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A mother's nutritional choices while pregnant may have a great influence on her baby's development in the womb and during infancy. There is evidence that what a mother eats during pregnancy interacts with her genes to affect her child's susceptibility to poor health outcomes including childhood obesity, pre-diabetes, allergy and asthma. Furthermore, after what an infant eats can change his or her intestinal bacteria, which can further influence the development of these poor outcomes. In the present paper, we review the importance of birth cohorts, the formation and early findings from a multi-ethnic birth cohort alliance in Canada and summarise our future research directions for this birth cohort alliance. We summarise a method for harmonising collection and analysis of self-reported dietary data across multiple cohorts and provide examples of how this birth cohort alliance has contributed to our understanding of gestational diabetes risk; ethnic and diet-influences differences in the healthy infant microbiome; and the interplay between diet, ethnicity and birth weight. Ongoing work in this birth cohort alliance will focus on the use of metabolomic profiling to measure dietary intake, discovery of unique diet–gene and diet–epigenome interactions, and qualitative interviews with families of children at risk of metabolic syndrome. Our findings to-date and future areas of research will advance the evidence base that informs dietary guidelines in pregnancy, infancy and childhood, and will be relevant to diverse and high-risk populations of Canada and other high-income countries.
Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the effects of the use in livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is nephrotoxic to Gyps vultures. In 2006, veterinary use of diclofenac was banned in Nepal and this was followed by the gradual implementation, over most of the geographical range of the two vulture species in Nepal, of a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) programme to advocate vulture conservation, raise awareness about diclofenac, provide vultures with NSAID-free food and encourage the veterinary use in livestock of a vulture-safe alternative NSAID (meloxicam). We report the results of long-term monitoring of vulture populations in Nepal before and after this programme was implemented, by means of road transects. Piecewise regression analysis of the count data indicated that a rapid decline of the White-rumped Vulture population from 2002 up to about 2013 gave way to a partial recovery between about 2013 and 2018. More limited data for the Slender-billed Vulture indicated that a rapid decline also gave way to partial recovery from about 2012 onwards. The rates at which populations were increasing in the 2010s exceeded the upper end of the range of increase rates expected in a closed population under optimal conditions. The possibility that immigration from India is contributing to the changes cannot be excluded. We present evidence from open and undercover pharmacy surveys that the VSZ programme had apparently become effective in reducing the availability of diclofenac in a large part of the range of these species in Nepal by about 2011. Hence, community-based advocacy and awareness-raising actions, and possibly also provisioning of safe food, may have made an important contribution to vulture conservation by augmenting the effects of changes in the regulation of toxic veterinary drugs.
For over three decades, the capability approach proposed and developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum has had a distinct impact on development theories and approaches because it goes beyond an economic conception of development and engages with the normative aspects of development. This book explores the new frontiers of the capability approach and its links to human development in three main areas. First, it delves into the philosophical foundations of the approach, re-examining its links to concepts of common good, collective agency and epistemic diversity. Secondly, it addresses its 'operational frontier', aiming to give inclusive explanations of some of the most advanced methods available for capability researchers. Thirdly, it offers a wide range of the applications of this approach, as carried out by a mix of renowned capability scholars and researchers from different disciplines. This broad interdisciplinary range includes the areas of human and sustainable development, inequalities, labour markets, education, special needs, cities, urban planning, housing, social capital and happiness studies, among others.
Scientific research has always been concerned with aspects of human health. There are several systems of medicines besides the globally accepted allopathy, which are based on compounds originating from natural products. Recent research has been centred around validation of the traditional knowledge on medicinal products. The traditional systems in India, China and forklore medicines in other parts of the world have indicated the potential of natural products consist of various chemical compounds that could be used as drugs. The search for drugs against five major dreadful diseases namely, cancer, AIDS, heart disease, diabetes and pulmonary disorders that attack the present day human from natural products has been in progress for some time. Microbes, plants and animals are the sources of natural products. In the past five decades, the research on bioactive chemicals from marine algae has been incited and several compounds with biological activity were isolated from algae. Generally, these are secondary metabolites produced for chemical defence against the biotic pressure of predators, consumers and epibionts. These potential drugs are now attracting considerable attention from the pharmaceutical industries due to the necessity of identifying substances that could be utilized for novel therapeutic purposes. Several compounds such as alginate, carrageenans, sulphated and halogenated polysachcharise and other derivatives have been shown to provide drugs that could be antiviral, anticancer and antimicrobial. The present account is on the potential of marine macro-algae for medicinally important products.
We study the effect of anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the permeability of the porous layer on the stability of surface waves of an inclined fluid–porous double-layer system. The fluid is assumed to be Newtonian and the porous layer to be Darcian. The porous layer is saturated with the same fluid and the two layers are coupled at the interface via the Beavers–Joseph condition. Linear stability analysis is performed based on a long-wave approximation. The resulting eigenvalue problem is exactly solved up to third order in the wavenumber. The anisotropic behaviour of permeability, cross-stream component of permeability, surface tension and porosity are found to have only higher-order effects on the stability characteristics of the system. On the other hand, the inhomogeneous feature in the streamwise component of permeability play a dominant role in determining the stability of the gravity-driven surface waves; as do other system parameters such as the thickness of the fluid layer relative to that of the porous layer and the Beavers–Joseph coefficient.