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This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being and quality of life in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the potential psychosocial impact of screening.
A total of 152 children (aged 3–18 years) attending a specialist paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic, and their parents completed the Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 21 patients (14%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group A); 23 children (15%) harboured hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing sarcomeric mutations with normal echocardiograms (group G); and 108 children (71%) had a family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal investigations and attended for clinical cardiological screening (group S).
In group A, mean PedsQLTM total scores reported by children and parents were lower than those reported by unaffected children (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between unaffected and gene-positive patients. Mean Cardiac module PedsQLTM total scores by children and parents were lower in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared with unaffected patients [mean child-reported total score 86.4 in group S versus 72.3 in group A (p<0.001) and 80.2 in group G (p=0.25); mean parent-reported total score 91.6 in group S versus 71.4 in group A (p<0.001) and 87 in group G (p=0.4)]. There was no significant difference between group S and group G on any of the scales, or between the three groups of patients in the mean Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores.
Children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a significantly reduced quality of life. Importantly, Quality-of-Life scores among unaffected children attending for screening were not different compared with scores from a normative UK population.
Gem minerals at Lava Plains, northeast Queensland, offer further insights into mantle-crustal gemformation under young basalt fields. Combined mineralogy, U-Pb age determination, oxygen isotope and petrological data on megacrysts and meta-aluminosilicate xenoliths establish a geochemical evolution in sapphire, zircon formation between 5 to 2 Ma. Sapphire megacrysts with magmatic signatures (Fe/Mg ∼100–1000, Ga/Mg 3–18) grew with ∼3 Ma micro-zircons of both mantle (δ18O 4.5–5.6%) and crustal (δ18O 9.5–10.1‰) affinities. Zircon megacrysts (3±1 Ma) show mantle and crustal characteristics, but most grew at crustal temperatures (600–800°C). Xenolith studies suggest hydrous silicate melts and fluids initiated from amphibolized mantle infiltrated into kyanite+sapphire granulitic crust (800°C, 0.7 GPa). This metasomatized the sapphire (Fe/Mg ∼50–120, Ga/Mg ∼3–11), left relict metastable sillimanite-corundum-quartz and produced minerals enriched in high field strength, large ion lithophile and rare earth elements. The gem suite suggests a syenitic parentage before its basaltic transport. Geographical trace-element typing of the sapphire megacrysts against other eastern Australian sapphires suggests a phonolitic involvement.
To determine the frequency of multiple pathology [Alzheimer Disease (AD) plus Vascular Dementia and/or Dementia with Lewy Bodies] in patients enrolled in clinical trials of AD therapy, and to compare the cognitive and functional assessments between patients with pure AD and AD with multiple pathology.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD who were enrolled in AD therapy clinical trials and subsequently received an autopsy for confirmation of their diagnosis from 2000 to 2009. Performance on cognitive screening tests, namely Modified Mini Mental state (3MS) exam, Mini Mental state Exam (MMSE) and Functional Rating Scale (FRS) were compared between patients with pure AD and multiple pathology.
Autopsy reports were available for 16/47 (34%) of deceased patients. Of these 16 patients, 5 (31%) had pure AD pathology, 10 (63%) had AD with other pathology, and 1 (6%) had non-AD pathology. Compared to patients with pure AD, patients with AD mixed with other pathology had poorer baseline FRS in problem-solving (p<0.01) and community affairs (p<0.02).
While the strict enrollment criteria for clinical trials identified the presence of AD pathology in the majority of cases (15/16), multiple pathology was more common than pure AD in our series of autopsied patients. Premortem biomarkers that can distinguish between pure AD and AD with multiple pathology will be beneficial in future clinical trials and dementia patient management.
The front covers of Motorola cellular phone housings, which were composed of 62.2 wt% of polycarbonate (PC) /acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), were ground and separated from the undesired materials using sink-float methods. The sink-float methods in water and salt were used to remove the floating materials such as the adhesive strips and the foams, and to separate the metal parts where the recovery ratios were 92.8 and 40.5 %, respectively. The separation of residual wires and button rubbers, which could not be done by the sink-float process in water, was preformed using V-Stat Triboelectric Separator (Outokumpu Technology) of a roll separator that also provided the effective methods to separate the ground metals that had existed in the printed circuit boards where the recovery weight ratio of metal parts was 19 wt%. The separated PC/ABS’s could be compounded with the ground circuit boards or the thermoplastic elastomer called Engage®, or the reactive species of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA).
The front cover of Motorola cellular phone housings were ground to the same size as original particles prior to use by a knife mill. The mixtures contained 15.2 wt% metals, 1.9 wt% foams, 1.4 wt% rubbers and 81.4 wt% thermoplastics where the major component was a polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blend. The separation of the thermoplastic scraps was performed using the sink-float process in water and salt solution. The impact modification of all housing containing six thermoplastic parts was carried out by the addition of a polyolefin elastomer called as the functionalized polyethylene (PE). Unprinted glass fiber reinforced epoxy circuit boards were size reduced and pulverized using the knife mill and hammer mill. The ground epoxy circuit boards were then classified with a set of testing sieves using Gyro sifter, and their mean diameters were calculated by means of particle size distribution analysis. Izod impact strengths at two temperatures, tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the fracture surfaces, and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy were performed to characterize the alloys and mixtures compounded by a batch mixer and a twin screw extruder.
The dielectric properties of carbon imply that heating with microwave energy should not be significant at elevated temperatures. It has been demonstrated, however, that temperatures in excess of 1900°C can be achieved with low powers. The effect of particle size on the heating rate will be presented and a heat absorption mechanism is postulated to explain the high temperatures observed.
Under controlled conditions, conventional and microwave heating has been used to observe growth of the carbon crystallite size up to a temperature of 1400°C. Under these conditions, no enhanced crystal growth was observed for microwave heating.
Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Tuscaloosa Research Center have measured the dielectric properties of over 60 minerals. Thirty-eight of these minerals have been identified as containing elements such as Co, Pt, and Ni, which are considered to be critical and strategic to the Nation. The dielectric properties were measured over the temperature range of 25° to325° C and microwave frequencies of 300 MHz to 3 GHz.
The data were analyzed to determine if trends could be detected in the dielectric properties of minerals having the same crystalline structure and/or mineralogical classification. Such trends would make possible realistic assumptions about how these classes of minerals would be affected by microwave energy without specific knowledge of their dielectric properties.
Electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range has been utilized for the fabrication of SiC particulates-reinforced aluminum matrix cermets. Powder mixtures with compositions ranging from 70 wt% Al - 30wt% SiC to 100 wt% Al were placed and processed under protective nitrogen atmosphere in a 750 W multimode cavity operating at 2.45 GHz. Temperatures larger than 800°C have been achieved in a time varying with the mixture composition. Microstructures and some physical properties of the composites are presented.
Microwave heating was used to reaction sinter Al2O3 + SiO2 and Al2O3 + TiO2 powder mixtures to prepare mullite and aluminum titanate ceramics, respectively. In comparison with conventional heating, microwave heating leads to a decrease in the temperatures of treatment of 50 to 100°C.
As part of the development of generic microwave processes for spray-drying of homogeneous complex metal oxide powders and for inorganic fiber processing, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz microwaves in a high-Q single-mode TM010 cavity coupled directly to aerosols and fibers. Aqueous and ethanol aerosols of ferric nitrate solutions have been successfully dried at 1.8 kW of cavity power for a loaded Q greater than 6000 in flowing nitrogen gas. Similarly, we have observed extremely rapid heating rates in the TM0l0 cavity for small-diameter confined cylinders of water and lossy inorganic fibers. These observations suggest using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying, calcining, and sintering extruded ceramic filaments. Droplet modeling indicates that the large dielectric shielding for spherical droplets can significantly limit the coupling of 2.45 GHz microwave with spherical aerosols, but not with fibers. Experimental observations on the microwave interactions with ferric nitrate aerosols and with ceramic filaments in the TM010 cavity are described.
The unavoidable way of a better conception of cavities for industrial applications is electromagnetic field numerical computation with the aim of placing the fields E and H into the material, and furthermore to obtain some characteristics like the input impedance of the cavity or the dissipated power in the sample. From Maxwell's equations and using a Finite Element Method with 3D edge elements we get a linear system from which, after resolution, we can obtain several kinds of results: research of eigen modes of an empty or partially dielectric loaded cavity, that is, for a bounded domain, all the frequencies that could be excited, using only dimensionnal (L,l,h) and physical (εʹ,εʺ) characteristics, or response of a loaded cavity to an external excitation, that is, setting a TE10 mode in a waveguide feeding a cavity, obtain the distribution of field inside the oven and the dielectric. An original approach allows us, by projection of the excitation on eigen modes, to understand the behavior of the cavity and the interaction wave-product. Our computation is in very good agreement with analytical results we can obtain in some specific configurations (eigenvalues of an empty cavity, or transmission of only the TE10 mode in a correctly shaped waveguide).
The use of microwave frequency radiation as an alternative energy source for processing materials is currently receiving considerable worldwide attention. The ability of a material to extract energy from the microwave field depends upon its dielectric properties, however these change as the material heats. There is, therefore, a need for obtaining measurements of the microwave dielectric properties at elevated temperatures. This paper outlines some of the current work on high temperature dielectric measurements which is in progress at the University of Nottingham as part of the Materials and Microwave Processing Group initiative and some results on engineering ceramics are presented.
Red meat from grass-fed animals, compared with concentrate-fed animals, contains increased concentrations of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. However, the effects of red meat consumption from grass-fed animals on consumer blood concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status of consuming red meat produced from either grass-fed animals or concentrate-fed animals. A randomised, double-blinded, dietary intervention study was carried out for 4 weeks on healthy subjects who replaced their habitual red meat intake with three portions per week of red meat (beef and lamb) from animals offered a finishing diet of either grass or concentrate (n 20 consumers). Plasma and platelet fatty acid composition, dietary intake, blood pressure, and serum lipids and lipoproteins were analysed at baseline and post-intervention. Dietary intakes of total n-3 PUFA, as well as plasma and platelet concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA, were significantly higher in those subjects who consumed red meat from grass-fed animals compared with those who consumed red meat from concentrate-fed animals (P < 0·05). No significant differences in concentrations of serum cholesterol, TAG or blood pressure were observed between groups. Consuming red meat from grass-fed animals compared with concentrate-fed animals as part of the habitual diet can significantly increase consumer plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status. As a result, red meat from grass-fed animals may contribute to dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA in populations where red meat is habitually consumed.
Dactylopius tomentosus is composed of biotypes adapted to different Cylindropuntia species. One biotype is an important biological control agent of C. imbricata in South Africa while another has the potential for the control of C. fulgida var. fulgida. These two weed species occur in sympatry in some areas of South Africa, so the introduction of the second biotype could result in hybridization, which, in turn, could impact on the biological control programs through altered host specificity and fitness of the hybrids. To anticipate what might happen, reciprocal crosses were made between the two biotypes, and the biological performance of the resultant hybrids was compared with that of each parental lineage on C. imbricata and C. f. var. fulgida. The biotypes interbred freely and reciprocally in the laboratory. Comparisons of crawler and adult female traits showed differences in performance that were dependent on the origin of the maternal and paternal genomes. However, when all traits were combined into a ‘fitness index’, both hybrids clearly outperformed the parental lineages. The increase in fitness shown by the hybrids over their maternal lineage was greater on the alternative host of the maternal parent than on the natural host of the maternal parent. Therefore, in areas where the two cacti occur in sympatry, hybridization between the biotypes is not expected to be detrimental to the biological control of either weed.
Host specialization to form biotypes is common among phytophagous insects, and it has been hypothesised that biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus L. (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) occur. D. tomentosus is an important biological control agent for Cylindropuntia cacti when they occur as weeds. Additionally, there is uncertainty surrounding the taxonomic status of some species of Cylindropuntia. This study aimed to confirm the existence of D. tomentosus biotypes and to assess whether host specialization can help to resolve this systematic uncertainty. For this study, the host specificity and performance of ten provenances of D. tomentosus collected from C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata, C. f. var. mamillata, C. rosea and C. tunicata and reared on C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata and C. rosea were investigated. Five life-history parameters were measured including: crawler development time and survival, female development time, and the weight and number of eggs produced by females. Results revealed significant variation in host specificity with provenances either thriving, surviving or dying on the different hosts, thus demonstrating the existence of biotypes. Also, host specificity was related to host species and not to the geographic locality from which either the host or provenance was sourced. These findings suggest that the characteristics of Cylindropuntia species may differ sufficiently, there by presenting different selection pressures that induce and sustain distinct biotypes of D. tomentosus. The observed host use patterns of the biotypes separated the plant species into two groups that accorded with known phylogenetic relationships among Cylindropuntia species, suggesting that biotypes can be used to elucidate their taxonomic relatedness. Besides advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of D. tomentosus, these novel findings have important implications for the biological control of Cylindropuntia species.