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Brain alterations have been sought since the beginning of the century to explain the ‘dementia’ of dementia præcox. Kraepelin suggested in 1913 that it might have its internal origins in early childhood, while Southard (1915) considered likely a congenital or early acquired basis for the development of the disease. Afterwards, degenerative processes were described for decades until neurodevelopmental theories emerged recently (Lewis, 1988).
Using pneumoencephalography, Jacobi and Winkler (1927) first reported that some patients with schizophrenia presented enlarged ventricles. Johnstone et al (1976, 1978), in CT-scan studies, observed an increase in mean lateral ventricular size in a group of institutionalized schizophrenic patients. This finding has been replicated by other studies (Weinberger et al, 1983) but challenged by others (Gluck et al, 1980; Jernigan et al, 1982).
Introduction: Low acuity patients have been controversially tagged as a source of emergency department (ED) misuse. Authorities for many Canadian health regions have set up policies so these patients preferably present to walk-in clinics (WIC). We compared the cost and quality of the care given to low acuity patients in an academic ED and a WIC of Québec City during fiscal year 2015-16. Methods: We conducted an ambidirectional (prospective and retrospective) cohort study using a time-driven activity-based costing method. This method uses duration of care processes (e.g., triage) to allocate to patient care all direct costs (e.g., personnel, consumables), overheads (e.g., building maintenance) and physician charges. We included consecutive adult patients, ambulatory at all time and discharged from the ED or WIC with a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), urinary tract infection (UTI) or low back pain. Mean cost [95%CI] per patient per condition was compared between settings after risk-adjustment for age, sex, vital signs, number of regular medications and co-morbidities using generalized log-gamma regression models. Proportions [95%CI] of antibiotic prescription and chest X-Ray use in URTI, compliance with provincial guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI, and column X-Ray use in low back pain were compared between settings using a Pearson Chi-Square test. Results: A total of 409 patients were included. ED and WIC groups were similar in terms of age, sex and vital signs on presentation, but ED patients had a greater burden of comorbidities. Adjusted mean cost (2016 CAN$) of care was significantly higher in the ED than in the WIC (p < 0.0001) for URTI (78.42[64.85-94.82] vs. 59.43[50.43-70.06]), UTI (78.88[69.53-89.48] vs. 53.29[43.68-65.03]), and low back pain (87.97[68.30-113.32] vs. 61.71[47.90-79.51]). For URTI, antibiotics were more frequently prescribed in the WIC (44.1%[34.3-54.3] vs. 5.8%[1.2-16.0]; p < 0.0001) and chest X-Rays, more frequently used in the ED (26.9%[15.6-41.0] vs. 13.7%[7.7-22.0]; p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the compliance with guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI and in the use of column X-Ray in low back pain. Conclusion: Total cost of care for low acuity patients is lower in walk-in clinics than in EDs. However, our results suggest that quality-of-care issues should be considered in determining the best alternate setting for treating ambulatory emergency patients.
The Canadian Entomologist and its associated publications (Supplements of The Canadian Entomologist and Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada) have served as important outlets for taxonomic contributions on arthropods since 1868. A survey of beetle (Coleoptera) publications therein has revealed that 2276 species-group, 136 genus-group, and seven family-group taxa were first described in 492 scientific articles. New beetles were described in 67 families by 165 authors. We document trends of beetle descriptions over time, by taxonomic group and by the origin of the new taxa. We also provide biographical notices of the entomologists who described the new taxa. We believe that The Canadian Entomologist will continue to be coveted as a suitable outlet for taxonomic works in the future.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord resulting in progressive paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms, which appear only late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult, making ALS an incurable disease. Novel strategies for early diagnosis of ALS, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed.
Many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. We have developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES), derived from the cells of ALS patients, in order to study the earliest stages of ALS-related skin pathology. For each participant, two skin biopsies were collected using a 6-mm diameter punch biopsy. Tissue-engineered skin was then generated from isolated keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and examined by routine histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, as well as by confocal microscopy. The ALS-TES model presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions, which are not seen in skin models derived from healthy subjects. The same abnormal skin model changes were detected skin models derived from the cells of pre- symptomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS-TES skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms underlying this disease, including cytoplasmic TDP43 accumulation, and lead to better tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring.
Surveys were conducted in Ontario and Québec, Canada to determine the parasitoid communities associated with Ceutorhynchus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevil species that are potential nontarget hosts of candidate biological control agents of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham). New host plant associations are documented for Ceutorhynchus americanus Buchanan, Ceutorhynchus neglectus Blatchley, and Ceutorhynchus omissus Fall. More than 18 species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were associated with six Ceutorhynchus species reared from siliques and stems of Brassicaceae plants. Silique-feeding Ceutorhynchus species supported a more diverse parasitoid community than stem-feeding or root crown-feeding species. The major components of the parasitoid assemblage of the native C. neglectus included Mesopolobus gemellus Baur and Muller, Mesopolobus moryoides Gibson, Trichomalus lucidus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and a cryptic species complex previously reported as Necremnus tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These species, plus Trimeromicrus maculatus Gahan (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were the main parasitoids attacking the native C. omissus. The major parasitoids associated with the accidently introduced Ceutorhynchus erysimi (Fabricius) and Ceutorhynchus typhae (Herbst) included T. maculatus, the N. tidius species complex, M. gemellus, and M. moryoides. Trichomalus perfectus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a major parasitoid of C. obstrictus in Europe, is an accidental introduction first reared in Canada from that host in 2009 and first collected from C. omissus in 2011. Mesopolobus gemellus is shown to have a broad host range. These findings highlight the need for a cautious approach before introducing new biological control agents.
Placental lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is crucial for placental lipid transfer. Impaired LPL gene expression and activity were reported in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and intra-uterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that placental LPL DNA methylation is altered by maternal metabolic status and could contribute to fetal programming. The objective of this study was thus to assess whether placental LPL DNA methylation is associated with GDM and both maternal and newborn lipid profiles. Placenta biopsies were sampled at delivery from 126 women including 27 women with GDM diagnosed following a post 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation. Placental LPL DNA methylation and expression levels were determined using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. DNA methylation levels within LPL proximal promoter region (CpG1) and intron 1 CpG island (CpGs 2 and 3) were lower in placenta of women with GDM. DNA methylation levels at LPL-CpG1 and CpG3 were also negatively correlated with maternal glucose (2-h post OGTT; r=–0.22; P=0.02) and HDL-cholesterol levels (third trimester of pregnancy; r=–0.20; p=0.03), respectively. Moreover, we report correlation between LPL-CpG2 DNA methylation and cord blood lipid profile. DNA methylation levels within intron 1 CpG island explained up to 26% (r⩽–0.51; P<0.001) of placental LPL mRNA expression variance. Overall, we showed that maternal metabolic profile is associated with placental LPL DNA methylation dysregulation. Our results suggest that site-specific LPL epipolymorphisms in the placenta are possibly functional and could potentially be involved in determining the future metabolic health of the newborn.
Surveys were conducted to determine the parasitoid communities associated with the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), an important invasive pest of canola in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. More than 18 species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were associated with this pest through mass rearings from canola siliques. In southwestern Ontario, the most abundant species were a species of Chlorocytus Graham (23.6%–48.6%), Lyrcus perdubius (Girault) (0%–53%), L. maculatus (Gahan) (2.8%–14.7%), and species of Pteromalus Swederus (0.6%–23.1%) (Pteromalidae). In contrast, the most abundant species in Quebec were Trichomalus lucidus (Walker) (Pteromalidae) (33.3%–56.4%), unidentified Eulophidae (2.1%–39.1%), Mesopolobus gemellus Baur and Muller (Pteromalidae) (1.3%–21.4%), and Necremnus tidius (Walker) (Eulophidae) (11.5%–19.3%). In the Ottawa, Ontario, area, parasitoids were first recovered in 2008, and Trichomalus perfectus (Walker) (Pteromalidae), M. gemellus, and species of Pteromalus were most prevalent. Mesopolobus gemellus and T. perfectus are reported in North America for the first time. Although existing communities appear to provide substantial parasitism (e.g., 6.3%–26.3% in 2006), species composition varies among years and differs from that in other regions in North America. Thus, parasitism levels and parasitoid communities of the cabbage seedpod weevil should be monitored to assess whether these will increase or there is a need to introduce more host-specific species from Europe that could provide greater mortality.
Les pièces de forge sont universellement reconnues pour leurs bonnes propriétés
mécaniques, notamment en fatigue. L’approche proposée ici consiste à intégrer la
simulation du forgeage dans le dimensionnement en fatigue des pièces forgées. Le fibrage
et le taux de corroyage sont deux caractéristiques principales du forgeage. À l’aide du
logiciel FORGE®, le fibrage est calculé tout au long des
opérations de mise en forme. Ce fibrage, ainsi que les contraintes résiduelles, sont
ensuite introduits dans des outils de dimensionnement pour améliorer la prédiction du
calcul de durée de vie en fatigue. Les critères de fatigue actuels, basés sur des modèles
isotropes, ne permettent pas de valoriser le sens long de ce fibrage, et par là les pièces
de forge, car c’est en général dans ce sens que ces pièces sont le plus sollicitées. Une
extension anisotrope du modèle de Papadopoulos est proposée sur la base d’une campagne
expérimentale effectuée sur des éprouvettes prélevées à 0°, 45° et
90° par rapport à la direction de fibrage. Une modélisation à l’échelle micro
(DIGIMICRO) permet également de mieux comprendre le rôle des inclusions sur les
sollicitations en fatigue. La mise en place d’une chaîne de simulation virtuelle globale à
l’échelle d’un composant industriel, associée à des modélisations microstructurales,
permet de mieux comprendre et de quantifier le rôle du fibrage sur les propriétés en
fatigue à grand nombre de cycles des pièces forgées.
Eating behaviour traits are associated with body weight variations in adults. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger, as well as their corresponding subscales, e.g. rigid and flexible control. The TFEQ has not been widely used in adolescents to investigate eating behaviour traits associated with body weight. The aim of the present study was to assess whether eating behaviour traits were associated with BMI in male and female adolescents. Sixty adolescents (thirty females and thirty males; mean age 15·0 (sd 2·4) years) from the Québec Family Study completed the TFEQ and 3 d dietary records. There were no sex differences in the TFEQ scores. Rigid control, disinhibition and emotional susceptibility (to overeat) were positively related to BMI z-scores for the entire sample (r 0·3, P < 0·05). There was a positive relationship between BMI z-scores and rigid control (r 0·39, P < 0·05) in females, while BMI z-scores were positively related to emotional susceptibility (r 0·42, P < 0·02) and disinhibition (r 0·41, P < 0·03) in males. Adolescents characterised by both high disinhibition and high rigid control had significantly higher BMI z-scores than those by both low disinhibition and low rigid control. There were no significant differences in BMI z-scores between the flexible control categories. Dietary macronutrient content was not consistently related to eating behaviour traits. These results show that the eating behaviour traits of disinhibition and rigid control are independently related to BMI z-scores in this group of adolescents.
A novel optimization approach, capable of extracting the mechanical properties of an elasto-plastic material from indentation data, is proposed. Theoretical verification is performed on two simulated configurations. The first is based on the analysis of the load–displacement data and the topography of the residual imprint of a single conical indenter. The second is based on the load–displacement data obtained from two conical indenters with different semi-angles. In both cases, a semi-analytical approach [e.g., Dao et al., Acta Mater.49, 3899 (2001) and Bucaille et al., Acta Mater.51, 1663 (2003)] is used to estimate Young’s modulus, yield stress, and strain hardening coefficient from the load–displacement data. An inverse finite element model, based on a commercial solver and a newly developed optimization algorithm based on a robust stochastic methodology, uses these approximate values as starting values to identify parameters with high accuracy. Both configurations use multiple data sets to extract the elastic-plastic material properties; this allows the mechanical properties of materials to be determined in a robust way.
While the role of genetic factors in self-report measures of emotion has been frequently studied, we know little about the degree to which genetic factors influence emotional facial expressions.
Twenty-eight pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart were shown three emotion-inducing films and their facial responses recorded. These recordings were blindly scored by trained raters. Ranked correlations between twins were calculated controlling for age and sex.
Twin pairs were significantly correlated for facial expressions of general positive emotions, happiness, surprise and anger, but not for general negative emotions, sadness, or disgust or average emotional intensity. MZ pairs (n=18) were more correlated than DZ pairs (n=10) for most but not all emotional expressions.
Since these twin pairs had minimal contact with each other prior to testing, these results support significant genetic effects on the facial display of at least some human emotions in response to standardized stimuli. The small sample size resulted in estimated twin correlations with very wide confidence intervals.
Age-related brain changes may contribute to axial features in Parkinson's disease (PD).
To determine if ventricular volume and white matter high signal changes (WMC) are related to motor signs in PD and controls independent of age.
Patients were rated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (subscore A: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and facial expression; subscore B: speech and axial impairment). Steps and time taken to walk 9.144 meters were measured. Total ventricular volume (TVV) and intracranial volume (ICV) were measured on T1-weighted MRI using manual tracing software. WMC were rated on axial T2-weighted, dual-echo or FLAIR MR images using a visual scale.
TVV (cm3) (PD: 36.48 ± 15.93; controls: 32.16 ± 14.20, p = 0.21) and WMC did not differ between groups (PD: 3.7 ± 4.2; controls: 3.2 ± 3.1, p = 0.55). Age correlated positively with ICV-corrected TVV and WMC in PD (cTVV: r = 0.48, p = 0.003; WMC: r=0.42, p=0.01) and controls (cTVV: r = 0.31, p = 0.04; WMC: r=0.44, p=0.003). Subscore B (r = 0.42, p = 0.01) but not subscore A (r = 0.25, p = 0.14) correlated with cTVV in PD. Steps and walking time correlated with cTVV and WMC in PD; cadence correlated with cTVV and steps with WMC in controls. Age-adjustment eliminated correlations.
Subscore B, but not subscore A correlated positively with ventricular volume in PD, though this association was accounted for by age. Age-related brain change super-imposed on PD may contribute to axial features.
The chub, Leuciscus cephalus, colonizes the Durance river from its confluence with the Rhône river (alt. 13 m) up to the Serre Ponçon dam (alt. 780 m.). The Durance has been exposed to strong human pressure, notably dam construction, reduction of flow rate and perturbation of the natural zonation patterns. The linear growth of chub was studied by scale measurement at six stations in the Durance catchment area : two of which are located in its main tributaries, the Buech river and the Verdon. An analysis (ANOVA) of the mean size of fish from one to five years of age shows significant differences between the stations. Principal Component Analysis, in which the stations are characterized by eight mesological variables associated with the density of invertebrates
and the number of degree-days above 12° and 22°C established a correlation between chub growth and species habitat, defined in terms of current flow rate, depth and substrate type and temperature. This correlation could be explained in two ways : 1- in slow-flowing homogenous riffle zone, the low water depth and absence of shelters limit the diversity of habitats and the biological richness; nevertheless the abundance of invertebrates does not seem to play an important role ; 2 - in zone of slow flowing riffles subjected to large daily and seasonal variations in water temperature, as in this mediterranean river, temperature might be quite high. Fish older than two years, therefore prefer zones of deep water, where the thermic inertia is stronger.
Using an in situ stress measurement technique which measures stress as a function of annealing temperature, we have investigated the effect of phosphorous and boron doping of silicon dioxide glass films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The stress at room temperature is σi. Upon heating, it increases to a maximum, σm, corresponding to a temperature Tm, above which the stress is reduced to zero at a temperature T0. All these parameters plus the expansion coefficient are dependent on dopant concentrations and deposition technique.
Cent douze patients hospitalisés pour un épisode dépressif majeur (75% appartenant au sous-type mélancolique), d’origine endogène selon les critères de Newcastle, ont reçu du milnacipran (100 mg/24 h) ou de la clomipramine (150 mg/24 h) pendant une durée maximale de 3 mois lors d‘un essai réalisé en double-insu. Après exclusion d‘une observation du groupe clomipramine (arrêt à J3 pour nausées), restaient 111 observations exploitables pour l’analyse de l’activité : (milnacipran : 55 ; clomipramine: 56). Quatre-vingt-quatorze pour cent des patients ont atteint 4 semaines de traitement, 78% 8 semaines et 74% 12 semaines. Le nombre de sorties d’essai était comparable dans les 2 groupes, le pourcentage de celles qui étaient liées à un défaut d’activité étant identique (12,5%). A tous les temps étudiés, de J7 à J84, les évolutions obtenues sous milnacipran et sous clomipramine ont été comparables, pour les scores totaux des échelles de dépression de Hamilton (1967), de Montgomery et Asberg (1979) (MADRS) et de ralentissement de Widlocher (1981), mais aussi pour chacun des items de ces échelles. L’amélioration moyenne du score total de la MADRS a été, à partir d’un score initial de 38, de: 41% à J14; 66% à J28; 74% à J56; 76% à J84 sous milnacipran; 41% à J14; 59% à J28; 76% à J56; 83% à J84 sous clomipramine. Pour tous les paramètres étudiés, les niveaux de signification étaient particulièrement élevés (P = 0,3 à 0,9), indiquant des profils d’activité pharmacodynamique identiques pour le milnacipran et la clomipramine. L’appréciation du rapport bénéfice/risque (CG1-3), a été constamment favorable au milnacipran, avec des différences significatives à J14, J21, J28, J56 et J70: ces résultats favorables traduisaient la meilleure tolérance du milnacipran, notamment vis-à-vis des sécheresses buccales, des vertiges et des tremblements. Les activités antidépressives du milnacipran 100 mg et de la clomipramine 150 mg ont été identiques tout au long de cet essai de 3 mois. Le milnacipran a été mieux toléré que la clomipramine. Les résultats de cette étude ont confirmé ceux d‘études antérieures, en référence à d‘autres tricycliques ou à un placebo.
Genetic linkage analysis requires the identification and documentation of large families with many affected members present, preferably in more than one generation. The IMAGE Project has been establishing a population- based Alzheimer disease (AD) registry in the Saguenay - Lac-Saint-Jean region of the Province of Quebec. The population of this region has a well-documented ancestry, with reliable genealogical records (since 1842) computerized by SORER We have recently begun to investigate the pedigrees of selected probands (definite, probable and possible) from the IMAGE registry in order to identify informative pedigrees for genetic linkage analysis. Interviews were carried out with close relatives of the probands (at least one informant per sibship) to identify secondary AD cases. The questionnaires used pertain to the accuracy of genealogical records, to family medical history and to a retrospective diagnosis of AD for people with cognitive deficits. By these means, we have documented a large extended pedigree in which a total of 15 individuals with cognitive deficits were ascertained over three generations. Of these cases, 7 are still living and there is autopsy confirmation in another one. Computer simulations using the program SIMLINK revealed that this is a potentially informative family for linkage analysis. Horizontal extension of the pedigree to second cousins of the proband is now being carried out. This will render the family IMAGE/1 even more informative in genetic linkage analysis studies.
Since the discovery of a significant depletion of acetylcholine in discrete areas of the brain of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease, attempts at symptomatic therapy have concentrated on acetylcholine supplementation, an approach that is based upon the efficacy of dopaminergic supplementation therapy for Parkinson's disease. Choline, then lecithin, used orally, failed to improve symptoms but the hypothesis that long-term choline supplementation might stabilize the course of Alzheimer's disease remains to be tested. Nerve growth factor may also offer that possibility. Bethanechol administered intracerebroventricularly did not help when a fixed dose was used but individual titration of more selective muscarinic agonists may prove more effective. In this article we report that tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA), given together with highly concentrated lecithin, appears to bring improvement in cognition and in functional autonomy using the Mini Mental State and the Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 respectively, without change in behavior as reflected by the Behave-AD. Double-blind cross-over studies are in progress to establish its efficacy. Improvement in study design and means of assessment of cognition, functional autonomy and behavior have been made possible by these drug trials.