determined among varieties. As the misting treatment did not affect measured ear traits, and no correlation was found between ear traits and skinning severity among varieties, the effect of misting on skinning severity must be mediated through other physiological characteristics.
Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18–90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18–64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18–64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P<0·001) compared with 2001. There was no statistically significant difference in intakes of EPA and DHA by 18–64-year-olds in 2011 (269·0 (sd 515·0) mg/d) and 2001 (279·1 (sd 497·5) mg/d). In 2011, adults aged >65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids.
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
Nitrification inhibitors are used in agriculture for the purpose of decreasing nitrogen (N) losses, by limiting the microbially mediated oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3−). Successful inhibition of nitrification has been shown in numerous studies, but the extent to which inhibitors affect other N transformations in soil is largely unknown. In the present study, cattle slurry was applied to microcosms of three different grassland soils, with or without the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). A solution containing NH4+ and NO3−, labelled with 15N either on the NH4+ or the NO3− part, was mixed with the slurry before application. Gross N transformation rates were estimated using a 15N tracing model. In all three soils, DCD significantly inhibited gross autotrophic nitrification, by 79–90%. Gross mineralization of recalcitrant organic N increased significantly with DCD addition in two soils, whereas gross heterotrophic nitrification from the same pool decreased with DCD addition in two soils. Fungal to bacterial ratios were not significantly affected by DCD addition. Total gross mineralization and immobilization increased significantly across the three soils when DCD was used, which suggests that DCD can cause non-target effects on soil N mineralization–immobilization turnover.
Numerous studies have supported an association between maternal depression and child psychiatric outcomes, but few have controlled for the confounding effects of both maternal and offspring co-morbidity. Thus, it remains unclear whether the correspondence between maternal and offspring depressive and anxiety disorders is better explained by associations between shared features of maternal and offspring internalizing disorders or by specific effects exerted by unique aspects of individual disorders.
Pairs of mothers and offspring overselected for maternal depression (n = 815) were assessed at offspring age 15 years for anxiety and depressive disorders; 705 completed a follow-up at offspring age 20 years. For both mothers and offspring, structural equation modeling was used to distinguish transdiagnostic internalizing pathology – representing the overlap among all depressive and anxiety disorders – from diagnosis-specific forms of pathology. To discriminate between general versus specific pathways of intergenerational transmission of psychopathology, we examined (a) the general association between the maternal and offspring internalizing factors and (b) the correlations between maternal and offspring diagnosis-specific pathology for each disorder.
For mothers and offspring, a unidimensional latent variable model provided the best fit to the correlations among depressive and anxiety disorders. The maternal transdiagnostic internalizing factor strongly predicted the corresponding factor among offspring. In addition, the unique component of post-traumatic stress disorder among offspring was significantly related to the analogous unique component among mothers, but specific components of other maternal disorders, including depression, did not predict corresponding offspring pathology.
Results suggest that intergenerational transmission of internalizing disorders is largely non-specific.
Structural features in magnetic multilayer films such as interfacial sharpness and in-plane stress are regarded as responsible for the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy observed in these films. The Multilayers often consist of alternating magnetic and non-Magnetic layers, and the degree of interfacial sharpness between the two is a critical component in producing perpendicular anisotropy. Additionally, in-plane stress affects the anisotropy through Magnetostriction. In this work, we measure both the composition modulation and the stress in multilayers of Pt/CO with x-ray diffraction. Quantitative information about the composition modulation is extracted by recursively fitting a model of multilayer diffraction to the high angle superlattice lines. The Model incorporates a composition modulation of variable amplitude, along with a statistical description of the layer thickness fluctuations.
We assess and compare: (a) the attitudes of final-year medical students in 2010 to their 1994 counterparts; (b) the attitudes of third-year medical students with those of their final-year colleagues; (c) the impact of two different teaching modules on students' attitudes. All students completing the year 3 psychiatry preclinical module and the final-year clinical clerkship were asked to anonymously complete three well-validated attitudinal questionnaires on the first and final day of their module in psychiatry.
These data indicate that Irish medical students have a positive attitude to psychiatry even prior to the start of their clinical training in psychiatry. This attitude is significantly more positive now than it was in 1994. A positive attitudinal change was brought about only by the final-year psychiatric clerkship. Students who have completed a degree prior to medicine are less likely to express an interest in a career in psychiatry.
If we are to address the recruitment difficulties in psychiatry we need to look at innovative and specific ways of translating these positive attitudes into careers in psychiatry.
Children of depressed mothers not only have higher risk of depression, but also may experience both elevated and continuing exposure to stressful experiences. The study tested hypotheses of the intergenerational transmission of stress and depression and examined the role of early childhood adversity and maternal depression in the interplay between youth depression and stress over 20 years.
In a longitudinal community study of 705 families selected for history or absence of maternal depression, mothers and youth were studied from pregnancy to age 5 years and at youth ages 15 and 20 years. Youth and maternal depression were assessed with diagnostic interviews, acute and chronic interview-based stress assessment in the youth and contemporaneous measures of childhood adversity obtained between pregnancy and youth age 5 years.
Regression analyses indicated evidence of intergenerational transmission and continuity of depression over time, continuity of acute and chronic stress and reciprocal predictive associations between depression and stress. Maternal depression and exposure to adversities by child's age 5 years contributed to the youth's continuing experiences of depression and stress. An overall path model was consistent with stress continuity and intergenerational transmission and highlighted the mediating role of age 15 youth chronic interpersonal stress.
Youth of depressed mothers are at risk not only for depression but also for continuing experiences of acute and chronic stress from childhood to age 20. The associations among depression and stress are bidirectional and portend continuing experiences of depression and further stress.
The physics of bulk wurtzite-structure III-nitride materials and of III-nitride heterostructures includes many phenomena that can be modulated by the application of stress. In particular, p- type material is expected to display a rich variety of piezo-resistive and piezo-optic effects that originate from the stress-induced modulation of lattice polarization charges, of valence band energies, and of bulk, surface, and interface defect states in the band gap. Here we focus on the expected effects of in-plane uniaxial on p-channel AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown along the hexagonal axis on sapphire substrates. The valence band structure in the channel region is calculated self-consistently in the framework of a six-band Rashba-Sheka-Pikus (RSP) Hamiltonian. Stress-effects are included (in linear elastic theory) through deformation potentials and through the modulation of interfacial polarization charges associated with the piezoelectric nature of the constituent materials.
Strain measurements were performed on multilayer films of Mo/Ni using x-ray diffraction with the scattering vector at varying degrees of inclination to the surface normal. In-plane variations in the lattice parameters confirm that there are coherency stresses between the Mo and Ni layers. Assuming the Nishiama-Wasserman orientation for the planes of Ni and Mo allowed the calculation of the complete stress state in both materials. The in-plane lattice parameter, the perpendicular lattice parameter and the unstrained lattice parameter have also been derived from the data. The substrate interaction stress which would be necessary to provide a force balance between the layers was calculated. This was found to be in good agreement with the global stress measured from wafer curvature. Preliminary results of modelling of the high angle superlattice lines to extract interfacial roughness in the growth direction are also presented.
Structural deviations from ideal layering of bulk constituents can have dramatic effects on the properties of multilayered materials. We discuss three examples of the use of x-ray diffraction in non-standard geometries to examine these effects. In Mo/Ni multilayers, we use asymmetric diffraction and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) to deduce the strain and intermixing. We find that coherency stresses between the BCC Mo and FCC Ni planes play a major role. In the Fe/Cr system, we use rocking curves and asymmetric scans about the small angle superlattice lines to investigate the nature and extent of layer roughness. We find that conformai roughness dominates our best samples, while non-conformal roughness increases with sputter deposition pressure. In the Gd/Co system, we use in-situ GIXS to investigate amorphization reaction during deposition. We find a strong diffusional asymmetry and rapid reaction during growth.