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Behavioral Inhibition (BI) is a temperament type that predicts social withdrawal in childhood and anxiety disorders later in life. However, not all BI children develop anxiety. Attention bias (AB) may enhance the vulnerability for anxiety in BI children, and interfere with their development of effective emotion regulation. In order to fully probe attention patterns, we used traditional measures of reaction time (RT), stationary eye-tracking, and recently emerging mobile eye-tracking measures of attention in a sample of 5- to 7-year-olds characterized as BI (N = 23) or non-BI (N = 58) using parent reports. There were no BI-related differences in RT or stationary eye-tracking indices of AB in a dot-probe task. However, findings in a subsample from whom eye-tracking data were collected during a live social interaction indicated that BI children (N = 12) directed fewer gaze shifts to the stranger than non-BI children (N = 25). Moreover, the frequency of gazes toward the stranger was positively associated with stationary AB only in BI, but not in non-BI, children. Hence, BI was characterized by a consistent pattern of attention across stationary and ambulatory measures. We demonstrate the utility of mobile eye-tracking as an effective tool to extend the assessment of attention and regulation to social interactive contexts.
The aim of this study was to design and develop a set of, short message service (SMS) to promote specialized mental health care seeking within the framework of the Allillanchu Project.
The design phase consisted of 39 interviews with potential recipients of the SMS, about use of cellphones, and perceptions and motivations towards seeking mental health care. After the data collection, the research team developed a set of seven SMS for validation. The content validation phase consisted of 24 interviews. The participants answered questions regarding their understanding of the SMS contents and rated its appeal.
The seven SMS subjected to content validation were tailored to the recipient using their name. The reminder message included the working hours of the psychology service at the patient's health center. The motivational messages addressed perceived barriers and benefits when seeking mental health services. The average appeal score of the seven SMS was 9.0 (SD±0.4) of 10 points. Participants did not make significant suggestions to change the wording of the messages.
Five SMS were chosen to be used. This approach is likely to be applicable to other similar low-resource settings, and the methodology used can be adapted to develop SMS for other chronic conditions.
In Germany, active bat rabies surveillance was conducted between 1993 and 2012. A total of 4546 oropharyngeal swab samples from 18 bat species were screened for the presence of EBLV-1- , EBLV-2- and BBLV-specific RNA. Overall, 0·15% of oropharyngeal swab samples tested EBLV-1 positive, with the majority originating from Eptesicus serotinus. Interestingly, out of seven RT–PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs subjected to virus isolation, viable virus was isolated from a single serotine bat (E. serotinus). Additionally, about 1226 blood samples were tested serologically, and varying virus neutralizing antibody titres were found in at least eight different bat species. The detection of viral RNA and seroconversion in repeatedly sampled serotine bats indicates long-term circulation of the virus in a particular bat colony. The limitations of random-based active bat rabies surveillance over passive bat rabies surveillance and its possible application of targeted approaches for future research activities on bat lyssavirus dynamics and maintenance are discussed.
There is evidence that fetal exposure to maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about the association between fetal responses to a stressor and indicators of fetal maturity and developmental outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns in response to a startling stimulus at ∼30 weeks of gestation were associated with gestational age at birth and birth weight. FHR was measured in 156 maternal–fetal dyads following a vibroacoustic stimulus. All pregnancies were singleton intrauterine pregnancies in English-speaking women who were primarily married, middle class, White and at least 18 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling identified five groups of fetuses displaying distinctive longitudinal trajectories of FHR response to the startling stimulus. The FHR group trajectories were significantly associated with birth weight percentile (P < 0.01) even after controlling for estimated fetal weight at the time of assessment and parity, which are the known factors influencing birth weight (P < 0.01). Post hoc analyses indicated that two groups accounted for the association between FHR patterns and birth weight. The group (n = 23) with the lowest birth weight exhibited an immediate FHR deceleration followed by an immediate acceleration that does not recover. An FHR pattern characterized by immediate and fast acceleration to the peak and a slow discovery to baseline was associated with the highest birth weight. This is the first direct evidence showing that low birth weight and the resulting neurological consequences may have their origins in early fetal development.
The effects of 1 to 5 keV Ar+ sputtering of (100) GaAs doped with >3 × 1018 cm−3 or <2 × 1017 cm−3 Si and contacted with 1000 Å of Au have been studied. Sputtering caused the contacts on highly doped GaAs to change from ohmic to rectifying, while it caused the Schottky barrier height on moderately doped GaAs to decrease. For both doping densities, barrier heights of ∼0.6 eV were measured. Inverse Laplace transform analysis of angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data showed that As was preferentially sputtered, probably by a damage-assisted Gibbsian surface segregation mechanism. Modifications of the electrical contacts were explained by sputter-induced self-compensation by Si rearrangement and by damage-created shallow donors with a density of >2 × 1017 cm−3.
In order to understand and successfully model the plasma processing used in device fabrication, it is important to determine the role played by plasma-generated radicals. We have used the IRIS technique (Imaging of Radicals Interacting with Surfaces) to obtain the reactivity of NH(X3∑-) and OH(X2II) at a silicon nitride film surface while the film is exposed to a plasma-type environment. The reactivity of NH was found to be zero both during exposure of the surface to an NH3 plasma and during active deposition of silicon nitride from a SiH4/NH3 plasma. No NH surface reaction was detectable for any rotational states of NH and over a surface temperature range of 300-700 K. OH radicals generated in an H2O plasma were found to have a reactivity of 0.57 on a room temperature oxidized silicon nitride surface. The OH reactivity falls to zero as the temperature of the substrate is raised.
Coupled growth during three phase equilibrium solidification is well known from directionally solidified eutectic systems, and was recently generated in monotectic systems. Several theories predict a stationary peritectic reaction and coupled growth of the properitectic and the peritectic phases therefore should be possible. In spite of these theories coupled growth has not been observed up to now. The TiAl system was selected for further investigation on this topic because of its technical relevance and the fact that it meets the condition mentioned for coupled growth.
In a Bridgman laboratory furnace, TiAl with 53.4 at.% Al was directionally solidified with solidification rates v between 0.025 mm/min and 0.1 mm/min and a temperature gradient up to 20 K/mm. The resulting microstructures, analyzed using optical and scanning microscopy with EDX and WDX, consist of two phases parallel to the growth direction. At v = 0.05 to 0.1 mm/min, the alloy solidifies as properitectical α, which subsequently eutectoidally transforms to a substructure of α2-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl, and peritectic γ. The lamellar α2/γ-substructure is oriented parallel to the growth direction.
The experimental results were compared with the existing theoretical models of a stationary peritectic reaction and the possibility of metastable eutectic growth was discussed.
The sources of scattering losses in fluorozirconate glasses and fibers are reviewed. Results are presented which show that the predominant mechanism responsible for the presence of fluoride crystals is heterogeneous nucleation. The nature and origin of the different nuclei are discussed and possible ways to eliminate them from the glasses assessed. It is proposed that extreme care be employed in the processing of the glasses with particular emphasis on the preform fabrication step as this is critical to the design of ultra-low loss fibers.
This paper measures changes in mutual fund trading costs following two reductions in the tick size of U.S. equity markets: the switch from eighths to sixteenths and the subsequent switch to decimals. We estimate trading costs by comparing a mutual fund's daily returns to the daily returns of a synthetic benchmark portfolio that matches the fund's holdings but has zero trading costs by construction. We find that the average change in trading costs of actively managed funds was positive following both reductions in tick size with a larger and statistically significant increase following decimalization. In contrast, index fund trading costs were unaffected.
The 106th Euromech Colloquium on instability and convection driven by body forces in fluid layers was held in Grenoble from 11 to 14 September 1978 with the first two authors acting as chairmen. There were sixty-five participants coming from fifteen different countries and having widely different backgrounds. Fifty-seven papers were presented during the four full days of the meeting and are discussed in this report with the purpose of giving an up-to-date view of current research in convection.