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I. De Pater, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
M. R. Showalter, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
H. B. Throop, Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona, USA,
J. A. Burns, Cornell University Ithaca, New York, USA
We obtained radiocarbon (14C) dates with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of vascular plant samples and a charcoal sample collected from peat deposits near the prehistoric village site informally designated CR-03 on Carlisle Island in the Islands of Four Mountains group, Alaska, to determine the eruption age of the CR-02 tephra. A fine vitric ash erupted from Okmok caldera, Umnak Island (ca. 2 ka BP) was also discovered in the bog. The ages of the CR-02 tephra and Okmok II ash are estimated to be 1050 and 2000 cal BP, respectively. Because both tephras are distinctive and widespread, these are important chronostratigraphic markers for archaeological sites in this island group. The 14C dates obtained from this bog are 800 years younger than the dates of the charcoal fragments from cultural layers in the Unit 3 of prehistoric village site CR-02 (AMK-0003).
Bone is frequently dated in archaeological studies and, especially for very old bones (more than 40,000 years old), it is critical to have an accurate and precise measure of the material-specific background value and its associated uncertainty. The SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory has obtained a mammoth bone as a background bone standard and an appropriate number are now routinely prepared and measured in each AMS batch, resulting in the accumulation of a large number of background bone results over a two-year period. Additionally, information on which of the two accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) instruments was used to make the radiocarbon (14C) measurements, and which sample pretreatment method (modified Longin or modified ultrafiltration) was used to extract and purify the collagen, is recorded for each sample. These data have been used to estimate the laboratory bone background (to be subtracted from each unknown bone sample prepared in the laboratory) and its associated analytical uncertainty. The statistical analysis of the bone results has made use of a linear mixed effects model to examine the variation, and to apportion the overall variation between and within batches on both AMS instruments, and the different pretreatment methods used at SUERC.
The SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory employs a one-step “background subtraction” method when calculating 14C ages. An interglacial wood (VIRI Sample K) is employed as the non-bone organic background standard, while a mammoth bone (LQH12) from Latton Quarry is used as the bone background standard. Results over several years demonstrate that the bone background is consistently around a factor of two higher and more variable than the wood background. As a result, the uncertainty on routine bone measurements is higher than for other sample types. This study investigates the factors that may contribute to the difference in F14C values and the higher variability. Preparations of collagen using modified Longin or ultrafiltration methods show no significant difference, nor does eliminating the collagen dissolution step. Two bone samples of known infinite age with respect to radiocarbon are compared and again no significant difference is observed. Finally, the quantity and age of the organic matter in the water used during the pretreatment is investigated and it is shown that there is insufficient organic matter in the reverse osmosis water to influence background values significantly. The attention is now on determining if incomplete demineralization could lead to contaminants being retained by the phosphate in the hydroxyapatite.
Relative sea-level change (RSL), from the Late Glacial through to the late Holocene, is reconstructed for the Assynt region, northwest Scotland, based on bio- and lithostratigraphical analysis. Four new radiocarbon-dated sea-level index points help constrain RSL change for the Late Glacial to the late Holocene. These new data, in addition to published material, capture the RSL fall during the Late Glacial and the rise and fall associated with the mid-Holocene highstand. Two of these index points constrain the Late Glacial RSL history in Assynt for the first time, reconstructing RSL falling from 2.47 ± 0.59 m OD to 0.15 ± 0.59 m OD at c. 14,000–15,000 cal yr BP. These new data test model predictions of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), particularly during the early deglacial period which is currently poorly constrained throughout the British Isles. Whilst the empirical data from the mid- to late-Holocene to present matches quite well with the recent GIA model output, there is a relatively poor fit between the timing of the Late Glacial RSL fall and early Holocene RSL rise. This mismatch, also evident elsewhere in northwest Scotland, may result from uncertainties associated with both the global and local ice components of GIA models.
Background: Ependymomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system whose management is controversial. This population-based study of adults and children with ependymoma aims to (1) identify clinical and treatment-related factors that impact survival and (2) determine if postoperative radiotherapy (RT) can improve survival of patients with subtotal resection (STR) to levels similar to patients who had gross total resection (GTR). Methods: This retrospective population-based study evaluated 158 patients with ependymoma diagnosed between 1975-2007 in Alberta, Canada. Results: Younger patients (<7 years of age) were more likely to be diagnosed with grade III tumors compared with adults in whom grade I tumors were more common (p=0.003). Adults were more likely to have spinally located tumors compared to young children whose tumors were typically found in the brain. Overall, young children with ependymoma were more likely to die than older children or adults (p=0.001). An equivalent number of patients underwent GTR as compared with STR (48% vs 45%, respectively). Overall, older age, spinal tumor location, lower grade, and GTR were associated with improved progression free survival but only GTR was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Median survival after STR and RT was 82 months compared with 122 months in patients who had GTR (p=0.0022). Conclusions: This is the first Canadian population-based analysis of patients with ependymoma including adults and children. Extent of resection appears to be the most important factor determining overall survival. Importantly, the addition of RT to patients initially treated with STR does not improve survival to levels similar to patients receiving GTR.
Experiments in the system NaAlSiO4(Ne)−KAlSiO4(Ks)−SiO2(Qz)−H2O at 100 MPa show that the maximum content of NaAlSi2O6 in leucite is ∼4 wt.% and that analcime is close to the stoichiometric composition (NaAlSi2O6.H2O). Analcime forms metastably on quenching the higher-temperature experiments; it is secondary after leucite in experiments quenched from 780°C, while from 850°C it forms by alteration of leucite, and by devitrification of water-saturated glass. Both processes involve reaction with Na-rich aqueous fluids. Stable analcime forms at 500°C, well below the solidus, and cannot form as phenocrysts in shallow volcanic systems. New data for natural analcime macrocrysts in blairmorites are presented for the Crowsnest volcanics, Alberta, Canada. Other researchers have suggested that primary analcime occurs as yellow-brown, glassy, analcime phenocrysts. Our microprobe analyses show that such primary analcime is close to stoichiometric, with very low K2O (<0.1 wt.%), minor Fe2O3 (0.5−0.8 wt.%) and CaO (∼0.5 wt.%). An extrapolation of published experimental data for Ne−Ks−Qz at >500 MPa PH2O, where Anl + melt coexist, suggests that at >800 MPa two invariant points are present: (1) a reaction point involving Kf + Ab + Anl + melt + vapour; and (2) a eutectic with Kf + Anl + Ne + melt + vapour. We suggest that the nepheline-free equilibrium mineral assemblage for Crowsnest samples is controlled by reaction point (1). In contrast, blairmorites from Lupata Gorge, Mozambique, form at eutectic (2), consistent with the presence of nepheline phenocrysts. Our conclusions, based on high- vs. low-pressure experiments, confirm the suggestion made by other authors, that Crowsnest volcanic rocks must have been erupted explosively to preserve glassy analcime phenocrysts during very rapid, upward transport from deep in the crust (H2O pressures ≫500 MPa). Only rare examples survived the deuteric and hydrothermal alteration that occurred during and after eruption.
We present a new surface-balance and ice-motion dataset derived from high-precision GPS measurements from a network of steel poles within three icefields of the Allan Hills blue-ice area, Antarctica. The surveys were conducted over a 14 year time period. Ice-flow velocities and mass- balance estimates for the main icefield (MIF) are consistent with those from pre-GPS era measurements but have much smaller uncertainties. The current study also extends these measurements through the near-western icefield (NWIF) to the eastern edge of the mid-western icefield (MWIF). The new dataset includes, for the first time, well-constrained evidence of upward motion within the Allan Hills MIF, indicating that old ice should be present at the surface. These data and terrestrial meteorite ages suggest that paleoclimate reconstructions using the surface record within the Allan Hills MIF could potentially extend the ice-core-based record beyond the 800 000 years currently available in the EPICA Dome C core.
Salivarian trypanosomes pose a substantial threat to livestock, but their full diversity is not known. To survey trypanosomes carried by tsetse in Tanzania, DNA samples from infected proboscides of Glossina pallidipes and G. swynnertoni were identified using fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which discriminates species by size polymorphisms in multiple regions of the ribosomal RNA locus. FFLB identified the trypanosomes in 65 of 105 (61·9%) infected proboscides, revealing 9 mixed infections. Of 7 different FFLB profiles, 2 were similar but not identical to reference West African Trypanosoma vivax; 5 other profiles belonged to known species also identified in fly midguts. Phylogenetic analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene revealed that the Tanzanian T. vivax samples fell into 2 distinct groups, both outside the main clade of African and South American T. vivax. These new T. vivax genotypes were common and widespread in tsetse in Tanzania. The T. brucei-like trypanosome previously described from tsetse midguts was also found in 2 proboscides, demonstrating a salivarian transmission route. Investigation of mammalian host range and pathogenicity will reveal the importance of these new trypanosomes for the epidemiology and control of animal trypanosomiasis in East Africa.
Mineralogy and Remote Sensing of Rocks, Soil, Dust, and Ices
P. R. Christensen, Planetary Exploration Laboratory Arizona State University Moeur Building 110D Tempe, AZ 85287, USA,
J. L. Bandfield, Arizona State University, MC 6305 Mars Space Flight Facility Tempe, AZ, USA,
A. D. Rogers, Department of Geosciences, SUNY at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA,
Glotch R. T. D., Department of Geosciences, SUNY at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA,
V. E. Hamilton, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology, University of Hawaii, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA,
S. W. Ruff, Mars Space Flight Facility Arizona State University Moeur Building, Room 131 Tempe, AZ 85287-6305, USA,
M. B. Wyatt, Brown University, Department of Geological Science, 324 Brook Street Providence, RI 02912-1846, USA
The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mapped the surface, atmosphere, and polar caps of Mars from 1997 through 2006. TES provided the first global mineral maps of Mars, and showed that the surface is dominated by primary volcanic minerals (plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine) along with high-silica, poorly crystalline materials. Differences in the abundances of these minerals were initially grouped into two broad compositional categories that correspond to basalt and basaltic andesite. Additional analysis has identified four surface compositional groups that are spatially coherent, revealing variations in the composition of the primary crust-forming magmas through time. In general, plagioclase, high-Ca clinopyroxene, and high-silica phases are the dominant mineral groups for most regions, with lesser amounts of orthopyroxene, olivine, and pigeonite. One of the fundamental results from the TES investigation was the identification of several large deposits of crystalline hematite, including those in Meridiani Planum, that were interpreted to indicate the presence of liquid water for extended periods of time. This interpretation led to the selection of Meridiani as the target for the Opportunity rover, the first time that a planetary landing site was selected on the basis of mineralogic information. Aqueous weathering may have formed some of the high-silica phases seen in TES spectra at high latitudes, and the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) spectrometer has detected phyllosilicates and sulfates, typically formed by aqueous weathering and deposition, in several locations.
Preamorphization implant (PAI) prior to dopant implantation, followed by solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) is of great interest due to its ability to form highly-activated ultra-shallow junctions. Coupled with growing interest in the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, modeling and simulating the influence of SOI structure on damage evolution and ultra-shallow junction formation is required. In this work, we use a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulator to model the different mechanisms involved in the process of ultra-shallow junction formation, including amorphization, recrystallization, defect interaction and evolution, as well as dopant-defect interaction in both bulk silicon and SOI. Simulation results of dopant concentration profiles and dopant activation are in good agreement with experimental data and can provide important insight for optimizing the process in bulk silicon and SOI.
Dykes of calc-alkaline lamprophyre cutting granite of the Hercynian Jebilet Massif of the Moroccan Meseta (western Morocco) contain crustal xenoliths. The xenoliths range in composition from mafic (cognate cumulates) and upper crustal granitic rocks through gneisses to middle crustal felsic granulites. SHRIMP U–Th–Pb zircon analyses of these rocks indicate that the dykes were likely intruded during Middle Triassic times (∼235 Ma), whereas the xenoliths contain zircons with concordant Carboniferous–Early Permian, Neoproterozoic and Palaeoproterozoic ages (280–328 Ma, c. 540–615 Ma, 700 Ma and ∼2000 Ma). The 280–328 Ma ages appear to record synchronous intrusive and high-grade (up to granulite facies) Variscan metamorphic events, suggesting that high-grade metamorphism may have facilitated the S-type granitic magmatism. On the other hand, the ∼540–615 Ma, 700 Ma and 2000 Ma ages correspond with Pan-African and Eburnian orogenic events recorded in the West African Craton. In a Triassic reconstruction, Morocco is juxtaposed against Nova Scotia (Canada), and some have proposed that the basement of the easternmost terrane (Meguma terrane) is a piece of the West African craton. However, lower crustal xenoliths from Devonian dykes (∼370 Ma) cutting the Meguma terrane have yielded Late Devonian, Neo- and Mesoproterozoic ages (378 Ma, 575–629 Ma, ∼880–1050 Ma and ∼1530 Ma). The presence of ∼1 Ga ages suggests that the basement of the Meguma terrane is Avalonian rather than West African, implying that in a Pangean reconstruction, the Rheic Ocean suture between NW Africa and Maritime Canada coincides with the Atlantic Ocean.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of fish trypanosomes are uncertain. A collection of 22 cloned trypanosome isolates from 14 species of European freshwater fish and 1 species of African freshwater fish were examined by molecular phylogenetic analysis. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) genes of 8 clones were sequenced and compared with ssu rRNA gene sequences from a wider selection of vertebrate trypanosome isolates by phylogenetic analysis. All trypanosomes from freshwater fish fell in a single clade, subdivided into 3 groups. This clade sits within a larger, robust clade containing trypanosomes from marine fish and various amphibious vertebrates. All 22 trypanosome clones were analysed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. The resulting dendrogram shows 3 groups, which are congruent with the groups identified in the ssu rRNA gene phylogeny. Two of the groups contain the majority of trypanosome isolates and within-group variation is slight. These groups do not separate purported trypanosome species distinguished by morphology or host origin, and thus these criteria do not appear to be reliable guides to genetic relationships among fish trypanosomes. However, we suggest that the 2 groups themselves may represent different species of fish trypanosomes. The polymorphic DNA markers we have identified will facilitate future comparisons of the biology of these 2 groups of fish trypanosomes.
We report the integration of six levels of Cu interconnects using dual inlaid patterning in a 0.2 μm logic technology. A review of process technology as well as device performance shortcomings using conventional aluminum metallization has been presented. Two tantalum based barriers, TaNx and Ta-Si-N as well as a titanium based barrier, CVD TiN, have been evaluated for their applicability. The use of embedded barriers wherein the barrier is formed below the surface of the dielectric has also been discussed as a potential option. No degradation to the device front-end parametrics were found with the choice of an appropriate barrier. Planarization by Cu CMP introduces surface topography that needs to be minimized in order to process multiple levels of interconnects within specified sheet resistance distributions for a range of line widths. Excellent results with highly planarized levels of metallization have consistently been achieved through an optimization of the unit processes and device integration.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Microbial activity in the gut of pigs may influence meat eating quality through the fermentation of dietary substrates to intermediate and end products which can be absorbed and concentrated in tissue. In turn, it may thus be possible to modify the eating quality of pig meat by dietary manipulation of gut microbial activity. This can be achieved by using feed ingredients with high levels of fibre (non-starch polysaccharides NSP). The response may differ depending on NSP composition, its effects on microbial activity and the concentration of substrates which are fermented to compounds having either negative or positive effects on meat quality. For example, Lundstrom et al. (1988) were able to formulate a high-fibre diet which increased fat skatole concentrations and associated undesirable flavours in meat from boars. On the other hand Longland et al. (1991) found that the overall acceptability of meat from growing pigs was enhanced by feeding up to 300 g/kg of dried sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a rich source of readily fermentable NSP.
The aim of this study was to compare effects on meat eating and fat quality from growing pigs fed SBP (unmolassed) and oatfeed (OF), a cereal by-product high in insoluble NSP which is less readily degraded.