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The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is a circumglobal species and is listed as vulnerable globally. The North Pacific population nests in Japan and migrates to the Central North Pacific and Pacific coast of North America to feed. In the Mexican Pacific, records of loggerhead presence are largely restricted to the Gulf of Ulloa along the Baja California Peninsula, where very high fisheries by-catch mortality has been reported. Records of loggerhead turtles within the Sea of Cortez also known as the Gulf of California (GC) exist; however, their ecology in this region is poorly understood. We used satellite tracking and an environmental variable analysis (chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)) to determine movements and habitat use of five juvenile loggerhead turtles ranging in straight carapace length from 62.7–68.3 cm (mean: 66.7 ± 2.3 cm). Satellite tracking durations ranged from 73–293 days (mean: 149 ± 62.5 days), transmissions per turtle from 14–1006 (mean: 462 ± 379.5 transmissions) and total travel distance from 1237–5222 km (mean: 3118 ± 1490.7 km). We used travel rate analyses to identify five foraging areas in the GC, which occurred mainly in waters from 10–80 m deep, with mean Chl-a concentrations ranging from 0.28–13.14 mg m−3 and SST ranging from 27.8–34.4°C. This is the first study to describe loggerhead movements in the Gulf of California and our data suggest that loggerhead foraging movements are performed in areas with eutrophic levels of Chl-a.
Nowadays several authors defend the existence of an obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum in which eating disorders (ED), especially anorexia nervosa, would be include. We investigated the presence of OC symptoms in bulimic and anorexic patients and its relationships with personality traits.
The Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (MOCQ) and the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) were administered to patients and healthy controls.
Patients show higher scores than controls in the global punctuation of de MOCQ, and in the checking and doubt subscales. Cases also score higher in harm avoidance (dimension associated with personality disorders of cluster C) and in its subscale anticipatory worry. No differences were found between patients subgroups.
Restricting Anorexia Nervosa (RAN, n = 21)
Binging-Purging Anorexia Nervosa (BPAN, n = 29)
Bulimia Nervosa (BN, n = 34)
Control (C, n = 52)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Checking subscale (MOCQ)
BPAN, BN > C
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Harm avoidance (TCI-R)
BPAN, BN > C
Anticipatory worry vs optimism (TCI-R)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Patients present more OC behaviours in comparison with healthy population but measures of obsessivity do not differ between the types of ED. Traits of personality characteristically associated to cluster C and to anxiety disorders seem to be also common features. These results do not support a separated classification of RAN into the OC spectrum.
The aim of this study is to assess the personality traits in a sample of Spanish anorexic and bulimic outpatients.
The revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory was administered to 76 women attended in an Eating Disorders Unit and to 46 healthy controls. Both groups were matched by gender, age and instruction.
Diagnoses in the sample were distributed as follows: bulimia nervosa (BN) 33, binging-purging type anorexia nervosa (BPAN) 23 and restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN) 18. RAN patients were significantly younger (21.6 vs. 26.3 p < 0.01). Differences in the harm avoidance, persistence and selfdirectedness subscales of the TCI were found (see table).
BPAN, BN > C
RAN > C
C > RAN, BPAN, BN
In concordance with previous reports, compared with healthy controls, patients show lower scores in self-directedness. Persistence seems to be associated with restricting behaviours, whereas harm avoidance with binging and purging. RAN trends to have low scores in novelty seeking items and BN shows lower reward dependence, but this differences are not statistically significant, perhaps because of sample size.
Folie á deux is a rare mental syndrome, firstly described by Falret in France on 1997, and renamed in the DSM-IV as shared psychotic disorder, and in the ICD-10 as induced delusional disorder; in which a paranoid or delusional belief is shared by two people with a very close relationship, and usually belonging to the same family. Social withdrawal is a common characteristic of both persons during the initial stage of the disorder.
A 16 years-old adolescent boy, born in Russia, and having this syndrome is presented in this study. After his arrival to Spain, he lived with his father with important social isolation for six months, and he begun to report delusional ideas with mystical-religious and ufological content. His father was diagnosed as having a delusional disorder with the same contents. Both patients received behavioural-cognitive therapy (CBT) with the aim of modifying their delusional beliefs, even that they went on living together. No antipsychotic medication was needed.
Clear changes were observed in their delusional system, particularly in the degree of conviction, as well as in distress, thought interference, and anxiety, and also an improvement was observed in the understanding of their beliefs, and in their social relationship with peers.
Social withdrawal as well as cultural differences associated to their immigrant condition played a critical role in the establishment of the induced delusional disorder, and CBT modified the delusional system, even father and son continued living together.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.
Recovery from a psychotic episode is a dynamic process after the devastating effects of being diagnosed with a serious mental illness, or the trauma of being hospitalized, rather than a cure or the absence of symptoms. Psychological recovery implies finding and maintaining hope, the reestablishment of a positive identity, finding meaning in life, and taking responsibility for one's life.
The stages of the subjective psychological process of recovery after the first psychotic episode were explored; since psychological functioning, as well as symptoms and social functioning in the critical period probably are the most important long-term outcome predictor variables.
The RSQ (Drayton, et al., 1998) and the STORI (Andresen, et al., 2006) were used to assess 30 patients (72.4% males) recovering from the first episode of a non-affective psychosis, 3 to 9 months after their clinical discharge. The mean age was 24.34 (SD=4.5, range=17-34).
The RSQ stages of recovery were: Tendency toward sealing-over (7.7%), Mixed, sealing-over predominates (42.3%), Mixed, integration predominates (38.5%), and Tendency toward integration (11.5%). The STORI stages of recovery were: Moratorium (11.5%), Awareness (31.0%), Preparation (27.0%), Rebuilding (11.5%), and Growth (19.0%). Significant correlations were found between better recovery stages and patient's adherence to treatment (X2 = 9.579, p = 0.008). Correlations between recovery stages and symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and other variables were also explored.
Recovery styles of Integration and Growth significantly correlate with treatment adherence, a better symptomatic (less negative and general symptoms) and functional recovery, but not with DUP, stigma, or neuropsychological variables.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
Alexithymia is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. It expresses the cognitive-emotional state of vulnerable subjects who prone to suffer from psychosomatic illnesses. It’s characterized by difficulties in relationship and emptiness of feelings. It has been incriminated in genesis and maintenance of various psychosomatic pathologies, included psoriasis. Psychological stress is important in onset and exacerbation of psoriasis. We assume hypothesis that emotions that cannot be expressed through the appropriate symbolic language will be expressed through a symbolic somatic symptom.
A case study of psoriasis in a woman of 27 years without a previous psychiatric history. She was treated jointly by the service of psychiatry and dermatology. Methodology: We performed a detailed history in the course of the disease, summarizing vital changes and outstanding events of her lifetime in the different vital areas (family, work, school and sex life).
From the comprehensive revision of the ailments and pathobiography we can establish a clear relationship between physical-psychological symptoms.
Skin is an envelope that represents the boundary line between body-psyche. Skin and psyche interact in many ways. The skin reacts to feelings and perceptions. Psychosomatic patients feel extreme anxiety when they have to cope with separation and merger situations. They experience these situations as if they were to lose their physical limit. Broadly speaking, because of their alexithymia, they cannot process a painful emotion properly, and though they will express it through somatisation disorders and the development of diseases. In the case of our patient, the skin verbalizes her emotional silence.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
Prevalence data of aggressive behavior and its management in schizophrenia during acute episodes is scarce in Europe. The available data comes from studies conducted in small samples from single centers and do focus on pharmacological interventions.
To document the prevalence of agitation-hostility among patients and management strategies in Spain.
Cross-sectional survey during an hospital admission at specialized acute units. Selection criteria included patients with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, attending the hospital for admission. Information regarding clinical profile, sociodemographic data, work status, severity of the disease by using the Clinical Impression of Severity Scale disease-specific (CGI-SCH) was collected. Aggression and hostility were recorded at admission by using the PANSS-EC subscore, and aggressive behaviors during the hospitalization period by the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Therapeutical management was also recorded at three time points, at admission during hospitalization and at discharge.
800 patients were recruited by 200 clinicians from 120 specialized psychiatric units across the country. Prevalence data for agitation-hostility in Spain is provided. For those patients showing aggressive behaviors during the hospitalization period, information concerning intensity and type of aggression is also described. Its associated management strategies are provided.
Prevalence data of agitation-hostility in patients in acute settings is valuable as well as understanding the routine practice applied to its management. This comprehensive work could represent a basis for the development of a consensus guideline for clinical practice at specialized acute units.
Auditory and musical hallucinations have been reported in patients as an adverse effect of the use of opioids. Hearing loss, old age, and female gender are considered risk factors in the development of musical hallucinations. The aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient with auditory and musical hallucinations and to discuss the role of an opioid –tramadol- in the origin of those.
An 80 years old woman experiencing auditory hallucinations was referred to our hospital from an emergency room. The patient had bilateral mild hearing loss and was receiving tramadol 112.5 mg/daily during the last year for cervical pain. In the last ten months, she had been gradually noticing the voice of her dead husband coming from under her pillow, as well as intermittently hearing popular songs being played inside her head. The patient had good insight on both types of abnormal perceptions, which were reported as increasingly unpleasant through time.
Tramadol was discontinued and pimocide (range 1-4 mg/day) and loracepam (2.5 mg/day) were introduced, achieving the improvement of the hallucinations and the anxiety associated with them.
The outcome of this case supports the hypotheses that Opioids could induce musical hallucinations. Hearing impairment, old age, and gender could be underlying risk factors on the development of musical hallucinations.
Known by many different names-culture broker, community interpreter, medical interpreter, and communication facilitator-the intercultural mediator has as a primary task the facilitation of communication and the therapeutic relationship in the presence of linguistic and/or cultural difference. The Immigration Plan of “la Caixa” Social and Cultural Outreach Projects has undertaken an ambitious project to train all of the cultural mediators in Spain, including both those currently working and those newly entering the field, to meet existing needs. In the first phase of the project, the training was developed in Catalunya, in collaboration with the the Catalan Department of Health, executed by the Psychiatry Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Autonomous University of Barcelona) and certified by the Health Studies Institute of the Department of Health. Drawing from the four years experience of the NGO SURT and the Department of Psychiatry of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, the program provides 200 hours of theoretical and 1200 hours of practical training. 50 currently employed intercultural mediators and 30 novices are being trained. In subsequent phases the training will be adapted to needs of other autonomous regions of Spain. Modules include medical anthropology, Western biomedicine, community health, linguistic interpretation, cultural competence, professional identity, and ethics. Small group supervision provides a supportive environment to facilitate the application of theory to practice. Finally, high quality training materials were developed specifically for the course. Preliminary evaluations of the project are positive despite some unanticipated complications.
This study attempted to determine whether Anorexia nervosa (AN), Bulimia nervosa (BN) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) share clinical and psychopathological traits.
The sample consisted of 90 female patients (30 OCD; 30 AN; 30 BN), who had been consecutively referred to our Unit. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for those pathologies. The assessment consisted on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Questionnaire of obsessive traits and personality by Vallejo, Eating Attitudes Test-40, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. ANCOVA tests (adjusted for age and body mass index) and multiple linear regression models based on obsessive-compulsiveness, obsessive personality traits and perfectionism, as independent variables, were applied to determine the best predictors of eating disorder severity.
ANCOVA revealed several significant differences between obsessive-compulsive and eating disordered patients (MOCI, p < 0.001; EAT, p < 0.001; EDI, p < 0.001), whereas some obsessive personality traits were not eating disorder-specific. 16.7% OCD presented a comorbid eating disorder, whereas 3.3% eating disorders had an OCD diagnosis. In the eating disorder group, the presence of OC symptomatology was positively associated (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) with the severity of the eating disorder. The results were maintained after adjusting for comorbidity.
Although some obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder patients share common traits (e.g. some personality traits especially between OCD and AN), both disorders seem to be clinically and psychopathologically different.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
Psychedelic drugs were used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s to lower psychological defences and facilitate emotional insight. Thousands of research participants were administered hallucinogens in the context of basic clinical research or therapeutic clinical research, resulting in hundreds of publications. Results across studies were ultimately inconclusive due to such variations in methods and a lack of modern controls and experimental rigour. The growing controversy and sensationalism resulted in increasing restrictions on access to hallucinogens throughout the 1960s (ultimately resulting in the placement of the most popular hallucinogens into Schedule I of the 1970 Controlled Substances Act in the United States).
Renewed human administration research began in the 1990s. Recent clinical studies have administered hallucinogens to evaluate their safety and efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: specifically, anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer (Grob, 2005), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Moreno, et al., 2006), heroin dependence (Krupitsky, et al., 2007), personal meaning and spiritual significance (Griffiths, et al., 2008), and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LSD for alcoholism (Krebs,et al., 2012).
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy utilizes the acute psychological effects of psychedelic drugs to enhance the normal mechanisms of psychotherapy. The effects of psychedelic psychotherapy are often very pronounced within several days or weeks after a treatment session, but then these effects quickly decline. This phenomenon was termed a “psychedelic afterglow”.
Fhurther research, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, methodology should explore the efficacy of hallucinogens.
Contemporary cognitive models emphasize the importance of certain dysfunctional beliefs in the development and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): overimportance of thoughts, need to control thoughts, perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, inflated responsibility, and overestimation of threat. Although a recent twin study suggests that these dysfunctional beliefs are significantly heritable, there have been no previous attempts to analyze candidate genes associated with them.
Our study aimed to investigate the possible association between OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and variants of two functional polymorphisms of the COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) genes in 141 OCD patients.
The non-synonymous mutation Val158Met (rs4680) in the COMT gene and the Val66Met functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene were genotyped with the KASPar assay system. The validated Spanish short version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, (OBQ-44), was used to assess dysfunctional beliefs. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and a post hoc one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were perfomed.
Variability in dysfunctional beliefs was not affected by the COMT or BDNF genotype when examining the two genes in isolation, but we detected a significant COMT x BDNF interaction effect on responsibility and overestimation of threat scores. These cognitive distortions were significantly higher among OCD subjects with the BDNF Met-present genotype who were also carriers of the COMT Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes.
Our data suggest that an interaction between dopaminergic and neurotrophic functional gene variants influences some of the dysfunctional belief domains hypothesized to contribute to the etiology of OCD.
Research integrating neuroimaging and molecular genetics has yielded important insights into how variability in brain chemistry predicts brain function and structure, behaviour and risk for psychopathology. Disrupted neurotransmission of glutamate within corticalstriatal-thalamocortical circuitry has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Candidate gene studies have identified associations between variants in glutamate system genes and OCD, particularly for SLC1A1, although these results remain controversial after GWAS and meta-analytical approaches.
To examine the effects of multiple polymorphisms of the glutamatergic pathway on frontostriatal connectivity, measured by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in OCD.
Individual multilocus genetic profile scores (MGPS) reflecting the additive effects of multiple alleles of the glutamatergic pathway, analysed by the Affymetrix GeneticChip® SNP array, were compiled for 134 OCD patients and 63 healthy controls. Association between these genetic scores and brain functional connectivity patterns between the dorsal and ventral striatal regions and limbic cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex and surrounding areas, such as the anterior prefrontal and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, were investigated.
In the entire group, glutamatergic MGPS were significantly associated with connectivity patterns involving the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Distinct relationships between MGPS and functional connectivity between the ventral striatum, amygdala, ventromedial frontal cortex and insula between OCD and healthy subjects emerged.
Glutamatergic genetic risk variants are related to normal frontostriatal connectivity; a fact that might explain the role of glutamatergic pathway disruptions in the susceptibility to develop OCD.
The efficacy of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in dual schizophrenia patients has been well established.
To investigate the efficacy of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate(PPLAI) in the psychopathology of dual psychotic patients. To examine the tolerability profile of PPLAI in dual psychosis.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. We used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychotic symptoms and the Udvalg für Kliniske Undersogelser Scale (UKU) to evaluate treatment tolerability, at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Prolactin levels were also determined at the time of the study inclusion and after 6 months.
Thirty-five patients were included into the study. After 6 months of treatment, patients receiving PPLAI showed a significant improvement in positive symptoms (disorganisation, suspiciousness), negative symptoms (emotional withdrawal, motor retardation, blunted affect and confusion), affective symptoms (somatic concern, anxiety and depression) and in motor symptoms (unco-operativeness, excitement). When compared to the 3rd month assessment, after 6 months, statistically significant differences were found in items 4,11,14,17 and 18. Patients receiving PPLAI had lower rates of side effects assessed by UKU Scale (asthenia, sedation, failing memory, tension, insomnia, rigidity, tremor, weight gain and sexual dysfunction). Baseline prolactin levels ranged 11–122 (mean:38), at 6 months: 20–136 (mean:38.4).
After 6 months, patients receiving PPLAI had lower psychotic symptoms, a decrease in side effects, and a significant improvement in global functioning. No changes in prolactin levels were found.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is classified primarily as a movement disorder. Psychiatric complications, however, are common during the progression of the disease. Psychosis is rare in untreated patients with PD, but the prevalence rises to 40% during dopaminergic treatment.
We report the clinical course of a ropinirole induced psychosis in a 57-year-old female with PD.
The patient was treated with different antiparkinsonians (rasagiline, ropinirole and levodopa), and after a dosage increase of ropinirole, psychotic symptoms appeared (auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusion). Antipsychotic treatment started with quetiapine and a gradual dose reduction of antiparkisonians. Nevertheless, psychotic symptoms required a hospital admission.
Rasagiline was suspended at admission, the dose of ropinirole was decreased until withdrawal, and the dose of levodopa was reduced. The dose of quetiapine was increased to control psychotic symptoms.
The pathogenesis of psychosis in PD is poorly understood. It has been related with the presence of dementia and concomitant treatment with dopaminergic agonists (DA). According to the literature, pergolide is associated with a significantly increased risk for the development of psychosis, followed by ropinirole, pramipexole and cabergoline, whereas levodopa has the lowest associated risk. Treatment includes, in the first place, suspending anticholinergics and selegiline, and then, amantadine, DA, and entacapone. Finally, levodopa may also be reduced. These patients frequently require antipsychotic treatment that may worsen extrapyramidal symptoms.
Psychosis should be considered in PD, especially in patients treated with DA. Treatment begins with reducing antiparkinsonians and then adding antipsychotics. Clozapine and quetiapine are a good choice.
Description of a manic episode with psychotic symptoms in a patient by consumption of energy drinks.
Aims and methods
Literature review of the relationship between energy drink consumption and the possibility of suffering a manic episode and description of a clinical case.
This case report describes a patient with no history of psychiatric interest suffers a manic episode with psychotic symptoms after consuming high amounts of energy drinks.
Results and conclusions
To my knowledge, this is one of the few cases that describe a manic episode in relation to the consumption of energy drinks, given this possibility, clinicians should consider asking about the consumption of energy drinks to young people without previous psychiatric history presenting a manic episode.