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To achieve their conservation goals individuals, communities and organizations need to acquire a diversity of skills, knowledge and information (i.e. capacity). Despite current efforts to build and maintain appropriate levels of conservation capacity, it has been recognized that there will need to be a significant scaling-up of these activities in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the rapid increase in the number and extent of environmental problems in the region. We present a range of socio-economic contexts relevant to four key areas of African conservation capacity building: protected area management, community engagement, effective leadership, and professional e-learning. Under these core themes, 39 specific recommendations are presented. These were derived from multi-stakeholder workshop discussions at an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. At the meeting 185 delegates (practitioners, scientists, community groups and government agencies) represented 105 organizations from 24 African nations and eight non-African nations. The 39 recommendations constituted six broad types of suggested action: (1) the development of new methods, (2) the provision of capacity building resources (e.g. information or data), (3) the communication of ideas or examples of successful initiatives, (4) the implementation of new research or gap analyses, (5) the establishment of new structures within and between organizations, and (6) the development of new partnerships. A number of cross-cutting issues also emerged from the discussions: the need for a greater sense of urgency in developing capacity building activities; the need to develop novel capacity building methodologies; and the need to move away from one-size-fits-all approaches.
We report the development of a method to analyze receptor and β-arrestin2 mobilization between Class A and B GPCRs via time-resolved fluorescent microscopy coupled with semiautomated high-content multiparametric analysis. Using transiently expressed, tagged β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) or parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTH1R), we quantified trafficking of the receptors along with the mobilization and colocalization of coexpressed tagged β-arrestin2. This classification system allows for exclusion of cells with nonoptimal characteristics and calculation of multiple morphological and spatial parameters including receptor endosome formation, β-arrestin mobilization, colocalization, areas, and shape. Stimulated Class A and B receptors demonstrate dramatically different patterns with regard to β-arrestin interactions. The method provides high kinetic resolution measurement of receptor translocation, which allows for the identification of the fleeting β-arrestin interaction found with β2-AR agonist stimulation, in contrast to stronger mobilization and receptor colocalization with agonist stimulation of the PTH1R. Though especially appropriate for receptor kinetic studies, this method is generalizable to any dual fluorescence probe system in which quantification of object formation and movement is desired. These methodologies allow for quantitative, unbiased measurement of microscopy data and are further enhanced by providing real-time kinetics.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
We analysed the Spitzer maps of Stephan's Quintet in order to investigate the nature of the dust emission associated with the X-ray emitting regions of the large scale intergalactic shock and of the group halo. This emission can in principle be powered by dust-gas particle collisions, thus providing efficient cooling of the hot gas. However the results of our analysis suggest that the dust emission from those regions is mostly powered by photons. Nonetheless dust collisional heating could be important in determining the cooling of the IGM gas and the large scale star formation morphology observed in SQ.
Previous research suggests that n-3 PUFA may play a role in bone health. The present analysis aimed to investigate the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone resorption in adult men and women. Serum samples from 113 mild–moderately depressed individuals (twenty-six males and eighty-seven females, aged 18–67 years) randomised to receive 1·48 g EPA+DHA/d (n 53) or placebo (n 60) for 12 weeks as part of a large recent randomised controlled trial were assayed for n-3 PUFA status and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX). Regression analyses revealed that n-3 PUFA status following supplementation was associated with randomisation (placebo/n-3 PUFA) (B = 3·25, 95 % CI 2·60, 3·91, P < 0·01). However, β-CTX status following supplementation was not associated with randomisation (B = − 0·01, 95 % CI − 0·03, 0·04). Change in β-CTX status was also not associated with change in n-3 PUFA status (B = − 0·002, 95 % CI − 0·01, 0·01). These findings provide no evidence for an association between n-3 PUFA supplementation (1·48 g EPA+DHA/d) for 12 weeks and bone resorption in humans assessed by β-CTX, and suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may be unlikely to be of benefit in preventing bone loss.
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) tests for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM were carried out on 728 sera: 382 were tested by both a method using an anti-μ serum bound to a solid phase and a method involving preliminary separation of IgM by sucrose density gradient (SDG) centrifugation, 354 by the anti-μ method alone and two by the SDG method alone. Similar proportions of sera were found to be positive by each method (42·5%, 41·7%), but equivocal results were commoner by the SDG method (4·7% compared with 1·5%). There were 21 (5·5%) discrepant results from the sera tested by both methods, 20 of which could have been due to the higher sensitivity of the anti-μ method.
The SDG method generally gave unequivocal results on sera collected within six weeks of the onset of jaundice. Separation of the IgM fraction by re-orientation centrifugation was quick, but otherwise offered no special advantage over separation on a swing-out rotor. The use of 2 mercaptoethanol (2 ME) reduction to assess the purity of the IgM fraction increased confidence in the specificity of the test. It led, however, to the exclusion of 16 reactive sera (4·2%), all of which were found to be positive in the anti-μ test.
The anti-μ method gave better discrimination between positive and negative sera than the SDG method and detected IgM both earlier and later in infection. The results of tests designed to check the specificity of the anti-μ procedure were satisfactory. As it is potentially cheaper and easier to perform, the anti-μ method seems, in all respects, to be superior to the SDG method.
The aims of conservative treatment in patients with ocular melanoma are globe retention, good visual acuity (VA) and local control. Two well-established radiation conservative treatment options are proton beam radiotherapy and episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB). Patients who receive treatment with either of these options will experience some degree of radiation-related ocular complications and poor VA. The purpose of this review of the literature is to establish whether there is a significant clinical difference in normal tissue morbidity and local tumour control between proton therapy and EPB, and whether this difference can justify the purchase and implementation of additional proton therapy facilities. Based on this review, evidence suggested that both treatment options are comparable, and that neither proton therapy nor EPB is clinically superior than the other regarding normal tissue morbidity and local tumour control. This review highlighted the need for further research on a larger scale in order to bridge the gap that is apparent within the literature.
Beginning in 1970, the potential of remote sensing (RS) techniques, coupled with geographical information systems (GIS), to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in Africa, has steadily grown. In our current review, working definitions of RS, GIS and spatial analysis are given, and applications made to date with RS and GIS for the epidemiology and ecology of schistosomiasis in Africa are summarised. Progress has been made in mapping the prevalence of infection in humans and the distribution of intermediate host snails. More recently, Bayesian geostatistical modelling approaches have been utilized for predicting the prevalence and intensity of infection at different scales. However, a number of challenges remain; hence new research is needed to overcome these limitations. First, greater spatial and temporal resolution seems important to improve risk mapping and understanding of transmission dynamics at the local scale. Second, more realistic risk profiling can be achieved by taking into account information on people's socio-economic status; furthermore, future efforts should incorporate data on domestic access to clean water and adequate sanitation, as well as behavioural and educational issues. Third, high-quality data on intermediate host snail distribution should facilitate validation of infection risk maps and modelling transmission dynamics. Finally, more emphasis should be placed on risk mapping and prediction of multiple species parasitic infections in an effort to integrate disease risk mapping and to enhance the cost-effectiveness of their control.
Schistosoma haematobium is refractory to praziquantel (PZQ) during the prepatent period of infection. A hypothesis based on this observation is that in areas where S. haematobium transmission is seasonal, the outcome of chemotherapy depends on the timing of the treatment relative to the annual transmission pattern. To examine this hypothesis, a study was carried out in southern Mozambique. Following demonstration of seasonal transmission, PZQ was administered separately to two cohorts of S. haematobium-infected schoolchildren in (1) the high and (2) the low transmission seasons and followed up after two months when levels of infection and intensities were measured. The prevalence of infection decreased from 54·2% and 51·7% in cohorts 1 and 2 to 30·3% and 1·8%, respectively. The geometric mean intensity of infection decreased from 23·3 eggs/10 ml of urine at baseline to 15·6 eggs/10 ml of urine in cohort 1 (treated during high transmission season), and from 23·5 eggs/10 ml urine to 7·3 eggs/10 ml of urine in cohort 2 (treated during low transmission season). The observed cure rates in cohorts 1 and 2 were 69·7% and 98·2%, respectively. Differences in infection between the cohorts in terms of cure rate and level of infection two months post-treatment were statistically significant and indicate that in areas with a seasonal transmission pattern, the effect of PZQ can be enhanced if treatment takes place during the low transmission season. We conclude that appropriately timed PZQ administration will increase the impact of schistosomiasis control programmes.
Two DNA clones were obtained from faecal specimens containing a parvovirus-like small round virus from a 1977 outbreak of gastroenteritis, and their nucleotide sequences were determined and found to be essentially identical with parts of the published sequence of serum parvovirus B19 and with a B19 isolate (JB) partially sequenced in this study. The clones corresponded mainly to genome regions coding for non-structural proteins, but also include a sequence of some 160 bp coding for structural proteins. Southern blotting experiments with a full-length B19 probe revealed a virion-sized 5·5 kbp DNA band in specimens from gastroenteritis cases in both 1977 and 1986. Thus the nucleotide sequence and hybridization results suggest that the virus seen in these studies is very similar to B19. Further work is necessary to clarify the antigenic relationship of these viruses.
Selected biochemical evidence suggests a potential role for n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3PUFA) in the regulation of mood and behaviour. The present paper reviews the relevant evidence, to date, from epidemiological studies, clinical studies and intervention trials. Most evidence is available investigating a role for n-3PUFA in depression, depressive illness and suicidal behaviour, but work is also available on anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, fatigue and fatigue-related disorders, aggression, hostility and anti-social behaviour, inattention, impulsivity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenic disorders. For all these aspects of mood and behaviour, the evidence available is currently limited and highly inconsistent, both in terms of study methodology and study findings. There is a clear need for further work in this area.
P. David Adelson, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA,
Neil Buxton, Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK,
Richard Appleton, The Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK
Trauma remains a significant societal and public health problem in the world, especially in children. It is the leading cause of death and disability accounting for over 50% of the deaths in the pediatric population. Head trauma occurs in the majority of these cases and is a major factor affecting both mortality and outcome. There are frequent long-term cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunctions in severely injured children, even in those children who have suffered mild or moderate head injuries. However, determining the prognosis and outcome following head injury in children has been difficult. Recently, much has been learned about how children respond acutely to traumatic brain injury but relatively little is known about the differences in long-term outcome and prognosis in the different age ranges and among individuals.
In reviewing the prognosis and recovery potential of children following brain injury, several aspects of childhood impact on the developing brain that are unique and which must be taken into consideration. It is critical to try and understand the effect that a brain injury has during the different stages of brain development. In addition, the degree of neuroplasticity from birth and early brain growth to the final mature adult brain will also alter the final prognosis. Lastly, the impact of an intervention may differ at different stages of maturation.
Dinoflagellates are common and often important parasites
of aquatic organisms, but their developmental cycles are poorly
known and have not been established in in vitro
culture. The parasitic dinoflagellate (Hematodinium
sp.) associated with
mortality of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)
in British waters has been cultivated in vitro in
10% foetal calf
serum in a balanced Nephrops saline. In culture
the parasite undergoes a characteristic cycle of development.
Circulating sporoblasts from the host's haemolymph
in vitro generate 2 kinds of flagellated uninucleate
dinospore, macrospores and
microspores, either of which will, after 5 weeks in fresh
medium, germinate to produce multinucleate unattached
filamentous trophonts. These trophonts multiply by
fragmentation and growth and may be serially subcultured in this
form, at 2 week intervals, indefinitely. If not subcultured,
the filamentous trophonts give rise to colonies of radiating
filaments (‘gorgonlocks’) which subsequently
attach to the substratum to form flattened web-like
‘arachnoid’ multi-nucleate trophonts. Arachnoid
trophonts become arachnoid sporonts when they synthesize
trichocysts and flagellar hairs and may give rise to secondary arachnoid sporonts or to dinospores which initiate a new cycle.
We have been conducting multi-color observations of a sample of classical ring galaxies with the aim of using them to study the formation and evolution of massive stars. We compare theoretical predictions for the expected color of the material inside the rings assuming that massive stars are created in the wake of the expanding wave. We present ground based data for VIIZw466 and HST data for IIZw28 and the Cartwheel which show strong color gradients.
The use of diathermy to achieve haemostasis after tonsillectomy remains controversial. We have reviewed the English language literature, and found no convincing evidence that diathermy is any more likely to cause post-operative haemorrhage than the use of ligatures. The results of a prospective, randomized study of 1036 consecutive tonsillectomies are presented. No significant difference was found in post-operative haemorrhage rates when either diathermy or ligatures were used. Diathermy was found to reduce operating time compared to ligatures. The possibilities for day-case tonsillectomy are discussed.
A young boy presented with loss of speech and behaviour disturbance and was thought to be deaf. He was subsequently found to have the Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), or acquired aphasia with epilepsy. Children with this disorder commonly present to an audiology or ENT clinic. Early recognition is important to initiate supportive, speech and educational care.
Colliding ring galaxies provide a remarkable testbed for the study of star formation in perturbed galaxies. In the process of passing through a disk system, a small perturbing galaxy generates a density wave of stars and gas which expands into the host disk. This triggers a wave of star formation. As the star forming wave passes through the host galaxy, progressively older burst populations may be found interior to the ring. As part of a multiwavelength study of ring galaxies, we have performed optical and infrared imaging using the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope. These images are used to explore the relation between stellar density wave amplitude and star formation rate. Color gradients are searched for which would indicate the presence of an aging burst population interior to the ring.