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This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
A completely randomized experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of α-amylase (AMY) and glucoamylase (GLU) on total losses, fermentative profile, chemical composition and amylolytic activity of rehydrated maize. Eighty-four experimental silos of rehydrated maize [0.33 litres/kg ground maize, 4-mm theoretical particle size, and 625 g/kg dry matter (DM)] were assigned to the following treatments: (1) control (CON), no enzyme addition; (2) GLU added at 300 µl/kg of ground maize (as-fed); and (3) AMY added at 300 µl/kg of ground maize. Seven silos from each treatment were opened after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Differences among treatments were evaluated through orthogonal contrasts (CON v. enzymes, and AMY v. GLU). Time effects were decomposed using polynomial regression. Glucoamylase silage exhibited greater total losses than AMY. Enzymes increased acetate and lactic acid concentrations and decreased ethanol concentration. Regardless of treatment, gas, effluent and total fermentative losses linearly increased, whereas DM recovery linearly decreased with higher storage length. Glucoamylase silage had lower ammonia nitrogen and higher lactic acid concentrations than AMY. Enzyme treatments decreased silage neutral detergent fibre content and increased in vitro DM degradation. Glucoamylase silage exhibited a more moderate starch content and greater in vitro DM degradation than AMY. Storage time linearly decreased DM, starch and fibre content of rehydrated maize. In vitro degradation of DM linearly increased as the storage length increased. This study showed evidence that enzymes with amylolytic activity, particularly GLU, improve the fermentative profile and DM degradation of rehydrated maize silage.
Adherence to dietary guidelines (DG) may result in higher intake of polyphenols via increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. We compared polyphenol dietary intake and urinary excretion between two intervention groups in the Cardiovascular risk REduction Study: Supported by an Integrated Dietary Approach study: a 12-week parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial (n 161; sixty-four males, ninety-seven females; aged 40–70 years). One group adhered to UK DG, whereas the other group consumed a representative UK diet (control). We estimated polyphenol dietary intake, using a 4-d food diary (4-DFD) and FFQ, and analysed 24-h polyphenol urinary excretion by liquid chromatography-tandem MS on a subset of participants (n 46 control; n 45 DG). A polyphenol food composition database for 4-DFD analysis was generated using Phenol-Explorer and USDA databases. Total polyphenol intake by 4-DFD at endpoint (geometric means with 95 % CI, adjusted for baseline and sex) was significantly higher in the DG group (1279 mg/d per 10 MJ; 1158, 1412) compared with the control group (1084 mg/d per 10 MJ; 980, 1197). The greater total polyphenol intake in the DG group was attributed to higher intake of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with the primary food sources being fruits, cereal products, nuts and seeds. FFQ estimates of flavonoid intake also detected greater intake in DG compared with the control group. 24-h urinary excretion showed consistency with 4-DFD in their ability to discriminate between dietary intervention groups for six out of ten selected, individual polyphenols. In conclusion, following UK DG increased total polyphenol intake by approximately 20 %, but not all polyphenol subclasses corresponded with this finding.
This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
To summarize ways that networks of community-based organizations (CBO), in partnership with public health departments, contribute to community recovery from disaster.
The study was conducted using an online survey administered one and 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to the partnership networks of 369 CBO and the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The survey assessed the structure and durability of networks, how they were influenced by storm damage, and whether more connected networks were associated with better recovery outcomes.
During response and recovery, CBOs provide an array of critical public health services often outside their usual scope. New CBO partnerships were formed to support recovery, particularly in severely impacted areas. CBOs that were more connected to other CBOs and were part of a long-term recovery committee reported greater impacts on the community; however, a partnership with the local health department was not associated with recovery impacts.
CBO partners are flexible in their scope of services, and CBO partnerships often emerge in areas with the greatest storm damage, and subsequently the greatest community needs. National policies will advance if they account for the dynamic and emergent nature of these partnerships and their contributions, and clarify the role of government partners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:635–643)
Previous cafeteria studies suggested that a moderate natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection did not modify the resource selection of adult Criollo goats towards tannin-rich plants compared with worm-free goats. A higher infection with Haemonchus contortus could trigger a change in the resource selection behaviour towards tannin-rich foliage. Alternatively, goats might select plant species solely to meet their nutritional requirements. A cafeteria study investigated the effect of a high artificial infection with H. contortus on the feed resource selection of goats. Adult Criollo goats (37.5±4.8 kg BW) with browsing experience were distributed in two groups: the infected group (IG) with six animals artificially infected with H. contortus (6000 L3/animal); and the non-infected group (NIG) with six animals maintained worm-free. The experiment included two 5-day periods with additional 5-day adaptation period. In the first period, animals were offered foliage of five plant species with a decreasing gradient of condensed tannins (CT) (Mimosa bahamensis, Gymnopodium floribundum, Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliqum), and three plant species with negligible CT content (Leucaena leucocephala, Piscidia piscipula and Brosimum alicastrum). In the second period the foliage of B. alicastrum was withdrawn. A grain-based concentrate feed was offered daily at 1% BW in DM basis. Dry matter and nutrient intake was determined. Foliage selection of each experimental group was determined using the Chesson selection index. The H. contortus egg count per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined for infected goats twice daily. Chesson index showed a similar pattern of foliage selection on periods 1 and 2. Mean EPG of goats in IG was 2028±259 EPG during period 1 and 1 293±198 EPG during period 2 (P>0.05). During period 1, the selection pattern was highest for B. alicastrum (tannin-free), followed by a tannin-rich plant (M. bahamensis). These two plants remained as highly selected during period 2. The Chesson index showed that both experimental groups (IG and NIG) selected the same plant species in both periods. Thus, a high H. contortus infection did not affect selection of goats fed with CT-rich plants. Apparently, goats balanced their nutrient intake with the plants selected, showing evidence of nutritional wisdom. This balance may have helped to prevent excess protein in the diet and also to maintain a low GIN infection, both considered as examples of prophylactic self-medication.
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively. Stage 2: the same procedure was performed replacing the ShHcl with exsheathed larvae (ExShHcl). Evaluations were performed after 24 and 48 h. The total numbers of dead and live larvae were counted. A second experiment evaluated the reduction in nematode egg populations in the faeces of lambs treated orally with the O. tetraphylla HE. The 27 lambs used were divided into Groups 1, 2 and 3 (n = 9), which were administered water (positive control), levamisole 1 m (7.5 mg/kg body weight (BW), as a unique dose) and O. tetraphylla HE (20 mg/kg BW), respectively. The plant HE was administered daily for 8 days. The in vitro assay showed 80.9% and 86.5% larval mortality of ShHcl after 24 and 48 h, respectively, while the corresponding mortality values for ExShHcl were 97 and 99%, respectively. The in vivo assay showed variability in the eggs/gram of faeces (epg) values; however, at the end of the trial, the average reduction in the epg values of the O. tetraphylla HE group was 45.6% (P < 0.05). Oxalis tetraphylla HE contains compounds that belong to the flavonol group with anthelmintic activity.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
Two groups of six Haemonchus contortus infected Saint Croix lambs each received different diets for 11 weeks: control group, commercial food, molasses and lucerne hay; and treated group, nutritional pellets (NPs) containing Duddingtonia flagrans at 2 × 106 chlamydospores/kg body weight (BW), sorghum and lucerne hay. Mean BW gain (BWG), body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV) and also eggs/g of faeces (EPG) and recovered L3 were compared using a repeated measures across time model. Groups had similar BWG (control 139.7 ± 0.035 g/day and treated 167.7 ± 0.041 g/day), BCS (control 3.6 ± 0.39 and treated 3.4 ± 0.46) and PCV (control 32.5 ± 1.68% and treated 30.0 ± 1.68%). The mean EPG of the control group was 1215 ± 1040 and in the treated group it was 2097.91 ± 2050. No reduction in larval population was observed during weeks 2 and 3. The greatest larval population reduction in the faeces of treated lambs was observed during the first week (70.5%) and from weeks 6 to 11, with a mean value close to 70% (P < 0.05). In general, both experimental groups showed a similar feed conversion. It was concluded that both diets resulted in similar lamb growth, PCV, BCS and H. contortus EPG. However, NP consumption significantly reduced the H. contortus L3 population in lamb faeces.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D.
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
Biodegradable Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cells were inoculated into the polymer scaffolds of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) obtained from a specially developed strain of Azotobacter vinelandii. Cell adhesion is essential to promote growth on scaffolds for tissue engineering. Thus, in this research we focused on the adhesion of osteoblast cells to PHB scaffolds produced by solution casting and electrospinning. Cell viability was also investigated up to 168 hrs. Water contact angle on the PHB scaffolds was determined prior to the cells inoculation. The contact angle is usually related to the ability of different cell strains to adhere to a given material. The as cast film exhibited a contact angle α=72° whereas for the electrospun membrane α=102°, thus in theory cell adhesion would be greater for the cast film. Biological testing was carried out on plates of 24 wells; cell viability was determined by Trypan Blue, cell morphology by optical microscopy, and cell nuclei integrity by staining with Acridine orange. Parallel studies were carried out on control (empty) wells. Microscopy observations 168 hrs after cell inoculation showed larger quantities of osteoblast cells in the wells containing PHB scaffolds and the cell nuclei were still active. Moreover, it was found that the cells grew inside the PHB scaffolds and the cell viability was slightly greater for the electrospun scaffold. Interestingly, the time to remove the cells from the scaffolds (film and membranes) was increasing function of the cell culture time, therefore suggesting that PHB promotes adhesion of Normal Human Osteoblast cells to its surface.
This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.
The study evaluated the effect of storage time and conditions of nutritional pellets (NP) containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on its in vitro trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. The treated batch (200 NP) contained 4 × 106 chlamydospores of the FTH0-8 strain, whereas the control batch (200 NP) was produced without spores. Both NP batches were exposed to four experimental storage conditions: (T1) shelves (indoors); (T2) refrigeration (4°C); (T3) outdoors under a roof; and (T4) 100% outdoors. Each group comprised 48 NP with spores and 48 NP without spores (control). The ability of D. flagrans spores to trap H. contortus L3 larvae was evaluated for 8 weeks for each storage condition. For that purpose, six randomly selected NP with spores were compared to their respective control NP. Each NP was individually crushed. The crushed material (1 g) was placed on the surface of a 2% water agar plate with 200 H. contortus L3 larvae. Plates were sealed and were incubated at room temperature for 8 days. The whole content of every plate was transferred to a Baermann apparatus to recover the remaining larvae. There was a clear larval reduction in the NP with spores, compared to the respective control NP in the four storage conditions (P< 0.05). The mean reductions ( ± SEM) of the storage conditions were 67 ± 4.9 (T2), 77 ± 6.1 (T1), 81.5 ± 3.8 (T4) and 82.1 ± 2.5 (T3). Larval reductions were similar at all times and were not affected by storage conditions or storage time (R2< 0.2; P>0.05). The long-term shelf-life of the chlamydospores in the NP suggests that this spore dosage technology is a viable option.
Opal particles, with diameter ca. 80 nm, were synthesized by the Stöber method. Samples were exposed to 100 Gy of beta particle irradiation and its thermoluminescence (TL) emission was recorded. TL response presents good reproducibility, standard deviation 1 %. The glow curve displays two TL peaks 86 and 400 °C and the afterglow (AG) phenomenon is observed immediately after irradiation (< 150°C). The synthetic opal-C exhibits a linear dependence of AG response as function of dose from 0.25 to 8 Gy. This dose range is of interest for personal and clinical dosimetry. Moreover, a previous study indicates that cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles, did not induce unrepairable DNA damage neither a cellular harm. Therefore, our results show synthetic opal-C is a material useful for in vivo radiation dosimetry.
While atomic magnetometers can measure magnetic fields with exceptional sensitivity and without cryogenics, spin-altering collisions limit the sensitivity of sub-millimeter-scale sensors . In order to probe magnetic fields with nanometer spatial resolution, magnetic measurements using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) [2–4] as well as magnetic resonance force microscopes (MRFMs) [5–8] have been performed. However, the spatial resolution of the best SQUID sensors is still not better than a few hundred nanometers  and both sensors require cryogenic cooling to achieve high sensitivity, which limits the range of possible applications. A related challenge that cannot be met with existing technology is imaging weak magnetic fields over a wide field of view (millimeter scale and beyond) combined with sub-micron resolution and proximity to the signal source under ambient conditions.
Recently, a new technique has emerged for measuring magnetic fields at the nanometer scale, as well as for wide-field-of-view magnetic field imaging, based on optical detection of electron spin resonances of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond [10–12]. This system offers the possibility to detect magnetic fields with an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity [8, 12–15] in a wide range of temperatures (from 0 K to well above 300 K), opening up new frontiers in biological [10, 16, 17] and condensed-matter [10, 18, 19] research. Over the last few years, researchers have developed techniques for nanoscale magnetic imaging in bulk diamond [11, 12, 20] and in nanodiamonds [21–23] along with scanning probe techniques [10, 24].
The polymorphism of six milk protein loci in five Cuban breeds was investigated by means of DNA analysis by combined techniques of PCR and amplification created restriction sites (ACRS), the method of allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Allele frequencies of loci CASA1, CASAB, CASA2, CASK, LAA and LGB were estimated in the five breeds (N = 324), the number of individuals per population being: Siboney de Cuba (SC = 85), Cuban Creole (CC = 60) Cuban Zebu (ZC = 61), Cuba Mambí (MC = 60) and Taíno of Cuba (TC = 58). Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was estimated for each locus in each population, showing that all the populations have at least one locus deviated from this condition of equilibrium and always through heterozygote excess. Alleles CASA1C and LAAA were identified in the CC and CT breeds, showing the presence of Bos indicus genes in these populations. An increase of heterozygosis is observed in these populations, and genotype frequencies in each population allow differentiation of these from those which originated them.
One challenge for the environmental assessment of agricultural systems is to progress from estimating whether one farming system has fewer impacts than another to estimating whether or not it can be considered environmentally sustainable. To this end, we developed reference values (RVs) of farm emissions or energy use per hectare that defined hypothetical sustainability thresholds in each of three impact categories: climate change, water-quality degradation and non-renewable energy use. We applied one RV per category to the potential impacts (estimated by life-cycle assessment) of 45 French dairy farms to identify farms below RVs in each impact category and then evaluated their management and production characteristics. Seventeen of the 45 farms lie below at least one of the three RVs. Groups of farms below RVs had a higher percentage of organic farms, larger mean usable agricultural area, longer mean pasture residence time and lower mean inputs of concentrate feed and nitrogen than those above the same RVs. In consequence, the groups below RVs also tended to have lower mean milk production per cow and per hectare. All milk production systems can move toward environmental sustainability even though, according to production mode and intensity, some potential impacts are easier to reduce than others. Most farms were unable to attain the lowest RVs, suggesting that policy-makers may need to consider less ambitious RVs for existing agricultural systems. Otherwise, the distance between normative RVs and indicator values of dairy farms suggest that production and consumption of agricultural products will need to change if sustainability goals do not.
The rTSSA-II (recombinant Trypomastigote Small Surface II) antigen was evaluated by ELISA to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in sera from naturally infected dogs and humans. For this evaluation ELISA-rTSSA-II was standardized and groups were classified according to the results obtained through xenodiagnosis, ELISA and PCR. Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp), Kappa index (KI) and area under curve (AUC) were determined. The Se was determined by using 14 sera from dogs infected with T. cruzi VI (TcVI) whereas Sp was determined by using 95 non-chagasic sera by xenodiagnosis, ELISA-Homogenate and PCR. The performance of ELISA-rTSSA-II in dog sera was high (AUC=0·93 and KI=0·91). The Se was 92·85% (1 false negative) and Sp was 100%. Two sera from dogs infected with TcI and 1 with TcIII were negative. For patients infected with T. cruzi, reactivity was 87·8% (36/41), there was only 1 indeterminate, and Sp was 100%. Fifty-four sera from non-chagasic and 68 sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis did not react with rTSS-II. ELISA-rTSSA-II showed a high performance when studying sera from naturally infected dogs and it also presented 100% Sp. This assay could be an important tool to carry out sero-epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of T. cruzi circulating lineages in the region.