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The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii exposure in dogs and cats from Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples from 318 dogs and 321 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1:25). Additionally, 18 dogs and 20 cats were longitudinally sampled for T. gondii antibodies during the same study period, between June and July 2019. The overall seroprevalence in dogs and cats was 7.9% (25/318; 95% CI 4.9–10.8%) and 18.7% (95% CI 14.4–23.0%), respectively. For dogs, risk factors identified were being a mixed-breed animal and living totally outdoors, while increasing age was shown to be a risk factor for cats. Seroconversion was not detected and titres from positive animals remained constant over longitudinal study. The present study indicates that there is a prominent presence of T. gondii in urban and peri-urban areas of Bangkok, suggesting that outdoor dogs and cats should be considered as a possible risk factor for humans.
The inhibitory effect of positional syllable frequency is a well-known phenomenon in visual word recognition: words with high-frequency syllables require extra time for deactivating the lexical syllabic neighbors. The inhibitory effect implies that a connection exists between graphemes, phonemes, the first syllable, and the phonological lexicon. However, experimental results of the first developmental stages of occurrence are scarce and inconclusive. A second- and fourth-grade sample of typical school readers participated in a lexical decision task containing high/low frequency words and high/low syllable frequency words. Our primary hypothesis was that the inhibitory effect would be found on both school grade groups. We did not predict significant differences in magnitude of effect between second- and fourth-grade participants. A general inhibitory effect was found, and separate analyses by school grade groups also indicated significant inhibitory effects. Furthermore, second- and fourth-grade children showed small sizes of the inhibitory effect, resembling the sizes found in adult normal readers. Our results suggest that Spanish readers reach a functional connection between syllables and words at an early stage. The straightforward theoretical implication is that the inhibitory effect relies heavily on the structural properties of the lexical access system that are acquired at an early age.
To assess the impact of major interventions targeting infection control and diagnostic stewardship in efforts to decrease Clostridioides difficile hospital onset rates over a 6-year period.
Interrupted time series.
The study was conducted in an 865-bed academic medical center.
Monthly hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI) rates from January 2013 through January 2019 were analyzed around 5 major interventions: (1) a 2-step cleaning process in which an initial quaternary ammonium product was followed with 10% bleach for daily and terminal cleaning of rooms of patients who have tested positive for C. difficile (February 2014), (2) UV-C device for all terminal cleaning of rooms of C. difficile patients (August 2015), (3) “contact plus” isolation precautions (June 2016), (4) sporicidal peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide cleaning in all patient areas (June 2017), (5) electronic medical record (EMR) decision support tool to facilitate appropriate C. difficile test ordering (March 2018).
Environmental cleaning interventions and enhanced “contact plus” isolation did not impact HO-CDI rates. Diagnostic stewardship via EMR decision support decreased the HO-CDI rate by 6.7 per 10,000 patient days (P = .0079). When adjusting rates for test volume, the EMR decision support significance was reduced to a difference of 5.1 case reductions per 10,000 patient days (P = .0470).
Multiple aggressively implemented infection control interventions targeting CDI demonstrated a disappointing impact on endemic CDI rates over 6 years. This study adds to existing data that outside of an outbreak situation, traditional infection control guidance for CDI prevention has little impact on endemic rates.
Oxidative stress suposses an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants molecules. Negative and positive family environment have been related with worse and better outcomes respectively in schizophrenic patients.
Our objetive is to determine antioxidant defense in healthy controls and unaffected relatives of early onset psychosis patients and to asses its relationship with familiar environment.
We included 82 healthy controls (HC) and 14 healthy controls with second degree family history of psychosis (HCWFHP), aged between 9 to 17.
Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation test were determined in plasma and antioxidant enzime activities and glutathione levels were determined in erytrocytes.
We used the Global Assesment Functioning scale (GAF) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The FES is made up of ten subscales: cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement, intellectual-cultural, social, moral, organization and control.
The analyses showed a significant decrease in total antioxidant level in HCWFHP compared with the HC (U Mann Withney = 281.00, p=0.009, effect size= -0.78).
HC and HCWFHP did not differ in the GAF scale, nevertheless the scores of HCWFHP were significantly higher in cohesion and intellectual-cultural dimensions of the FES (p=0.007, p=0.025).
Adjusting by this two FES dimensions, antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups: OR= 10.86, p=0.009.
Although we cannot induce causative relations, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves with positive envionmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities.
In some different studies, a high prevalence of interpersonal trauma especially childhood abuse as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found in patients with several mental illness (SMI): schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the traumatic life events and PTSD in a sample with SMI.
We enrolled adults patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar I disorder. We excluded patients who score 3 or more in conceptual disorganization, hallucinations and/or unusual contents of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and 4 or more in another item of this scale. Interventions: sociodemographic date and Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire and Distressing Event Questionnaire.
78 patients (52.6% men) with a mean age of 40 years. Diagnostic of the sample: 47.5% schizophrenia, 41% bipolar disorder and 11.5% schizoaffective disorder. Traumatic life events in the childhood: physical abuse, 22.1% (22.5% males and 21.8% females); psychological abuse, 26.9% (14.6% males and 40.5% females, p< 0.05); sexual abuse, 28.2% (21.9% males and 35.1% females).Some abuse in childhood, 48.0% (38.1% males and 62.2% women, p< 0.05).
Sexual abuse in adulthood: 25.6% (43.24% females and 9.7% men, p=0'05).
PTSD, 12.9% (8.3% males and 20.7% females).
Almost the half of the patients have biographical history of traumatic life events in the childhood. These traumatic events are significantly more prevalent in females. in adulthood, almost half of women had suffered sexual abuse.
A fifth part of the women with SMI have comorbidity with PTSD.
This study attempted to determine whether Anorexia nervosa (AN), Bulimia nervosa (BN) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) share clinical and psychopathological traits.
The sample consisted of 90 female patients (30 OCD; 30 AN; 30 BN), who had been consecutively referred to our Unit. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for those pathologies. The assessment consisted on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Questionnaire of obsessive traits and personality by Vallejo, Eating Attitudes Test-40, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. ANCOVA tests (adjusted for age and body mass index) and multiple linear regression models based on obsessive-compulsiveness, obsessive personality traits and perfectionism, as independent variables, were applied to determine the best predictors of eating disorder severity.
ANCOVA revealed several significant differences between obsessive-compulsive and eating disordered patients (MOCI, p < 0.001; EAT, p < 0.001; EDI, p < 0.001), whereas some obsessive personality traits were not eating disorder-specific. 16.7% OCD presented a comorbid eating disorder, whereas 3.3% eating disorders had an OCD diagnosis. In the eating disorder group, the presence of OC symptomatology was positively associated (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) with the severity of the eating disorder. The results were maintained after adjusting for comorbidity.
Although some obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder patients share common traits (e.g. some personality traits especially between OCD and AN), both disorders seem to be clinically and psychopathologically different.
This study was performed to identify the predictive factors of functional capacity assessed by the Spanish University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA) and real-world functioning assessed by the Spanish Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) in outpatients with schizophrenia.
Naturalistic, 6-month follow-up, multicentre, validation study. Here, we report data on 139 patients with schizophrenia at their baseline visit. Assessment: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sp-UPSA and PSP. Statistics: Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationships between variables, and multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses to identify predictive variables of Sp-UPSA and PSP total scores.
Functional capacity: scores on the PSP and PANSS-GP entered first and second at P < 0.0001 and accounted for 21% of variance (R2 = 0.208, model df = 2, F = 15.724, P < 0.0001). Real-world functioning: scores on the CGI-S (B = −5.406), PANSS-N (B = −0.657) and Sp-UPSA (B = 0.230) entered first, second and third, and accounted for 51% of variance (model df = 3, F = 37.741, P < 0.0001).
In patients with schizophrenia, functional capacity and real-world functioning are two related but different constructs. Each one predicts the other along with other factors; general psychopathology for functional capacity, and severity of the illness and negative symptoms for real-world functioning. These findings have important clinical implications: (1) both types of functioning should be assessed in patients with schizophrenia and (2) strategies for improving them should be different.
Schizophrenia is not only a mental disorder but also has other components affecting the physical part of the body. Several studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients.
This poster reported the preliminary results of a project aiming to find schizophrenia biomarkers. We present biological parameters and clinical variables of patients with schizophrenia according to the lab results and the clinical assessments.
Cross-sectional, naturalistic study. Inclusion criteria: DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; age >17 years; and written informed consent given.
123 patients with schizophrenia. Mean age 40.75 (10.37), 67.5% males. There is relationship between homocysteine(oxidative stress) and psychopathology: PANSS [negative subscale 0.27 (p=0.003), general subscale 0.21 (p=0.028) and Marder factor 0.28 (p=0.003)], NSA [global score 0.24 (p=0.010), and some factors: communication 0.26 (p=0.005), affect 0.28 (p=0.002), motivation 0.30 (p=0.001) and motor retardation 0.27 (p=0.004)]; Functioning [(PSP total score -0.24 (p=0.011) and some PSP factors: work 0.30 (p=0.001), self-care 0.21 (p=0.022)]. However, there is no relationship between C-reactive protein(inflammation) and any clinical variable. On the other hand, there is relationship between: glucose and cognitive impairment; cholesterol and NSA motivation score, cognitive impairment and PSP (total score, self-care and work); triglycerides and HDRS (total score, melancholia factor and vitality factor), NSA motivation score and cognitive impairment.
The negative dimension of schizophrenia is associated with high homocysteine levels, which means an oxidative stress state. As well, a worse functioning level is associated with high homocysteine level.
Some coping strategies might serve as protective functions by regulating the negative emotions associated with stress, whereas others may exacerbate the effects of stress and contribute to maladaptation.
To examine the distribution of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores in the Spanish sample of adolescents from the “Working in Europe to Stop Truancy among Youth” Project (WE-STAY) and study the differences according to the coping style.
Sample: 1409 pupils from 23 schools sited in Asturias (Spain) [48.55% males; mean age(SD) = 15.16(1.22)]. Instruments:
(1) Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (CASQ);
7.3% of the sample scored in mild depression, while 4.9% did so in moderate (BDI-II criteria). Significant differences were found by gender in BDI-II scores, females scoring higher in severe, moderate and mild depression (p< .005). Regarding to the coping style, 65.4% of the sample showed internal style. The least representative was the withdrawal style (13.9%). Significant differences were found in the coping style by gender, females scoring higher in both active and withdrawal styles (p< .050). Regarding to the relation between BDI-II scores and coping style, pupils with withdrawal style score higher in severe, moderate and mild depression (p< .000).
Although ideally would be an active style, pupils showed mainly an internal coping style (which includes assessing a situation and looking for a compromise). Coping style was related with the severity of depression. Withdrawal style (which includes denial) is related to a worsening of depression. Thereby, training coping skills may be important.
One of the disorders that most affects school and social performance is attention deficit disorder associated with hyperactivity or impulsivity (ADHD). The criteria established by DSM-IV-TR edition distinguish three subtypes: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined. There are other factors that increase the severity of the disorder. These factors have to do with different associated psychopathologies such as learning difficulties, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, behavior disorder, anxiety disorders and mood disorders. Mean comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders is estimated at 20–25%. The main goal of this investigation is to determine whether there are differential patterns of attention (selective and concentration using D-2 attention test) and anxiety (trait and state anxiety using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children) for these three types of ADHD. The sample was made up of 220 children (6–12 years): 56 in the control group, 54 with predominantly attention deficit disorder, 53 with predominantly hyperactivity-impulsivity disorder and 57 with combined inattentive-hyperactive disorder. We used a design of four groups, three corresponding to the ADHD subtypes and a control group without ADHD. The results obtained show that the four groups of subjects were significantly different in the two attentional variables and in trait and state anxiety. The combined subtype presents higher trait anxiety, whereas the inattentive subtype shows higher levels of state anxiety. The results reveal a new path of great interest concerning objective and reliable diagnostic assessment, and pharmacological and behavioral intervention adapted to each specific situation.
People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are more likely to smoke, smoke more cigarettes per day and have greater mortality from smoking-related disease than those in the general population.
To describe the sample and to identify the relationship between the pattern of tobacco use and psychopathology.
Multicenter, observational, prospective, 12-month follow up study to assess the clinical efficacy of a multicomponent smoking cessation program specifically designed for patients with severe mental illness.
65 patients from 3 Mental Health Centers sited in Spain [64.6% males; mean age (SD) = 44.63 (8.93)].
(1) Pattern of tobacco use: Fargerstrom Test for Nicotine physical Dependence; Glover-Nilsson Test for Nicotine psychological Dependence; expired carbon monoxide (CO); n° cigarettes/day; n° smoking years.
Schizophrenia 64.6% and bipolar 26.2%; suicide attempts 36.9% (2.83 mean of suicide attemps); economically active 7.7%. There is no differences: in psychopatology severity between “heavy smokers” (ppm ≥ 26 or n° cigarettes/day ≥ 30) and “non heavy smokers” (ppm < 26 or n° cigarettes/day < 30) and in the pattern of tobacco use between schizophrenia and bipolar patients. There is no relationship between psychopatology severity and the pattern of tobacco use in schizophrenia patients. Finally, there is relationship between depressive symptoms (Hamilton) and nicotine psychological dependence (Glover-Nilsson Test) in bipolar disorder patients (r = 0.72, p = 0.004).
In bipolar disorder patients, there is relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and the dependence of nicotine.
The self-medication hypothesis suggests that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia might smoke as an attempt to self-medicate theirsymptoms. As a consequence, smoking cessation could worsen their clinical status.
To assess the clinical changes associated with tobacco cessation in a sample of smoking outpatients with schizophrenia.
Sample: 63 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV Schizophrenia from three Mental Health Centers located in Northern Spain [77.0% males; mean age (SD) = 43.90 (8.72); average daily cigarette use (SD) = 27.99 (12.55)]. Instruments: (1) Clinical symptoms: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI). (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm). Design: A quasi-experimental design with two groups was implemented: control group (GC − 18 patients not willing to stop smoking), and treatment group [TG − 45 patients in smoking cessation supported by nicotine patches or vareniclina (12 weeks)]. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at week 11 (end of program). Paired sample t-test was used to detect changes in clinical symptoms from baseline to follow-up.
23.1% stopped smoking (from TG). No significant differences were found between baseline and follow-up scores (p>.05) among smokers and abstinent in PANSS subscales, HDRS and CGI.
Tobacco cessation did not have a significant effect on the clinical symptoms of this group of patients. Further studies should analyze the stability of these outcomes at longer follow-ups to confirm our results.
Psychedelic drugs were used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s to lower psychological defences and facilitate emotional insight. Thousands of research participants were administered hallucinogens in the context of basic clinical research or therapeutic clinical research, resulting in hundreds of publications. Results across studies were ultimately inconclusive due to such variations in methods and a lack of modern controls and experimental rigour. The growing controversy and sensationalism resulted in increasing restrictions on access to hallucinogens throughout the 1960s (ultimately resulting in the placement of the most popular hallucinogens into Schedule I of the 1970 Controlled Substances Act in the United States).
Renewed human administration research began in the 1990s. Recent clinical studies have administered hallucinogens to evaluate their safety and efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: specifically, anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer (Grob, 2005), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Moreno, et al., 2006), heroin dependence (Krupitsky, et al., 2007), personal meaning and spiritual significance (Griffiths, et al., 2008), and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LSD for alcoholism (Krebs,et al., 2012).
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy utilizes the acute psychological effects of psychedelic drugs to enhance the normal mechanisms of psychotherapy. The effects of psychedelic psychotherapy are often very pronounced within several days or weeks after a treatment session, but then these effects quickly decline. This phenomenon was termed a “psychedelic afterglow”.
Fhurther research, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, methodology should explore the efficacy of hallucinogens.
A very important determinant of school performance is attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or impulsivity. the criteria established by the DSM-IV-TR are one of the most widely accepted procedures to diagnose the deficit. There are three different subtypes: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined. Gonzalez-Castro et al., (2010) demonstrated empirically that the subtypes of ADHD often score significantly different in the prefrontal and central areas of the cortex. This is the reason why it is convenient to carry out more studies in the measure of Q-EEG (electrical activity) combined with that of nir-HEG (blood activity). Rodríguez, et al., (2011) apply both instruments (Q-EEG and nir-HEG) to a sample of 70 students and verify that the nir-HEG differentiates significantly the ADHD subjects of the control group and the combined and inattentive subtype for the Fp1 variable, associated to the executive control. These results might be caused by the time taken to do the evaluation (35 seconds). Therefore, the reason of this research is to assess the instrument over a long period of time while performing a continuous performing task (CPT). the results show statistically significant differences between the control group and the other with ADHD and among the subtypes in the variables of executive control and short evaluation with the nir-HEG. As for the long evaluation of blood oxygenation during a performance of an executive task, some differences can be seen among the subtypes with ADHD, although not statistically significant.
The psychological modulation of stress-related disorders, such as gastrointestinal complications, is a well-established phenomenon in psychoneuroimmunology. Recent studies of stress have highlighted the effects of chronic psychological and environmental stressors to health and well-being, but the evidence is still minimal.
Aim and objectives
This study analyzes health outcomes in a clinical case modulated by exposure to psychosocial stressors, focusing on gastrointestinal function, but also evaluating how those stressors are related to anxiety, depression and hypochondria.
A single case study was conducted for a 66 years-old woman diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. In addition, stressful life events and social support were registered.
Characteristics of stressors, such as intensity and chronicity, and type A personality were associated with increase gastrointestinal complications.
Results of this study point out the role of perceived stress in health outcomes.
Research about psychological manifestations in right hemisphere damage (RHD) has increased in recent decades. The most characteristic alterations affect social cognition, which involves skills related to social interaction, as Theory of Mind, use of humor or metaphors comprehension inter alia. One of them is Facial Emotion Recognition (FER), which has been investigated in brain damaged patients, although studies present small samples and other metodological limitations.
Comparing FER skills in a single RHD patients and non-brain damaged control group.
Identifying the FER patterns, analyzing differences according to the type of emotion.
46 patients with RHD due to stroke (mean age 68.93;SD12.62. 52% males) and 46 control subjects (67.28;SD18.29. 50% males), were assessed in sociodemographic and clinical variables. Mini-mental State Examination and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were administered. To assess FER, 60 photographs from Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) collection (Ekman, 1993) were shown to the sample, which identified them according to the type of emotion (i.e. happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger).
Both samples, despite having similar characteristics, showed significant differences in FER (T=−2.751;p=0.007). In total sample, lowest performance was recorded in identifying fear (mean correct answers 0.45;SD0.252) and anger (0.48;SD0.301). RHD patients presented a deficit in FER skill compared to controls. Significant differences were found in recognizing anger (T=−2.043;p=0.044), disgust (T=−2.059;p=.042), happiness (T=−2.371;p=0.020), and sadness (T=−2.633;p=0.010).
Results confirm a probable relationship between single RH and FER, suggesting RH involvement in anger, disgust, happiness and sadness processing.
Behavioral disorders at school have negative consequences for students' social development and academic achievement. A better understanding of their causes would help to develop more adapted prevention and intervention strategies. This study analyzes the association between behavioral disorders and executive dysfunctions in Elementary School students. A sample of 974 students from third to sixth grade of Primary School (aged 7 to 12), belonging to 30 schools in Asturias (Northern Spain), as well as their families and teachers, took part in this study. Behavioral disorders were assessed through teachers' completion of ACE rating-scale (Arias, Ayuso, Gil & Gonzalez, 2009). The frequency of occurrence of behaviors associated with deficits in nine executive functions (impulsivity, hyperactivity, emotional control, functional memory, planning, organization, cognitive flexibility, concentration and focus) was assessed by means of the EFE scale (developed by the authors) in its three forms (student self-report, and teachers and family rating-scales). Spearman correlation coefficients between scores obtained in ACE and the nine executive functioning components of EFE scale in its three forms were calculated. Statistically significant correlations between both measures were obtained. The strongest correlations were found between disruptive behavior and Impulsivity, Hyperactivity and Emotional Control. Results were consistent for the three forms of the EFE scale, being correlations higher when teachers were the informant. This study highlights the relevance of considering executive functioning components for the prevention and treatment of behavioral disorders.