Experiments were conducted with isolated protoplasts of wild oat (Avena fatua L. # AVEFA) and isolated chloroplasts of wild oat and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), to determine if the methyl sulfate salt of difenzoquat (1,2-dimethyl-3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolium) might influence photoreactions in these species. Difenzoquat did not affect CO2 fixation, uncoupled electron transport, or proton uptake. At concentrations of 0.5 mM and 1 mM, difenzoquat caused a slight, but statistically significant, inhibition of photophosphorylation. Experiments assaying coupled electron transport indicated that inhibition of photophosphorylation occurred not through uncoupling, but by an energy-transfer inhibition. This same effect was observed in isolated mitocondria of both species, with about 50% inhibition of state 3 respiration rates occurring with 10 μM difenzoquat. However, no important differentials were observed in the relative susceptibilities of wheat and wild oat mitochondria. Difenzoquat also functioned as a weak autooxidizing electron acceptor in photosynthetic electron transport. Therefore, difenzoquat-induced leaf chlorosis and necrosis may result from a bipyridilium-type electron acceptor activity if sufficient herbicide is absorbed.