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Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impact cannot be clearly distinguished from other distressing life experiences. Much can be therefore be learned by integrating ACEs research with similar, well-established literatures. Future research needs to explain individual differences in relationships between ACEs and particular variables and locate reliable and strong risk factors for ACEs themselves.
The effects of psychoactive substance abuse are not limited to the user, but extend to the entire family system, with children of substance abusers being particularly at risk. This meta-analysis attempted to quantify the longitudinal relationship between parental alcohol, tobacco, and drug use and child well-being, investigating variation across a range of substance and well-being indices and other potential moderators. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed, English language, longitudinal observational studies that reported outcomes for children aged 0 to 18 years. In total, 56 studies, yielding 220 dependent effect sizes, met inclusion criteria. A multilevel random-effects model revealed a statistically significant, small detriment to child well-being for parental substance abuse over time (r = .15). Moderator analyses demonstrated that the effect was more pronounced for parental drug use (r = .25), compared with alcohol use (r = .13), tobacco use (r = .13), and alcohol use disorder (r = .14). Results highlight a need for future studies that better capture the effect of parental psychoactive substance abuse on the full breadth of childhood well-being outcomes and to integrate substance abuse into models that specify the precise conditions under which parental behavior determines child well-being.
For some applications, standard resource analyses do not provide the information required. Such analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program (without executing it) as functions on input data sizes. However, some applications require knowing how such total resource usage is distributed over selected parts of a program. We propose a novel, general, and flexible framework for setting up cost equations/relations which can be instantiated for performing a wide range of resource usage analyses, including both static profiling and the inference of the standard notion of cost. We extend and generalize standard resource analysis techniques, so that the relations generated include additional Boolean control variables for switching on or off different terms in the relations, as required by the desired resource usage profile. We also instantiate our framework to perform static profiling of accumulated cost (also parameterized by input data sizes). Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the standard notion of cost: it identifies the parts of the program that have the greatest impact on the total program cost, and which therefore should be optimized first. We also report on an implementation of our framework within the CiaoPP system, and its instantiation for accumulated cost, and provide some experimental results. In addition to generality, our new method brings important advantages over our previous approach based on a program transformation, including support for non-deterministic programs, better and easier integration in the compiler, and higher efficiency.
Sarcoma of the head and neck is a rare condition that poses significant challenges in management and often requires radical multimodality treatment.
This study aimed to analyse current clinical presentation, evaluation, management dilemmas and oncological outcomes.
Computer records and case notes were analysed, and 39 patients were identified. Variables were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and the log-rank test, while survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
The histopathological diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma in 20.5 per cent of cases, chondrosarcoma in 15.3 per cent and osteosarcoma in 10.2 per cent. A range of other sarcomas were diagnosed in the remaining patients. The site of disease was most commonly sinonasal, followed by the oral cavity and larynx.
Wide local excision with clear resection margins is essential to achieve local control and long-term survival. There is a need for cross-specialty collaboration in order to accrue the evidence which will be necessary to improve long-term outcomes.
In this paper we derive from first principles the expected body sizes of the parasite communities that can coexist in a mammal of given body size. We use a mixture of mathematical models and known allometric relationships to examine whether host and parasite life histories constrain the diversity of parasite species that can coexist in the population of any host species. The model consists of one differential equation for each parasite species and a single density-dependent nonlinear equation for the affected host under the assumption of exploitation competition. We derive threshold conditions for the coexistence and competitive exclusion of parasite species using invasion criteria and stability analysis of the resulting equilibria. These results are then used to evaluate the range of parasites species that can invade and establish in a target host and identify the ‘optimal’ size of a parasite species for a host of a given body size; ‘optimal’ is defined as the body size of a parasite species that cannot be outcompeted by any other parasite species. The expected distributions of parasites body sizes in hosts of different sizes are then compared with those observed in empirical studies. Our analysis predicts the relative abundance of parasites of different size that establish in the host and suggests that increasing the ratio of parasite body size to host body size above a minimum threshold increases the persistence of the parasite population.
The resurgence of pertussis in some countries that maintain high vaccination coverage has drawn attention to gaps in our understanding of the epidemiological effects of pertussis vaccines. In particular, major questions surround the nature, degree and durability of vaccine protection. To address these questions, we used mechanistic transmission models to examine regional time series incidence data from Italy in the period immediately following the introduction of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. Our results concur with recent animal-challenge experiments wherein infections in aP-vaccinated individuals proved as transmissible as those in naive individuals but much less symptomatic. On the other hand, the data provide evidence for vaccine-driven reduction in susceptibility, which we quantify via a synthetic measure of vaccine impact. As to the precise nature of vaccine failure, the data do not allow us to distinguish between leakiness and waning of vaccine immunity, or some combination of these. Across the range of well-supported models, the nature and duration of vaccine protection, the age profile of incidence and the range of projected epidemiological futures differ substantially, underscoring the importance of the remaining unknowns. We identify key data gaps: sources of data that can supply the information needed to eliminate these remaining uncertainties.
To determine the prospective relationship between changes in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and central adiposity in older children.
Dietary intakes of children were obtained by 3 d food records at ages 10 and 13 years. Waist circumference (WC) and weight and height to determine BMI were measured at 10 and 13 years and total body fat mass (TBFM) at 13 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear regression. Reporting errors were measured and participants were categorized as under-, plausible and over-reporters of dietary intakes.
Community-based British cohort of children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Among 2455 older children, increased SSB consumption from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with higher WC (standardized β=0·020, P=0·19), BMI (β=0·028, P=0·03) and TBFM (β=0·017, P=0·20) at 13 years. Effects were strengthened among plausible dietary reporters (n 1059): WC (β=0·097, P<0·001), BMI (β=0·074, P<0·001) and TBFM (β=0·065, P=0·003). The association between change in SSB and WC was weakened, but remained statistically significant after accounting for BMI (β=0·042, P=0·02) and TBFM (β=0·048, P=0·01).
Higher consumption of SSB from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with a larger WC at age 13 years independent of differences in total adiposity. Accounting for dietary reporting errors strengthened associations. Our findings further support recommendations to limit intakes of SSB to reduce excess weight gain in children and suggest that SSB have an additional deleterious effect on central adiposity.
In insects, the enzyme trehalase plays a crucial role in energy metabolism, chitin synthesis and possibly during plant–insect interactions. We have characterized a soluble trehalase gene (Tre-1) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, a serious migratory pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of Tre-1 in A. glycines (AyTre-1) was 2550 bp long with an open reading frame of 1770 bp that encoded for a 589 amino acid residues protein. Sequence assessment and phylogenetic analysis of the putative protein suggested that the selected cDNA belongs to soluble trehalase group. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in different tissues and developmental stages revealed peak mRNA levels of AyTre-1 in the gut (compared with other tissues assayed) and highest expression in the second instar compared with the other developmental stages assayed. Interestingly, a significantly increased expression of AyTre-1 (1.9-fold, P < 0.05) was observed in the alate morphs compared with that in apterate morphs. However, there was no significant difference in AyTre-1 expression in A. glycines-nymphs fed with resistant and susceptible plants. Expression patterns identified in this study provide a platform to investigate the role of AyTre-1 in physiological activities such as flight and feeding in A. glycines. The characterization of soluble trehalase gene may help to develop novel strategies to manage A. glycines using trehalase inhibitors and using RNA interference for knock-down of AyTre-1 expression.
The Colorado Twin Registry (CTR) is a population-based registry housed at the Institute for Behavioral Genetics at the University of Colorado. Recruitment began in 1982 and includes twins born from 1968 to the present. Four samples are currently drawn from the CTR: The Community Twin Sample, the Longitudinal Twin Sample, the Early Reading Development Sample, and the Colorado Learning Sample. Criteria for enrollment, recruitment strategies, demographic information, and zygosity assignment are explained for each sample. In addition, five studies in which CTR twins are now participating are highlighted. These include studies of cognition, learning ability, and vulnerability to substance abuse and antisocial behavior. The development of the CTR is an ongoing and evolving process, and it has proven to be a valuable registry, relatively representative of the population from which it was drawn.
There is an increased appreciation of the need for horizon scanning: the identification and assessment of issues that could be serious in the future but have currently attracted little attention. However, a process is lacking to identify appropriate responses by policy makers and practitioners. We thus suggest a process and trial its applicability. Twelve environmental conservation organizations assessed each of 15 previously identified horizon scanning issues for their impact upon their organization and the urgency with which they should consider the issue. They also identified triggers that would result in changes in their scoring of the likely urgency and impact of the issues. This process enables organizations to identify priority issues, identify issues they can ignore until there are further developments, benchmark priorities across organizations and identify cross-organizational priorities that warrant further attention, so providing an agenda for collation of evidence, research and policy development. In this trial the review of responses by other organizations resulted in the upgrading of response by a substantial proportion of organizations for eight of the 15 issues examined. We suggest this approach, with the novel components of collaborative assessment and identification of triggers, could be adopted widely, both within conservation organizations and across a wider range of policy issues.